Volume 17 (2019)
  Number 5

Full text of the journal: Volume 17 number 5

Contents


Pages

1829–1838 D. Baranenko, V. Bespalov, L. Nadtochii, I. Shestopalova, A. Chechetkina, A. Lepeshkin and V. Ilina
Development of encapsulated extracts on the basis of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) in the composition of functional foods with oncoprotective properties
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Development of encapsulated extracts on the basis of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) in the composition of functional foods with oncoprotective properties

D. Baranenko¹*, V. Bespalov¹², L. Nadtochii¹, I. Shestopalova¹, A. Chechetkina¹, A. Lepeshkin¹ and V. Ilina¹

¹ITMO University, International research centre "Biotechnologies of the Third Millennium", Lomonosov street 9, RU191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²N.N Petrov National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Laboratory of Cancer Chemoprevention and Oncopharmacology, Leningradskaya street 68, RU197758 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: denis.baranenko@niuitmo.ru

Abstract:

Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) is a quite common plant throughout the European countries, including Russia. Therapeutic and prophylactic properties of the meadowsweet are mainly associated with the action of biologically active substances (BAS), in particularly tannins, phenolic compounds, phenolcarboxylic acids, catechins, flavonoids, essential oils etc. The main substances with proven clinical effects are salicylates and flavonoids, what allows to consider meadowsweet as an anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nootropic, adaptogenic and antihypoxic agent.
The aim of this study was to analyze the content of BAS in water and 70% ethyl alcohol extract of F. ulmaria flowers from different regions of Russia and develop their encapsulated forms for further use as an ingredient for functional food products.
To increase the shelf life of meadowsweet extracts and create a stable form for their delivery to the human body with various food products, encapsulated forms of extracts in the form of micro- and nanosized capsules were developed. The method of encapsulation was carried out using a spray dryer. It was shown that encapsulated meadowsweet BAS can be added to a chicken pate without negative effect on the organoleptic properties of the finished product. The calculation of the cost of the meat product with the complex functional dry mixture showed a slight increase in the cost of the final product compared to the traditional analogue. This study shows that encapsulated meadowsweet BAS can be used for inclusion in various food products, to ensure the functional properties of food and optimize the population’s rations.

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1839–1845 V. Bulgakov, H. Kaletnik, I. Goncharuk, S. Ivanovs and M. Usenko
Results of experimental investigations of a flexible active harrow with loosening teeth
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Results of experimental investigations of a flexible active harrow with loosening teeth

V. Bulgakov¹, H. Kaletnik², I. Goncharuk², S. Ivanovs³ and M. Usenko⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Obrony 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
⁴Lutsk National Technical University, Lvivska street 75, UA43018 Lutsk, Volyn region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Soil tillage processes significantly affect the growth of cultivated plants; therefore, improvement of various designs and combinations of ploughs is still an actual practical and scientific task. This paper presents investigations of the design of a soil tillage machine consisting of three plough bodies equipped from the lateral side with a module with a flexible active harrow driven by a support wheel. The technological process of tillage by this machine is carried out in such a way that the module of the flexible active harrow is installed at a certain depth of soil tillage. The purpose of this work is an experimental comparative investigation of the quality indicators of the work of a design of the soil tillage working body with a flexible active harrow having loosening teeth. In the process of comparative experimental investigations of the operation of ploughs with a standard flexible harrow and an experimental active harrow having loosening teeth, the soil lumpiness (characterising the quality of crumbling) and water permeability of the obtained soil structure were estimated. An experimental model of this working tool was tested under the production conditions, and it showed advantages of loosening and crumpling the soil compared to the conventional harrows. This can be explained by the fact that the harrow tines, freely mounted on the axes of its links, ensure their oscillatory movements when moving in two different planes, thereby creating conditions for more intense soil disintegration.

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1846–1860 V. Bulgakov, H. Kaletnik, T. Goncharuk, A. Rucins, I. Dukulis and S. Pascuzzi
Research of the movement of agricultural aggregates using the methods of the movement stability theory
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Research of the movement of agricultural aggregates using the methods of the movement stability theory

V. Bulgakov¹, H. Kaletnik², T. Goncharuk², A. Rucins³*, I. Dukulis³ and S. Pascuzzi⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroyiv Oborony street 15, Kyiv UA 03041, Ukraine
²Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, Jelgava, LV-3001, Latvia
⁴University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT70125 Bari, Italy
*Correspondence: adolfs.rucins@llu.lv

Abstract:

The theory of the movement stability is of crucial practical importance for mobile agricultural machines and machine aggregates, since it determines how qualitative and stable their performance is in a particular technological process. It is especially urgent To ensure stable movement for operation at high speeds of contemporary agricultural aggregates. The aim of this investigation is detailed examination of criteria for the stability assessment of a mechanical system used in agriculture, enabling their wide application in order to study the performance of the system in the case when it is affected by random forces that were not taken into account in the original model. The considered calculation methods and examples of their application make it possible to evaluate the performance of complex dynamic systems without numerical solution of complicated differential equations of the movement in the presence of external disturbances. The considered example of the stability determination of the movement of a trailed cultivator showed that this research method can be successfully used for practical purposes. Besides, a differential equation of disturbed movement has been composed for an actually symmetrical trailed agricultural machine with a particular mass, which moves at a constant forward speed under the impact of summary resistance force running along the symmetry axis of the cultivator and is applied at its centre of gravity. Reduced to normal Cauchy form, this equation was solved on the PC, which made it possible to determine immediately the conditions for stable movement of the trailed cultivator.

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1861–1873 V. Chaloupková, T. Ivanova and V. Krepl
Particle size and shape characterization of feedstock material for biofuel production
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Particle size and shape characterization of feedstock material for biofuel production

V. Chaloupková, T. Ivanova* and V. Krepl

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

Particle size and shape are key factors influencing the properties of particulate and agglomerated materials, and having an impact on a quality as well as utilization of a final product. In case of plant biomass particle morphology is greatly irregular. Large errors at most determinations of biomass particle sizes are caused by simplification on a single parameter of size, assuming particle sphericity or circularity. Thus, the aim of a present research was to determine the particle size in a complex way. Pine sawdust as an experimental material and typical biofuel feedstock was ground by a hammer mill to a fraction size of 12 mm. The dimensional features of such ground sawdust particles were identified for all particles individually via photo-optical analysis, a method based on a digital image processing that is sensitive to irregular particles’ shapes. The particles were described mainly by variables of length, max width, equivalent diameter, max and min feret diameter, sphericity, roundness, circularity together with length/width ratio and aspect ratio. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, i.e. by arithmetic means, medians, minimum and maximum values, variance and standard deviation. The obtained results may contribute to a better knowledge of material properties needed for designing an optimal technology for the production of quality biofuels.

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1874–1880 L. Degola, V. Sterna, I. Jansons and S.Zute
The nutrition value of soybeans grown in Latvia for pig feeding
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The nutrition value of soybeans grown in Latvia for pig feeding

L. Degola¹*, V. Sterna², I. Jansons² and S.Zute²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, “Dizzemes”, LV–3258 Dizstende, Libagi parish, Talsi County, Latvia
*Correspondence: lilija.degola@llu.lv

Abstract:

Soybean products are excellent sources of protein for pigs because their amino acid profiles complement those of cereal grains. Soy protein is rich in the limiting amino acids lysine, threonine, and tryptophan that are present in relatively low concentrations in the most commonly fed cereal grains. Amino acids in soy protein are more digestible than amino acids in most other plants proteins, which results in less nitrogen being excreted in the manure from pigs fed diets containing soybean meal than if other protein sources are used. The phosphorus in soy products is bound to phytic acid, which has a low digestibility to pigs, but the digestibility of phosphorus in soy products may be increased to more than 60% if diets are supplemented with microbial phytase. There are no much results about nutrition value of soybean growing in Latvia. Therefore the aim of study was determined chemical composition of soybeans growing in Latvia and evaluates their potential in pig feeding.
Research object were soybeans growing in Latvia. In the studied samples content of protein, fat, ash, fibre, composition of amino acids were determined and metabolizable energy were calculated. Evaluated that protein content varied from 32.7 till 40.7%, fat content was from 18.4–21.4% and significantly differed (p < 0.05) among growing places, but the sum of essential amino acids in the soy beans determined 115–125 g kg-1, and were not differed significantly by varieties. The content of lysine in protein were determined 5.1–5.5 g 100 g-1. Concluded that soy bean growing in Latvia provides equilibrium high metabolizable energy for pigs – from 13.2 to 17.6 MJ kg-1 and could be used in feed.

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1881–1890 V. Dubrovskis, I. Plume and I. Straume
Use of ethanol production and stillage processing residues for biogas production
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Use of ethanol production and stillage processing residues for biogas production

V. Dubrovskis*, I. Plume and I. Straume

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela street 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

In Latvia, ethanol is produced mainly from wheat grains. The production process involves the formation of the by-products of wheat bran, grains residues and stillage. By-products from production of alcohol distilling dregs (stillage) contain much organic matter therefore could be useful for the production of the biogas The product with high protein content usable for feed can be produced from the stillage too. A liquid residue is formed during the production process. Purpose of study is the assessment of the methane volume obtainable from the stillage processing residue mixed with wheat brans and grains residues in anaerobic fermentation process and from wheat brans and grains residues mixed only with inoculum. Investigation was provided in 16 bioreactors operated in batch mode at 38 °C. Stillage processing residues mixed with the wheat brans and inoculum were filled into 4 bioreactors, mixed with grains residues were filled into 4 bioreactors and only inoculum was filled into two bioreactors for control. Wheat brans with inoculum were filled into 3 bioreactors. Into others 3 bioreactors were filled grains residues with inoculum. The yield of biogas from wheat brans was 1.151 L g-1DOM and methane 0.593 L g-1DOM after 30 days of anaerobic digestion. The yield of biogas from wheat brans with stillage processing residue was 1.098 L g-1DOM and methane 0.600 L g-1DOM. The yield of biogas from grains residues was 0.915 L g-1DOM and methane 0.451 L g-1DOM. The yield of biogas from grains residues with stillage processing residue was 1.01 L g-1DOM and methane 0.523 L g-1DOM. The study demonstrates that the investigated products are very good raw material for the production of methane. Stillage processing residue acted as a catalyst for the process.

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1891–1897 V. Gasiev, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev
Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops
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Biological features of formation of perennial binary grass crops

V. Gasiev*, N. Khokhoeva and D. Mamiev

Vladikavkaz scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 Markus street, RU362027 Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia
*Correspondence: gasiev77@mail.ru

Abstract:

The paper deals with the impact of binary mixtures of perennial grasses on the productivity and quality of forage crops that differ in their species composition. The studies have shown that mixed crops exceeded single-species crops in all indicators of forage crops productivity. In total over five years binary crops of Poterium polygamum exceeded single-species ones in all productivity indicators. The plants safety by the end of vegetation was also slightly lower than in single-species crops, which can be explained by greater competition for light, moisture and nutrients. So the safety of Medicago sativa L. was 81.8%, Onobrýchis – 83.6%, Galéga orientális L – 89.7%, Poterium polygamum – 74.6%, which is lower than that of legumes in single-species crops. In all years of herbage use, the binary crops exceeded single-species ones. On average, for 5 years of research, the yield of Poterium polygamum was 25.5 t ha-1, Medicago sativa L. – 22.5 t ha-1, Onobrýchis – 23.7 t ha-1. Among legumes, the maximum yield had Galéga orientális L agrocenosis – 26.1 t ha-1. Mixed crops of burnet with leguminous grasses were characterized for yielding the vegetative mass on average 28.5–30.9 t ha-1. Maximum values of binary Poterium polygamum crops characterized crops with the leguminous plant component of goat’s rue in all years of research. Mixed crops also showed maximum values of dry matter per unit area and amounted respectively 33.52–36.74 t ha-1. The same pattern continued in the yield of fodder units, digestible protein and metabolic energy, their maximum was obtained at the variant Poterium polygamum+ Galéga orientális L.

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1898–1904 V. Hartová, J. Hart and M. Kotek
Reliability of palms security under difficult conditions
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Reliability of palms security under difficult conditions

V. Hartová¹*, J. Hart² and M. Kotek¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: nidlova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Reliability of biometric identification systems is a much discussed topic and nowadays security of premises is very important. The work is focused on palms security research and reliability of the system under adverse conditions, the aim of the measurement was to determine the reliability of readers under adverse conditions that may occur in an industrial environment. Difficult conditions include dirty surface of hand by water, dust, oil and writing accessories. First, a sample measurement was carried out, where the hands of the subjects were washed and thoroughly dried. This measurement was used to compare with measurements under adverse conditions. The results show that the more viscous the fluid the lower the reliability and also dusty hands caused considerably distorted results. The reliability of biometric systems still needs to be improved, as it often happens that the real values do not match the parameters that are declared by the manufacturers. Certain conditions must be met for the proper functioning of palms security, so that identifying persons are allowed access to the protected areas and have not been repeatedly denied.

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1905–1917 L. Hlisnikovský, P. Čermák, E. Kunzová and P. Barłóg
The effect of application of potassium, magnesium and sulphur on wheat and barley grain yield and protein content
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The effect of application of potassium, magnesium and sulphur on wheat and barley grain yield and protein content

L. Hlisnikovský¹*, P. Čermák¹, E. Kunzová¹ and P. Barłóg²

¹Department of nutrition management, Crop Research Institute, Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Ruzyně, Czech Republic
²Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Environmental Biogeochemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71F, PL60-625 Poznan, Poland
*Correspondence: l.hlisnik@vurv.cz

Abstract:

The objective of our experiment was to study the effect of mineral fertilizers, rich mainly in the K, Mg and S content, and compare their effect on grain yield and protein content of winter wheat and winter barley with fertilizer treatments without these elements. The analyzed fertilizer treatments were 1) Control, 2) mineral nitrogen treatment (N), 3) mineral nitrogen with phosphorus (NP), 4) NP with potassium, magnesium, and sulphur (NP+KMgS), and 5) NP with magnesium, sulphur and minor part of manganese (4%) and zinc (1%) (NP+MgSMnZn). The experiment was established in Lukavec experimental station (the Czech Republic) in 2013 and lasted until 2017. The crop rotation consisted of four arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, rapeseed, and potatoes, but only winter wheat and winter barley are analyzed in this paper (grain yields and crude protein content).
In comparison with the Control, the application of mineral fertilizers significantly increased grain yield and protein content of both kinds of cereal. Comparing mineral fertilizers, no significant differences were recorded between N, NP, NP+KMgS and NP+MgSMnZn treatments, showing that nitrogen was the most limiting factor affecting yield and protein content, and initial concentrations of K and Mg were suitable and capable to cover cereal’s demands. However, application of fertilizers has increased the K and Mg soil content and thus prevents the soil from the element’s deficiency, which does not has to be recognized in the early stages by visual observation of arable plants. The effect of the year was also significant as two out of four seasons were characterized by high temperatures and drought.

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1918–1926 M. Hruška
Assessment of luggage compartment parameters based on the preferences of a heterogeneous driver group
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Assessment of luggage compartment parameters based on the preferences of a heterogeneous driver group

M. Hruška

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Building, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Praha 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jabko@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This work deals with the assessment of driver preferences in the area of passenger car luggage compartments. The data collected is compared to that of real vehicles from the full range of passenger cars available on the European market. The data used for the research described in this work was obtained using a questionnaire survey on a large heterogeneous group of drivers in the Czech Republic. All of the research participants had three categories of vehicles available during testing – for better imagination and the possibility of personal comparison of parameters. The collected data was subsequently subjected to statistical evaluation, where mainly statistically significant dependencies in the preferences of individual drivers were sought out given their personal and anthropometric parameters. On the basis of the statistical evaluation of the obtained data, a difference was found in the preferences of the types and dimensions of the individual luggage compartments for the individual respondents depending on the selected parameters. The results of this work can be used in the process of designing luggage compartments of passenger cars, in particular with regard to the specific needs of drivers. The results of the work could thus contribute to improving the safety in handling cargo in the luggage compartments of vehicles and to improving health protection.

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1927–1941 A. Kabutey, D. Herak, C. Mizera and P. Hrabe
Theoretical analysis of force, pressure and energy distributions of bulk oil palm kernels along the screwline of a mechanical screw press FL 200
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Theoretical analysis of force, pressure and energy distributions of bulk oil palm kernels along the screwline of a mechanical screw press FL 200

A. Kabutey¹*, D. Herak¹, C. Mizera¹ and P. Hrabe²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Department of Material Sciences and Manufacturing Technology, Kamycka 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kabutey@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The present study is a follow-up of the previously published study on the mathematical description of loading curves and deformation energy of bulk oil palm kernels under compression loading, aimed at determining theoretically the amounts of force, pressure and energy along the screw lamella positions 𝑆𝐿𝑝 of the screw press FL 200 by applying the tangent curve mathematical model and the screwline geometry parameters (screw shaft diameter, screw inner and outer diameters, screw pitch diameter and the screw thickness). The fitting curve value 𝐹𝑣 of the tangent mathematical model was further examined at 𝐹𝑣 = 2 and 𝐹𝑣 = 3 by identifying the force, deformation, stress and compression coefficients at varying vessel diameters 𝐷𝑣 and initial pressing heights 𝐻𝑡 of the bulk oil palm kernels. Based on the results of the stepwise regression analysis, the amounts of the theoretical deformation energy 𝑇𝐷𝐸 in linear pressing as well as the theoretical force 𝐹𝑟, pressure 𝑃𝑟 and energy 𝑆𝐿𝐸 of the screw press FL 200 were statistically significant (P-value < 0.05) or (F-value > significance F) in relation to the predictors (𝐻𝑡, 𝐷𝑣, 𝐹𝑣 and 𝑆𝐿𝑝). The coefficient of determination (R2) values between 61 and 86 % were observed for the determined regression models indicating that the responses 𝑇𝐷𝐸, 𝐹𝑟, 𝑃𝑟 and 𝑆𝐿𝐸 can accurately be predicted by the corresponding predictors. The normal probability plots of the responses approximately showed a normal distribution.

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1942–1952 A. Lenerts, D. Popluga and K. Naglis-Liepa
Benchmarking the GHG emissions intensities of crop and livestock–derived agricultural commodities produced in Latvia
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Benchmarking the GHG emissions intensities of crop and livestock–derived agricultural commodities produced in Latvia

A. Lenerts*, D. Popluga and K. Naglis-Liepa

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional Development, Svetes street 18, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: arnis.lenerts@llu.lv

Abstract:

With the production of grain and livestock–derived agricultural commodities increasing, the agricultural sector has become one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in Latvia. In 2016, the agricultural sector contributed to 23.6% of the total GHG emissions originated in Latvia (266.4 kt CO2eq), and therefore the mitigation of the emissions is important. Considering the new indicative target, Latvia must reduce its GHG emissions in the non-ETS sectors by 2030 (Regulation 2018/842) so that the emissions do not exceed the 2005 level. The research aims to estimate the emissions intensities (EI) of grain and livestock-derived commodities produced in Latvia and benchmark the EI against those for other countries. The GHG EI were analysed per kilogram of product (kg CO2eq kg-1) and per hectare currently in use agricultural land (kg CO2eq ha-1). The main part of the GHG emissions of crop production originated from fertilizer application (direct N2O emissions) and soil liming (direct CO2 emissions). The main part of the GHG emissions of livestock–derived production originated from livestock enteric fermentation (direct CH4 emissions) and from manure management systems (direct CH4 and N2O emissions). The EI per hectare of industrial crops and grain were 550.5 and 438.4 kg CO2eq ha-1, respectively. The yield and fertilizer application had a strong impact on the EI per kilogram of product. Pulses had a lower EI (0.003 kg CO2eq kg-1), while industrial crops (0.17 kg CO2eq kg-1) and grain (0.09 kg CO2eq kg-1) had the highest EI. A comparison of the GHG EI of crop and livestock–derived agricultural commodities per kilogram of product between Latvia and other EU Member States showed: Latvia had the lowest grain EI (0.09 kg CO2eq kg-1), but one of the highest cattle meat EI (25.18 kg CO2eq kg-1) and milk EI (0.64 kg CO2eq kg-1).

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1953–1959 J. McNamara, P. Griffin, J. Phelan, W.E. Field and J. Kinsella
Farm health and safety adoption through engineering and behaviour change
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Farm health and safety adoption through engineering and behaviour change

J. McNamara¹²*, P. Griffin³, J. Phelan², W.E. Field⁴ and J. Kinsella²

¹Teagasc- Agriculture and Food Development Authority, E32YW08 Kildalton, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland
²School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Dublin 4, Ireland
³Health and Safety Authority, Metropolitan Building, D01 K0Y8 Dublin 1, Ireland
⁴University, Agricultural & Biological Engineering Department, IN 47907-2093 West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.
*Correspondence: john.g.mcnamara@teagasc.ie

Abstract:

The agriculture sector is one of the most hazardous occupations worldwide. The EU farming population is predominantly self-employed, who are largely outside the scope of EU occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation. Utilising effective communications approaches to transmit clear messages is a possible way of motivating farmer OSH adoption. The Public Health Model (PHM) of accident causation conceptualises an accident as occurring due to multiple interacting physical and human factors while the Social-Ecologic Framework enhances the PHM by defining various levels of the social environment which are influential on persons’ OSH actions. A knowledge gap exists in how farmers conceptualise accident causation. The aim of this study is to report findings of a Score Card exercise conducted among Irish farmers (n = 1,151) to reveal knowledge on farmers’ conceptualisation of accident causation where farmers ranked in order of importance up to five causes of farm accidents. First ranked items related to ‘machinery/ vehicles’, ‘organisational’ and ‘livestock’ as accident causation factors (92%). Overall rankings for up to five ranked causes identified six causes: ‘machinery/ vehicles’, ‘organisational’, ‘livestock’, ‘slurry related’, ‘trips, falls, buildings-related’ and ‘electrical’ (96.5%). The study data indicated that farmers’ perceptions of accident causes were inaccurate when compared with objective fatal farm accident data. The study concluded that communicating accurate and contemporary OSH messages to farmers has potential to assist with farm accident prevention. Based on the multiple and interacting risk factors arising in agriculture it is suggested that more elaborate study of farm accident prevention is warranted.

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1960–1968 E. Mellelo, E.O. Samuilova, T.S. Denisov, D.M. Martynova and R.O. Olekhnovich
Influence of the bentonite-containing acrylic humectant composite on the soil microflora
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Influence of the bentonite-containing acrylic humectant composite on the soil microflora

E. Mellelo, E.O. Samuilova, T.S. Denisov, D.M. Martynova and R.O. Olekhnovich*

International Research Center BioEngineering, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy Prospekt, 49, RU197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: r.o.olekhnovich@mail.ru

Abstract:

Acrylic derivative-based superabsorbents are widely used currently in agriculture as the soil conditioners, plant growth regulators, etc. Their usage has a positive effect on the growth and survival of the plants cultivated in the arid regions. However, the effects of hydrophilic acrylic polymers on the soil microbiocenosis still remain unknown. The influence of the moisture-absorbing acrylic acid-based hydrogels with different proportions of bentonite filler was studied on the soil microbiota. N,N-methylenebisacrylamide was used as a crosslinking agent. Acrylic hydrogels were synthesized by radical polymerization in an aqueous medium at a synthesis temperature of 45 °C during 4 hours. The application of hydrogel of the certain concentrations (1.0, 1.5, and 2.5% wt) into the soil did not cause significant changes in the total abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and the length of the fungal mycelium. The CO2 emission rates did not change after and during the application of the hydrogel), which indicated the same level of carbon mineralization in the soil with presence of acrylic bentonite-containing hydrogels. The nitrogen fixation rate decreased on the first day after hydrogel application; after 14 days, it was close to the control values. We assume the activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria has though turned to the normal level.

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1969–1983 E. Merisalu J. Leppälä, M. Jakob and R.H. Rautiainen
Variation in Eurostat and national statistics of accidents in agriculture
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Variation in Eurostat and national statistics of accidents in agriculture

E. Merisalu¹* J. Leppälä², M. Jakob³ and R.H. Rautiainen²⁴

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56/1, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki
³Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE14469 Potsdam, Germany
⁴University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, US68198-4388, USA
*Correspondence: eda.merisalu@emu.ee

Abstract:

Agriculture is known as a hazardous industry worldwide, although there are great challenges in enumerating the size of the workforce and numbers of accidents at work. The aim of the study was to characterize variation in agricultural accident statistics in European countries and opportunities to improve collection and reporting of accident data in agriculture on the national and European levels. This study explored the incidence of fatal (FA) and non-fatal work accidents (NFA) in agriculture (excluding forestry and fishing) in selected European countries, using Eurostat and national sources in 2013. Eurostat reported highest NFA rates (per 100,000 workers) in Finland (5331) and lowest in Greece (5). The highest FA rate was reported in Malta (51), while zero fatalities were reported in Estonia, Greece, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Sweden and Iceland. Eurostat and national statistics differed in many cases. Some variations were observed in European and national statistics. Germany reported 89 fatalities (rate 2.3/100,000) in Eurostat and 160 (rate 16.3/100,000) in national sources. Poland, with a similar land area and five times more farms and workers as Germany, reported only 4 fatalities in agriculture in Eurostat. The Estonian Labour Inspectorate (2013) registered 785 NFAs per 100,000 agricultural workers, while the rate in Eurostat was more than twice as high (1914/100,000). Finland and Sweden with similar agricultural structures had a ten-fold difference in NFA rates in Eurostat; Finland 5,331 and Sweden 554 per 100,000 workers. These examples illustrate the large variation in agricultural accident statistics due to: a) farm structure, b) use of reference populations, c) under-reporting, d) different inclusion/exclusion criteria and e) interpretation by users. Some inconsistencies are structural due to lacking social insurance schemes for farmers, family labour and undocumented workers. Some inconsistencies could be addressed by better implementation of ESAW harmonizing rules. Alternative methods, such as standardized surveys, could be considered to augment Eurostat statistics.

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1984–1992 M.G. Morerira, G.A.S. Ferraz, B.D.S. Barbosa, E.M. Iwasaki, P.F.P Ferraz, F.A. Damasceno and G. Rossi
Design and construction of a low-cost remotely piloted aircraft for precision agriculture applications
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Design and construction of a low-cost remotely piloted aircraft for precision agriculture applications

M.G. Morerira¹, G.A.S. Ferraz¹*, B.D.S. Barbosa¹, E.M. Iwasaki¹, P.F.P Ferraz¹, F.A. Damasceno² and G. Rossi³

¹Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000, Lavras, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Department of Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000, Lavras, Brazil
³University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: gabriel.ferraz@ufla.br

Abstract:

This study aimed to construct a low cost RPA capable of recording georeferenced images. For the construction of the prototype of a quadcopter type RPA, only essential materials were used to allow stable flight. A maximum total weight of 2 kg was stipulated, including frame weight, electronic components, motors and cameras. The aircraft was programmed using a low-cost microcontroller widely used in prototyping and automation research. An electronic circuit board is designed to facilitate the connection of the microcontroller with the other components of the design. Specific software was used for flight control. The prototype was built successfully, being able to lift stable and controllable flight. However, we still need to acquire equipment and programming components capable of enabling autonomous images and flights. The final cost of the RPA was on average $ 427.00 on average 50% lower than the values found in the Brazilian ARP market ($ 772.81 to $ 1,288.00)

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1993–2004 A. Nemeikšis and V. Osadčuks
Development of intelligent system of mobile robot movement planning in unknown dynamic environment by means of multi-agent system
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Development of intelligent system of mobile robot movement planning in unknown dynamic environment by means of multi-agent system

A. Nemeikšis and V. Osadčuks*

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, 5 J. Cakstes blvd., Jelgava LV-3001, Latvia
*Correspondence: nemeiksis.andrius@llu.lv, vitalijs.osadcuks@llu.lv

Abstract:

Through the ages the world has conceived the projects which are aimed at creating diverse models of robots that would be beneficial for exploration of different dangerous surfaces where human participation is excluded. Therefore, the main task of the study of this article is to develop the researches, the object of which is mobile robot movement in unfamiliar environment, based on multi agent apparatus system and neural networks. The aim of the research is to develop methods for creating intellectual systems for planning mobile robot movement in unfamiliar environment applying the methods of multi agent apparatus and neural networks ensuring the robot executes the planned and adjusted on the way safe trajectory in an environment with unknown obstacles. Accordingly, the entire study of the article is based on a two-stage process. The first stage involves determination of distance between the robot and the obstacles in its operating area as well as classification of the possible location of obstacles, based on the information received from distance sensors, using the model of multilayer neural networks. During the second stage bypassing obstacles, wall tracking, movement-to-destination as well as speed management agents are developed. As the result of the study, a method was suggested for creating neural network model for classification of environment into agents and their consistent switching, which, according to the classification table compiled, involves all the possible locations of obstacles occurring on the robot’s movement trajectory and allows reducing the number of unfamiliar environment situations that are necessary to identify.

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2005–2015 R. Nurzyńska-Wierdak, H. Łabuda, H. Buczkowska and A. Sałata
Pericarp of colored-seeded common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties a potential source of polyphenolic compounds
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Pericarp of colored-seeded common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties a potential source of polyphenolic compounds

R. Nurzyńska-Wierdak, H. Łabuda, H. Buczkowska* and A. Sałata

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Department of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants, Akademicka 15, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
*Correspondence: halina.buczkowska@up.lublin.pl

Abstract:

Bioactive substances produced by plants are defined as secondary metabolites causing different pharmacological effects in human organism. Various plant raw materials, some known as vegetables or spices, are their source. Pericarp of white-seeded common bean varieties is a pharmacopoeial product traditionally used as an antidiabetic agent. The object of this study was to evaluate the biological value of pericarp of colored beans (cultivars: ‘Małopolanka’, ‘Nida’, ‘Rawela’, ‘Tip Top’, and ‘Nigeria’) compared to the reference white-seeded cultivar (‘Laponia’). Bean pericarp was characterized by a high level of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Its phenolic acid content (expressed as caffeic acid equivalents) was at a similar level, at least 0.1 mg g-1 (0.01%). The highest amount of flavonoids was accumulated by the cultivars with dark blue and black seeds, respectively 0.138 and 0.139 mg g-1 DW, as well as by the white-seeded cultivar (0.132 mg g-1 DW). The highest antioxidant activity (AA) was found for bean extracts of the cultivars ‘Laponia’ and ‘Małopolanka’, respectively 12.35 and 12.10%. Phenolic acid content was significantly positively correlated with AA of the bean extracts tested. This study indicates that pericarp of the colored-seeded bean cultivars is characterized by high biological value and can be used as a source of polyphenolic compounds.

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2016–2028 V.C. Oliveira, F.A. Damasceno, C.E.A. Oliveira, P.F.P. Ferraz, G.A.S. Ferraz and J.A.O. Saraz
Compost-bedded pack barns in the state of Minas Gerais: architectural and technological characterization
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Compost-bedded pack barns in the state of Minas Gerais: architectural and technological characterization

V.C. Oliveira¹, F.A. Damasceno¹*, C.E.A. Oliveira¹, P.F.P. Ferraz¹, G.A.S. Ferraz¹ and J.A.O. Saraz²

¹Federal University of Lavras, Engineering Department, BR37200-000, Lavras - Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Univeridad Nacional de Colombia, Agrarians Faculty, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Carrera 65 # 59A - 110, CO050001 Medellin, Colombia
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@ufla.br

Abstract:

Compost bedding pack (CBP) barns have been receiving increased attention as an alternative housing system for dairy cattle. Thus, a systematic investigation of the primary management practices of dairy cattle in CBP barns in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) has proven to be of environmental and economic relevance. The aim of this research was to summarize the compost bed data, barn dimension data and to determine the major interactive factors in the success of bed composting from qualitative and quantitative methods. Data for this study was collected from 16 CBP barns, distributed throughout the southern state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) between March 2017 and July 2018. These data were used to describe the building layouts and dimensions, to identify barn management practices, and to characterize the compost bedding material concerning moisture content. The majority of these barns had feed alleys and driveways; overshot ridges with frequent orientation from NE to SW; bedding process and aeration using mechanical tillage. The average bedding moisture content was found to be 36.9 ± 5.2% (w.b.). Based on the information found, it is possible to evaluate that there is still no defined construction pattern, with a high variation of size and technologies employed.

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2029–2039 S. Palisoc, J. Leoncini and M. Natividad
Trace level determination of cadmium and lead in coffee (Coffea) using gold nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode
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Trace level determination of cadmium and lead in coffee (Coffea) using gold nanoparticles modified graphene paste electrode

S. Palisoc¹², J. Leoncini¹ and M. Natividad¹²*

¹De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Laboratory, Physics Department, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH922 Manila, Philippines
²De La Salle University, Condensed Matter Research Unit, CENSER, 2401 Taft Avenue, PH922 Manila, Philippines
*Correspondence: michelle.natividad@dlsu.edu.ph

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) modified graphene paste electrodes (GPE) were fabricated using graphene powder, gold nanoparticles, and mineral oil. The fabricated electrodes were used as working electrode in anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) for the determination of trace concentrations of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+). The modified GPE was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Optimization of the electrode’s AuNP content and the ASV parameters was performed. It was determined that the GPE modified with 0.5 mg AuNP obtained the highest anodic current peaks for both Cd2+ and Pb2+. The calibration curves obtained using the said electrode showed a linear relationship between heavy metal concentration and peak current and the detection limits were found to be 256 ppb for lead and 267 ppb cadmium. The modified electrode was successful in determining traces of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in coffee samples. The presence of the heavy metals in the samples were verified using atomic absorption spectroscopy.

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2040–2053 J. Rosend, R. Kuldjärv, G. Arju and I. Nisamedtinov
Yeast performance characterisation in different cider fermentation matrices
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Yeast performance characterisation in different cider fermentation matrices

J. Rosend¹³*, R. Kuldjärv¹³, G. Arju²³ and I. Nisamedtinov¹⁴

¹Tallinn University of Technology, School of Science, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Division of Food Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE12616 Tallinn, Estonia
²Tallinn University of Technology, School of Science, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Division of Chemistry, Ehitajate tee 5, EE12616 Tallinn, Estonia
³Center of Food and Fermentation Technologies, Akadeemia tee 15A, EE12618 Tallinn, Estonia
⁴Lallemand Inc., 1620 Rue Préfontaine, Montréal, QC H1W 2N8 Canada
*Correspondence: julia@tftak.eu

Abstract:

Nitrogen content management before fermentation is often used in cider production to avoid sluggish fermentations. In addition to enhanced fermentation rates, the proper nitrogen content in the apple must may have an impact on the flavour characteristics of cider. This research aimed to assess yeast performance in two different commercially available musts with similar non-limiting yeast available nitrogen (YAN) content. In addition to fermentation kinetics, volatile ester production by yeast, and sensory properties of the final product were evaluated. The results showed that the fermentation rate and consumption of sugar and nitrogen sources by yeast did not vary between the two different musts. Yeasts consumed more malic acid in the environment of higher initial malic acid content. The content of volatile esters and sensory properties of the final products varied significantly. The occurrence of intense sulfur off-flavour was noted in one of the products.

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2054–2063 L.M.D. Santos, G.A.S. Ferraz, M.T. Andrade, L.S. Santana, B.D.S. Barbosa, D.T. Maciel and Giuseppe Rossi
Analysis of flight parameters and georeferencing of images with different control points obtained by RPA
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Analysis of flight parameters and georeferencing of images with different control points obtained by RPA

L.M.D. Santos¹*, G.A.S. Ferraz¹, M.T. Andrade¹, L.S. Santana¹, B.D.S. Barbosa¹, D.T. Maciel² and Giuseppe Rossi³

¹Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000 Lavras-MG, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Department of Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000 Lavras, Brazil
³University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: luanna_mendess@yahoo.com.br

Abstract:

New techniques for analysing the earth’s surface have been explored, such as the use of remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) to obtain aerial images. However, one of the obstacles of photogrammetry is the reliability of the scenes, because in some cases, considerable geometric errors are generated, thus necessitating adjustments. Some parameters used in these adjustments are image overlaps and control points, which generate uncertainties about the amount and arrangement of these points in an area. The aim of this study was to test the potential of a commercial RPA for monitoring and its applicability in the management of and decision-making about coffee crops with two different overlaps and to evaluate geometric errors by applying four grids of georeferenced points. The study area is located in an experimental Arabica coffee plantation measuring 0.65 ha. To capture the images, the flight altitude was standardized to a 30 m altitude from the ground, and a constant travel speed of 3 m s-1 was used. The treatments studied were two combinations of image overlap, namely, 80/80% and 70/60%. Six points were tracked through Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers and identified with signs, followed by an RPA flight for image collection. The obtained results indicated distinct residual error rates pointing to larger errors along Cartesian axis Y, demonstrating that the point distribution directly affects the residual errors. The use of control points is necessary for image adjustments, but to optimize their application, it is necessary to consider the shape of the area to be studied and to distribute the points in a non-biased way relative to the coordinate axes. It is concluded that the lower overlap can be recommended for use in the flight plan due to the high resolution of the orthomosaic and the shorter processing time.

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2064–2070 I. Sivicka, A. Adamovics, S. Ivanovs and E. Osinska
Some morphological and chemical characteristics of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) in Latvia
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Some morphological and chemical characteristics of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) in Latvia

I. Sivicka¹*, A. Adamovics¹, S. Ivanovs¹ and E. Osinska²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159, PL02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: Irina.Sivicka@llu.lv

Abstract:

By European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources (ECPGR), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is included on the list of priority species of medicinal and aromatic plants. In Latvia, it is important to cultivate oregano for keeping biodiversity and for meeting the needs of medicinal plant`s production. 44 accessions of oregano from the ex situ collection of genetic resources of medicinal and aromatic plants, attached to the Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, were analysed during 2012–2014. Plants` morphological characteristics were described by the Draft Descriptor List of oregano, using the methodology of ECPGR. The essential oil was isolated using solvent-free microwave extraction method and analysed by gas chromatograph Hewlett Packard 6890 equipped with flame ionization detector FID and polar capillary column HP 20M. The results showed, that oregano accessions differ morphologically. Accessions are characterized with dense branching and the possibility to create big biomass. Local oregano is poor in content of essential oil, but 17 compounds were identified as the principal. As well as the correlation between the content of essential oil and colour of flowers in full flowering stage was observed – it is higher for accessions with dark flowers. Also, the influence of meteorological conditions per vegetation period (year) on chemical characteristics was significant (p < 0.05).

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2071–2081 S. Stankowski, M. Bury, A. Jaroszewska, B. Michalska and M. Gibczyńska
Effect of multi-component fertilizers on seeds yield, yield components and physiological parameters of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)
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Effect of multi-component fertilizers on seeds yield, yield components and physiological parameters of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

S. Stankowski¹, M. Bury¹, A. Jaroszewska¹, B. Michalska² and M. Gibczyńska³*

¹West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Agronomy, street Papieża Pawła VI 3, PL71-459 Szczecin, Poland
²West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Meteorology, Botany and Green Areas Management, Papieża Pawła street VI 3, PL71-459 Szczecin, Poland
³West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Chemistry, Microbiology and Environmental Biotechnology, Słowackiego street 17, PL71-434 Szczecin, Poland
*Correspondence: marzena.gibczynska@zut.edu.pl

Abstract:

Subject of the discussed studies was an analysis of the impact of mineral multi-component fertilizers, from Polish and foreign producers, on the yield and yield components of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera). Two field experiments were carried out in 2015–2017 in Lipnik. The experimental crop was winter oilseed rape, hybrid cultivar DK EXPLICIT. Two factors were studied in the experiment A: 4 multi-component mineral fertilizers – two Belarusian (1 i 2), one Russian and one Polish (Polifoska 6) and 4 doses of fertilization (250, 500 and 750 kg ha-1). In the experiment (B) were compared two factors: 3 multi-component mineral fertilizers – Belarusian, Russian and Polish production – Polifoska 8 and 4 doses of fertilization (200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1). The fertilizers applied in the experiments, manufactured in Belarus, Russia and Poland, did not show variations in the amount of yield of winter rape. The number of winter rapeseed plants on the area unit (in autumn and spring) was independent of the type of fertilizers. In the experiment B, higher number of rapeseed siliques was obtained after application of Polifoska 8, than other fertilizers. Rapeseed grown on soil with the fertilizers manufactured in Belarus showed a lower value of greenness index (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI). As a result of the application of multi-component fertilizers, manufactured in Belarus, Russia and Poland, the recorded differences in the winter rapeseed yield, yield components and physiological parameters did not exceed 10%.

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2082–2088 V. Strizhevskaya, М. Pavlenkova, S. Nemkova, N. Nosachyova, I. Simakova and E. Wolf
Possibility and prospects of preservation of minor components in technology of fruit raw materials conservation
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Possibility and prospects of preservation of minor components in technology of fruit raw materials conservation

V. Strizhevskaya, М. Pavlenkova, S. Nemkova, N. Nosachyova, I. Simakova* and E. Wolf

Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Saratov State
Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilov, Department of Veterinary Medicine,
Biotechnology and Food Technology, Sokolovaya street, 335, RU410000 Saratov,
Russian
Correspondence: simakovaiv@yandex.ru

Abstract:

According to modern research, traditional methods of preserving fruits and vegetables do not allow obtaining products identical to natural products for biological value. At the same time, there is a need to provide the population with minor components of food, including concentrated form. The aim of the study was to preserve the minor components in canned fruit raw materials for a long time. The study was carried out comparing the data of bioflavonoids and vitamin C in fresh oranges and dehydrated oranges (immediately after dehydration and storage for 12 months). The analysis was performed by reversed-phase HPLC on Dionex Ultimate 3,000 chromatograph (‘Thermo Scientific’, USA) using Luna 5U C18(2) 100A, 5 μm 4.6 mm × 150 mm column (‘Phenomenex’, USA), system number 125617-12. The identification of components was performed by comparison of retention times of standard flavonoid samples. Dehydration was done by means of resonant IR drying, gradually lowering the temperature from intense (67–75 °C) to soft (32–35 °C) temperature regimes. Analysis of chromatograms of fresh and dehydrated oranges shows that they all have a similar profile, but differ significantly in the content of certain components. The presence of vitamin C 1,926.9 mg per 1 g of dehydrated oranges was noted, which is identical to the content of 10 g of fresh orange. The following flavonoids have been found: prunus and a component related to the polymer form of naringin, the content in 1 g of dehydrated oranges is approximately seven times more than that for 1 g of fresh orange. The loss of vitamin C by 8% during storage of dehydrated orange for 12 months was noted, the amount of flavonoids varies insignificantly by 2–3%. Studies have shown that the technology of dehydration with the help of resonance IR drying allows to keep the minor components in the native state for a long time.

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2089–2105 L. Tyšer, M. Kolářová and T.T. Hoová
Occurrence of archaeophytes in agrophytocoenoses – field survey in the Czech Republic
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Occurrence of archaeophytes in agrophytocoenoses – field survey in the Czech Republic

L. Tyšer, M. Kolářová* and T.T. Hoová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, Kamýcká 129, CZ-165 00 Prague-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mkolarova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Archaeophytes are alien plants introduced to the Czech Republic before the year 1500. Their occurrence is strongly connected with agricultural production. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of archaeophytes in arable fields in the Czech Republic in terms of applied management systems (conventional and organic farming), crops (winter cereals, spring cereals, wide-row crops) and environmental site conditions at different altitudes. In 2006–2018, a phytocoenological survey was conducted in selected farms across the Czech Republic. Totally, 180 weed species were found, of which 48.89% were considered as archaeophytes (88 species). In view of the invasive status, 5 archaeophytes were considered as invasive, the other 83 species were regarded as naturalized. The net effects of all variables studied on the occurrence of archaeophytes were statistically significant. The majority of the variation was explained by altitude, followed by crop and type of farming. Incidence of archaeophytes increases with an increasing altitude and is also related to their affinity with environmental factors. The highest occurrence of archaeophytes was found in cereals, some species, however, occur more frequently in wide row crops. The higher occurrence of archaeophytes was observed in organically managed fields.

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2106–2114 A. Vagová, M. Hromasová, M. Linda and P. Vaculík
Determining external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush
Abstract |
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Determining external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush

A. Vagová¹, M. Hromasová²*, M. Linda² and P. Vaculík¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
²University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: hromasova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This paper deals with determining the amount of external friction angle of barley malt and malt crush depending on the load size. Barley malt is a basic raw material for production of the traditional Czech Pilsner type of beer. The angle of internal and external friction is one of the basic parameters of bulk materials. Friction among individual grains of material, i.e. a connection with the forces, applied between individual material particles, includes the internal friction angle. Conversely, the external friction angle is the angle in which the bulk material begins to move on the other material (steel). A two-roll mill (or disc mill and hammer mill) was used for the malt crush manufacture, which is used in the traditional malt processing in beer production. During crushing on this machine, we used the passage of the milled material through a gap between two counter-rotating cylinders. The results of barley malt and malt crush external friction angle, depending on the load size of the barley malt and the malt crush on mobile prototype device, are from 8 to 22°. The mobile prototype device is based on the following principle: a square chamber filled with a loaded material moves on the pad (steel).

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2115- 2126 L. Zihare, I. Muizniece and D. Blumberga
A holistic vision of bioeconomy: the concept of transdisciplinarity nexus towards sustainable development
Abstract |

A holistic vision of bioeconomy: the concept of transdisciplinarity nexus towards sustainable development

L. Zihare*, I. Muizniece and D. Blumberga

Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Āzenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: lauma.zihare@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Current issue of bioeconomy development has been largely addressed on a linear or interdisciplinary level, however holistic view of bioeconomy requires a transdisciplinary system analysis. Developed methodology clarifies vision on bioeconomy definition, bioeconomy disciplines and disciplinary definition in context of nexus interlinkage, in the result concept of transdisciplinary approach connection to bioeconomy is determined as processes for sustainable bioeconomy, that not only replace fossil resources with biobased resources, but strengthens different disciplines, taken into account interlinkages, knowledge, and stakeholders and limitations set by planetary boundaries, different dimensions should be included in transition towards sustainable bioeconomy. Methodology bases on critical literature analysis. Different bioeconomy disciplines are defined and the obtained results are represented graphically. The obtained results can be used for further research as a transdisciplinarity basis of the bioeconomy, studying specific systems, factors influencing them and evaluating potential scenarios and their impacting tools. Results from implementing holistic vision would provide practical benefit to policy makers and industry actors by providing an analysis how to improve industrial practice, policy and how more effectively transfer to sustainable bioeconomy.

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2127-2138 O. Zinina, S. Merenkova, M. Rebezov, D. Tazeddinova, Z. Yessimbekov and V. Vietoris
Optimization of cattle by-products amino acid composition formula
Abstract |
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Optimization of cattle by-products amino acid composition formula

O. Zinina¹*, S. Merenkova¹, M. Rebezov², D. Tazeddinova¹, Z. Yessimbekov³ and V. Vietoris⁴

¹South Ural State University (National Research University), Lenin Avenue 76, RU454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia
²Ural State Agrarian University, Karl Liebknecht 42, RU620075 Ekaterinburg, Russia
³Shakarim State University of Semey, Glinki street 20a, KZ071400 Semey, Kazakhstan
⁴Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Hlinku 2, SK94901 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: zininaov@susu.ru

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to develop optimal formulations of by-product mixtures in terms of biological value using MS Excel Solver standard software application. The objects of study were underutilized cattle by-products as tripe, ears, lips, lungs, and heart. Physical and chemical studies were carried out to compile a database of the by-products used. As a result, the protein content was 14.3% in tripe, 24.6% in lips, 24.9% in ears, 15.2% in lungs, and 16.8% in heart (P < 0.05). The content of essential amino acids in various by-products, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, did not have significant differences compared with the results obtained by other researchers. While conducting optimization of the by-product formulation, focused on the physiologically-based content of the essential amino acids in the ‛ideal’ protein according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Essential amino acids index (EAAI) was chosen as the goal function. In the process of optimization, indicators such as chemical score, EAAI, biological value, and coefficient of amino acid score differences (CAASD) were calculated. Several variants of the formulations with high biological value were obtained as a result of the optimization. According to the results of the research it was found that more balanced ratio of the essential amino acids was in the following formulations: 1 – tripe (4.9%), ears (28.4%) and heart (66.7%) or 2 – ears (25.4%), lips (8.9%) and heart (65.7%). According to the results, the highest in vitro protein digestibility was in compositions number 1 and 2 (78.2% and 76.8%), which correlated with the calculated biological value. Thus, the use of computer modeling allowed obtaining the formulations of the by-products composition with the highest possible biological value by varying the content of the various by-products.

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