Volume 17 (2019)
  Number 6

Full text of the journal:Volume 17 Number 6

Contents


Pages

2146–2157 A. Adamovics, R. Platace, S. Ivanovs and I. Gulbe
The efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer on the dry matter yield of tall fescue and festulolium grown as feedstock for combustion
Abstract |
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The efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer on the dry matter yield of tall fescue and festulolium grown as feedstock for combustion

A. Adamovics¹, R. Platace¹, S. Ivanovs¹* and I. Gulbe²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Struktoru iela 15, LV-2006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: semjons@apollo.lv

Abstract:

Grass biomass grows during one vegetation season and can be cultivated and consumed at the place of breeding. Grass biomass can be used not only in traditional feed, but, recently, also for energy production (biogas, solid fuels). The most important economic indicator for any crop is its productivity. The study found that it is important to use nitrogen fertilizer to increase the productivity of tall fescue and festulolium. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in the yield of tall fescue was observed starting from the nitrogen norm of 60 kg ha-1 N. Further increase in nitrogen fertilizer norm provides a significant increase in dry mater yield of tall fescue (reaching 8.64 t ha-1) and festulolium (reaching 8.11 t ha-1) at 180 kg ha-1 N. The analysis of linear regression coefficients of polynomials showed that the highest nitrogen efficiency in the first year of the use of tall fescue was achieved at the norm of 180 kg ha-1 N, but for festulolium – at the norm of 120 kg ha-1 N. In the following years of tall fescue use, the highest efficiency of nitrogen norms differed: in the 2nd and 4th year of use – at 60 kg ha-1 N, in the 3rd year of use – at 30 kg ha-1 N, and in the 5th year of use – at 120 kg ha-1 N. In contrast, for festulolium, in the 2nd year of use, the highest nitrogen efficiency was reached at the norm of 30 kg ha-1 N, and in the 3rd–5th year of use – at the norm of 60 kg ha-1 N.

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2158–2171 H. Ameziane, A. Nounah, M. Khamar and A. Zouahri
Use of olive pomace as an amendment to improve physico-chemical parameters of soil fertility
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Use of olive pomace as an amendment to improve physico-chemical parameters of soil fertility

H. Ameziane¹*, A. Nounah¹, M. Khamar¹ and A. Zouahri²

¹Mohammed V University, High School of Technology, Civil Engineering and Environment Laboratory (LGCE), Materials Water and Environment team, MA11060 Sale, Morocco
²INRA, Regional Center for Agricultural Research in Rabat, Research unit on Environment and Conservation of Natural Resources, MA10112 Rabat, Morocco
*Correspondence: amezianehalima@gmail.com

Abstract:

Given their richness in nutritive elements, the majority of agricultural waste is used as soil amendments, including olive oil waste. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the use of olive pomace from three extraction systems on the physico-chemical fertility of the soil, after their use as an amendment for faba bean cultivation. The experiment is carried out at the Civil Engineering and Environment Laboratory in the EST of Salé, in pots where the olive pomace has been mixed with the soil, respecting the percentages studied. Several relative physico-chemical parameters of soil fertility were determined at the end of the experiment, namely pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total kjeldhal nitrogen (NTK) content, organic carbon and exchangeable bases concentration and soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) determination. Different percentages of pomace from the three extraction systems were applied (control, 10%, 15%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) for four months of bean germination test. The application of the pomace reduced soil pH, and increased soil organic matter and organic carbon content in proportion to the added percentage of pomace. The available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium content increased significantly (p < 0.05) in pots containing different percentages of pomace compared to their concentrations in the soil (control). The total nitrogen content has not increased sufficiently but remains significantly different from the control, especially for the percentages of 25%, 50% and 75%. For its part, the cation exchange capacity (CEC) is important and will allow a good retention of nutrients for all percentages.

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2172–2179 D. Atzmüller+, F. Hawe, D. Sulzenbacher, A. Cristobal-Sarramian+
Wheat straw and lipids: UV-mutagenized Yarrowia lipolytica for the conversion of wheat straw hydrolysate into lipids
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Wheat straw and lipids: UV-mutagenized Yarrowia lipolytica for the conversion of wheat straw hydrolysate into lipids

D. Atzmüller*+, F. Hawe, D. Sulzenbacher, A. Cristobal-Sarramian+

University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, School of Engineering, Stelzahmerstraße 23, AT4600 Wels, Austria
*Correspondence: denise.atzmueller@fh-wels.at
+These authors contribute equally to this work

Abstract:

Due to the rising energy demand of our modern society and the finite amounts of petroleum-based fuels, renewable forms of energy have become extremely important. Bio-based fuels like bioethanol and biodiesel represent an already applied and accepted alternative. Biodiesel is currently mainly produced from plant oils. A new and promising alternative, which avoids the use of food crops, is the cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, which possesses the capacity to accumulate up to 40% of its biomass in form of lipids. Moreover, this non-conventional yeast is able to metabolize a broad range of carbon-sources, presenting a sustainable alternative to reutilize a wide spectrum of waste substrates. This makes it an auspicious candidate for the generation of non-edible oils for biodiesel production. In this work, we aimed to generate a Y. lipolytica mutant strain with enhanced lipid production when grown on wheat straw hydrolysate as sole carbon source. Therefore, UV mutagenesis was applied and mutants with a high-lipid content were selected by their ability to grow in the presence of the fatty acid inhibitor cerulenin. Further, growth of the mutants on wheat straw hydrolysate was evaluated. The fatty acid composition was analysed by GC-FID and the calculated total lipid content revealed an up to 33% increase compared to the wild type strain. Fermentation optimisation and the combination of various waste substrates as carbon sources are expected to further increase the total lipid yield by the Y. lipolytica mutant strain and serve as initial point for its industrial scale evaluation.

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2180–2186 M. Bappah, J. Bradna, J. Velebil and J. Malatak
The potential of energy recovery from by–products of small agricultural farms in Nigeria
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The potential of energy recovery from by–products of small agricultural farms in Nigeria

M. Bappah*, J. Bradna, J. Velebil and J. Malatak

Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Praha 6–Suchdol, Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: bappahmusa@gmail.com

Abstract:

Agricultural by–products are renewable energy sources from which essential amount of energy can be recovered, which can be used to replace the use of conventional fossil fuel, reduces the potential of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and at the same time reduces deforestation, especially in rural areas. Energy values of biomass from small Agricultural farms, in particular waste generated from different tropical crops, viz; Maize, Millet, Rice, Sorghum and Groundnut were determined, to ascertain their potentials as alternative fuel sources for rural use. The materials were found to be of importance judging by their combustion potentials in all the forms investigated. The Energy values of the by-products considered ranged between 11.68 MJ kg-1 to 17.48 MJ kg-1 with Groundnut pods and millet husk having the highest and least respectively. Moisture and ash had effect on the energy values of these biomass. Our results are relevant to the problems posed by the management of farm residues in developing countries.

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2187–2194 I.A. Bazhenova, T.S. Bazhenova and E.V. Chernova
Germination of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) grains trigger biochemical changes that augment bioavailability of flower and its utility for gluten-free dietary foods
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Germination of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) grains trigger biochemical changes that augment bioavailability of flower and its utility for gluten-free dietary foods

I.A. Bazhenova, T.S. Bazhenova* and E.V. Chernova

Peter the Great Polytechnic University, The Graduate School of Biotechnology and Food Technology, street Novorossiyskaya, 48, RU194021 St-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: tatjanabazhenova@mail.ru

Abstract:

During past decade, there has been an active search for new sources and means, such as biologic modification of raw plant material, to produce bioavailable foods with pre-defined properties. In this study, we tested whether germination of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) grains could be used to increase bioavailability of the flower for gluten-free diets (GFD). Our analysis demonstrated that grains of four selected cultivars had similar germination rates in different media. However, the pikes of amylolytic and proteinase activities were detected at the 2nd and 3rd days of germination, whereas the pike of lipase activity was associated with the 4th day. The highest and the lowest enzymatic activities were detected in grains germinated in whey and in NaCl, respectively. During germination, cumulative phenolic content increased up to 3.5 times reaching the highest levels by day 5. Based on these data, we produce batches of flour from grains germinated for 3 days and evaluated its utility in producing non-rising cake and shortbread pastry dough. Sensory evaluation of the baked products confirmed that flour from germinated grains could be used for substitution of the wheat flower in the dough. Collectively, our novel findings demonstrated that biochemically defined germination conditions could be used to produce proso millet flour with greater digestibility and nutritive value for the development of new GFD recipes.

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2195–2202 І. Bobos, I. Fedosy, O. Zavadska, O. Tonha and J. Olt,
Optimization of plant densities of dolichos (dolichos lablab L. var. lignosus) bean in the Right-bank of Forest-steppe of Ukraine
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Optimization of plant densities of dolichos (dolichos lablab L. var. lignosus) bean in the Right-bank of Forest-steppe of Ukraine

І. Bobos¹, I. Fedosy¹, O. Zavadska¹, O. Tonha¹ and J. Olt²,*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,
Heroyiv Oborony 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The density of the plants of Dolichos bean significantly influenced the economically valuable indicators, because there is always competition for light, moisture and nutrients between plants in the life process. The period from mass sprouting to the technical ripeness was reduced with increasing the plant density. Such a pattern was characteristic of all phases of the growth and development of the Dolichos bean. The plants with high population (71 thousand units ha-1) took short period (60 and 119 days) from germination to the beginning of technical and biological ripeness, respectively, turned out to be the earliest ripening crops. The plants are better illuminated, the soil nutrition conditions are improved and the sanitary-hygienic climate of the crops improves with thinned crops, thereby plant productivity has raised. However, the average yield of scapulabeans and unripe Dolichos seeds is regulated by the density of the plants, and increased in density due to the greater number of plants. The optimum density for Dolichos bean was 71 thousand plants per hectare, at which yields of green shoots and green peas were formed 7.3 and 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

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2203–2210 J. Bradna, J. Šimon, D. Hájek, D. Vejchar, I. Polišenská and I. Sedláčková
Comparison of a 1 t and a 55 t container when storing spelt grain in mild climate of the Czech Republic
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Comparison of a 1 t and a 55 t container when storing spelt grain in mild climate of the Czech Republic

J. Bradna¹*, J. Šimon¹, D. Hájek¹, D. Vejchar¹, I. Polišenská² and I. Sedláčková²

¹Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p. r. i., Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6 - Ruzyně, Czech Republic
²Agrotest fyto, Ltd., Havlíčkova 2787/121, CZ767 01 Kroměříž, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jiri.bradna@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

Maintaining a suitable microclimate inside the storage space is the most significant factor in maintaining good quality of stored grain for small farmers. This article is aimed at evaluating the influence of outdoor climatic conditions on the storage conditions, specifically the temperature of stored grain in two storage containers. One structure was a 4 × 6 m cylindrical container (55 t capacity) with a steel wire mesh wall lined with a textile shell. Spelt grain (Triticum spelta) was also stored simultaneously at the same location in a fabric intermediate bulk container (FIBC) bag with maximum capacity of 1 t. Neither structure was mechanically aerated. Grain moisture and temperature were monitored during the spring and start of the summer period of the year 2017 because of the biggest differences between the night and day temperatures. For monitoring of the grain microbiological changes samples were taken for laboratory tests during the whole experiment. Grain quality parameters measured during storage included the bulk density, crude protein, falling number, germination, gluten content, sedimentation index and contamination by mycotoxins. Monitored outdoor environment parameters were temperature, dew point and relative humidity. Results showed a strong dependence of the stored material temperature on the outside temperature in the case of FIBC bags (coefficient of determination R2 = 0.927), whereas the dependence was weaker in the larger structure (R2 = 0.625). Mycotoxins monitored during the period were below the detection limit in both cases.

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2211–2219 V. Bulgakov, M. Arak, A. Boris, M. Boris, V. Bandura and J. Olt
Experimental study of the distribution of the heights of sugar beet root crowns above the soil surface
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Experimental study of the distribution of the heights of sugar beet root crowns above the soil surface

V. Bulgakov¹, M. Arak², A. Boris³, M. Boris⁴, V. Bandura⁵ and J. Olt²*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony street, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 F.R. Kreutzwaldi street, EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
³National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna street, Glevakhcha-1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kiev region, Ukraine
⁴Podolski State Agricultural and Technical University, 13 Shevchenko street, Kamenetz-Podilsk, UA 32300 Khmelnytsky region, Ukraine
⁵Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, 3 Soniachna street UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The results of experimental studies and operational tests of the sugar beet harvesting process carried out recently reveal that the latest models of beet harvesters produced in Europe and America cause considerable loss of the sugar-bearing mass. The source of this loss is mainly the poor topping of the crowns of standing sugar beet roots, more specifically the excessively low point at which the tops are cut off, which results in the straight out loss of sugar-bearing mass. Thus, there is need to search for such engineering solutions that would avoid both the loss of sugar-bearing mass and the presence of residual haulm on the roots. The aim of this study was to reduce the loss of sugar-bearing mass in the process of topping sugar beet root crowns. The results of this research into the distribution of the heights that root crowns protrude above the soil surface have confirmed the hypothesis that it follows the normal distribution. Based on the results, it has been established that this distribution has the following statistical parameters: mean deviation a = 20–30 mm, mathematical expectation m = 40…60 mm. The laboratory unit developed for this work and the field studies performed with it have provided sufficient evidence to develop a new system to automatically adjust the topping height on state-of-the-art root crop harvesters.

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2220–2232 J.A. Chávez, J.L. Alcántara-Flores, R.C. Almiray-Pinzón, E. Díaz-Cabrera, R. Pérez-Avilés, M.E. Patiño-Iglesias and M.A. Mora-Ramírez
Vegetative growth response of beets and lettuce to stored human urine
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Vegetative growth response of beets and lettuce to stored human urine

J.A. Chávez¹, J.L. Alcántara-Flores²*, R.C. Almiray-Pinzón³, E. Díaz-Cabrera³, R. Pérez-Avilés², M.E. Patiño-Iglesias² and M.A. Mora-Ramírez³*

¹University of Puebla, Faculty of Phys. Sci. Math., Avenida San Claudio y 18 Sur, Col. San Manuel, Edif., FM1-101B, Ciudad Universitaria, postal code 72570, Pue., Puebla, México
²University of Puebla, Science Institute, Av. San Claudio, Edif FM8 111-D, San Manuel, 72570 Puebla, Pue., México
³University of Puebla, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Physico Mathematics, Av. San Claudio y 18 Sur, 72570 Puebla, Pue.,
*Correspondence: jlaf7@yahoo.com.mx; marco.x.mora@gmail.com

Abstract:

In this work, we present the experimental results of the effect of stored human urine (SHU) on the growth of beets (Beta vulgaris L) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L). We apply different amounts of SHU according to the recommended dose of nitrogen, considering soil from farmland and vermiculite as substrates. The last allows us to determine with high precision the isolated effect of SHU over the vegetative development of beet plants, without considering other nutrients present in common soils. Experimental results demonstrate that the application of SHU has no significant effects on lettuce vegetative growth under our soil conditions. In contrast, SHU can be used successfully as a fertilizer of beets. The optimum dose was found at 120 kg N ha-1 and resulted in average dry weight of 125 g. However, if the dose exceeds the optimum levels, the growth of the plant is inhibited. Beets fertilized with SHU does not pose any hygienic risk for human consumption. Our findings represent a promising alternative to propose expanding the use of SHU as fertilizer in medium-sized greenhouses and to provide benefits to families in rural areas, with little or no available water supplies.

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2233–2241 J. Csillag, A. Petrović,, V. Vozárová, J. Kosiba2 and R. Majdan
Some rheological properties of new and used mineral lubricant and biolubricant for tractors
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Some rheological properties of new and used mineral lubricant and biolubricant for tractors

J. Csillag¹, A. Petrović¹,*, V. Vozárová¹, J. Kosiba2 and R. Majdan²

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physics, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, SK949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Trieda Andreja Hlinku 2, SK949 01 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: ana.petrovic@uniag.sk

Abstract:

It is important to know physical characteristics of lubricating oils to ensure the highest reliability for operation of device. The use of ecological lubricants depends on their characteristics; the most important are density and viscosity, protection against wear and tear, corrosion resistance etc. The objective of this work was to find changes of the rheological properties of the synthetic oil and bio lubricant. We compared two different oils in our measurements. One sample was synthetic oil and the other was mineral oil (bio lubricant). Both oils are universal oils for tractors. Further, comparison of new and used sample after million cycles was performed. The density and the dynamic viscosity show strong exponentially decreasing dependence. With the increasing temperature, values of the both properties, decreased. It can be also observed that used samples have lower viscosity and density. The results presented in this article can be important when putting ecological lubricants into operation.

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2242–2259 N. Escobar,, N.J. Romero and C.I. Jaramillo
Typology of small producers in transition to agroecological production
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Typology of small producers in transition to agroecological production

N. Escobar¹,*, N.J. Romero² and C.I. Jaramillo³

¹University of Cundinamarca, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, 18th Diagonal # 20-29, Fusagasuga, Colombia
²University of Tolima, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, Barrio Santa Helena, Ibague, Colombia
³Agrosavia. National Research Center of Agriculture, Nataima, Colombia
*Correspondence: nataliaescobar@ucundinamarca.edu.co

Abstract:

Agroecology is now emerging as the fundamental science to guide the conversion of conventional production systems to more diversified and self-sufficient systems. The agroecological transition is defined as the gradual change that farmers undergo to adapt and move from more conventional towards agroecological farming principles, encompassing technological, societal, institutional and organisational changes in the food system. To analyze a transition process, it is initially necessary to understand how agroecosystems work (their structure and processes), and the different ways human beings intervene an ecosystem in order to transform it for productive purposes.Farm systems typology and classification techniques are used to guide strategic lines of research, sectorial policies, and promote sustainable development in response to farmer’s needs. Determining multidimensional classification methods in agricultural systems is necessary, considering both the variables inherent to the production system and those of an external nature that indirectly impact the development and long-term sustainability of production systems. One of the purposes of this research was to characterize agricultural production based on sustainability systems and environmental, social, and economic indicators. The study was carried out based on data collected from 71 farm surveys, considering the social, economic, environmental, and technological dimensions. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were done. Three types of production systems were obtained: Group I, organic producers in transition; Group II, conventional producers in transition to organic production; and Group III, conventional producers interested in organic production. Producers need to focus on processes that allow them to improve their skills to develop human talent and social capital in terms of integration, collaborative work, trust, political and cultural capital, so that they can make progress easily and start implementing agroecological, infrastructure, and natural resources management practices, while improving their living standards. The information yielded by a typology process allows for us to know the current state of agricultural production systems based on the implementation of agroecological practices; thus facilitating the preparation and implementation of participatory plans and/or integrative proposals that promote agrofood sustainability.

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2260–2268 V. V. Eveleva , T. M. Cherpalova, E. A. Shipovskaya and N. A. Korshunova
Technological features of production of lactate-containing additives from milk whey fermented with lactic acid bacteria
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Technological features of production of lactate-containing additives from milk whey fermented with lactic acid bacteria

V. V. Eveleva¹* , T. M. Cherpalova¹, E. A. Shipovskaya¹ and N. A. Korshunova²

¹All-Russia Research Institute of Food Additives – Branch of the Federal Budget Research Institution ‘V. M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems’ of RAS, 55 Liteyny ave., RU191014 Saint Petersburg, Russia
²Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technology, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University), 9 Lomonosov str., RU191002 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: v.eveleva@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Milk whey becomes a product of interest to researchers and manufacturers due to stricter environmental protection requirements. This paper discusses bioconversion of whey lactose into lactate-containing additives using microorganisms of Lactobacillus genus. The biotransformation of lactose from curd whey and standard solutions of cheese whey into lactic acid derivatives was assessed by the following parameters: the productivity of lactic acid bacteria, the rate of lactose fermentation, the total amount of calcium lactate and its formation rate. Selection of the medium preparation and lactic acid biosynthesis parameters based on these measurements proved to yield optimal results. Lactic acid bacteria from the subgroup of thermophilic bacilli L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. рlantarum were also tested. The optimal synthetic activity in the terms of calcium lactate turnover and formation rate was demonstrated by L. acidophilus in a medium based on the concentrated whey with 8% lactose.

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2269–2276 L. Heinmaa,, P. Põldma, K. Loit, R. Kiiker and U. Moor
Physiological disorders affect apple susceptibility to Penicillium expansum infection and increase probability for mycotoxin patulin occurrence in apple juice
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Physiological disorders affect apple susceptibility to Penicillium expansum infection and increase probability for mycotoxin patulin occurrence in apple juice

L. Heinmaa¹,*, P. Põldma¹, K. Loit², R. Kiiker² and U. Moor¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Chair of Horticulture, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Chair of Plant Health, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: lagle.heinmaa@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

Penicillium expansum infection of apples and mycotoxin patulin (PAT) production has previously been associated with many pre- and postharvest factors other than physiological disorders. In the current study, ‘Antei’ and ‘Krameri tuviõun’ apples with and without bitter pit (BP) symptoms and ‘Talvenauding’ apples with and without superficial scald (SS) symptoms were used in order to determine if the named physiological disorders may influence susceptibility to P. expansum infection and PAT production. Apples were inoculated with 10 μL P. expansum spore suspension with the concentration of 1×105 conidia mL-1 and stored at 24 °C with relative humidity (RH) 80%. After 7 and 11 days, lesion diameters were measured, and apples were pressed into juice. PAT content was determined in pasteurized juice. Two cultivars out of three showed that in fruit with physiological disorders, Penicilllium infection and PAT production proceeded significantly faster compared to apples, which did not have physiological disorders. SS increased the risk for PAT occurrence in juice more than BP: while the juice pressed from BP–affected apples with no visual signs of fungal diseases did not contain PAT, juice pressed from apples with SS contained PAT three times above legislative limits defined by the World Health Organization (50 μg L-1).

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2277–2285 M. Kiviste, H. Lille, L. Linnus and R. Halgma
Evaluation of retention stresses of prestressing bars of a concrete ribbed panel from agricultural building after 20 years of service
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Evaluation of retention stresses of prestressing bars of a concrete ribbed panel from agricultural building after 20 years of service

M. Kiviste*, H. Lille, L. Linnus and R. Halgma

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Chair of Rural Building and Water Management, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: mihkel.kiviste@emu.ee

Abstract:

In Estonian agricultural buildings there exist a lot of precast concrete load-bearing structures, which were manufactured in the 1970s and 80s. By now, some of these are rather near for reaching their designed service life. 20 years old prestressed concrete ribbed ceiling panels (type PNS-12) with the dimensions of 6 m (length) by 1.5 m (width) from an existing agricultural building (pigsty) are the subject of current study. The objective of current study was to evaluate the retention stress of prestressing bars (PSBs) of a ribbed panel PNS-12. In other words the purpose was to find out how much of the factory-issued initial prestress was left at the PSBs after 20 years of service.
As a novel application in civil engineering strain gauges were applied in the evaluation of retention stress of PSBs in current study. The active strain gauges were glued to the opposite sides of PSBs at the middle-span of the ribbed panel, dummy gauges were glued to the unloaded steel slab. Strain gauges were connected to the half-bridge and measured with strain indicator and recorded. Retention stresses were calculated using the Hooke’s law through the measured strains and elastic modulus of steel. Elastic modulus of PSBs was also measured using the universal testing machine Instron 3369 and software Bluehill 2, based on two standards.
The results demonstrated about 20.8% and 10.0% of retention stress of PSBs, respectively. The possible errors created by different aspects in experiment are also discussed.

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2286–2294 К. Kostetska, N. Osokina, H. Gerasymchuk and O. Nakloka
Objective organoleptic, structural-and-mechanical parameters of vegetables depending on their degree of ripeness
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Objective organoleptic, structural-and-mechanical parameters of vegetables depending on their degree of ripeness

К. Kostetska*, N. Osokina, H. Gerasymchuk and O. Nakloka

Uman National University of Horticulture, Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, 1 Instytutska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: kostetskakateryna@gmail.com

Abstract:

Organoleptic, structural-and-mechanical indicators determine the suitability of fruiting vegetables for harvesting and preservation, as well as the ratio of separate parts of the fruit. All these indicators affect the quality of products.
Experimental work was carried out in the conditions of the laboratory of the Department of Technology of Storing and Processing of Grain. A complex of organoleptic, commercial, physical and thermophysical indicators of eggplant, sweet pepper and tomato fruits were developed in the work to determine the time of their harvesting.
It was determined that physical density and mechanical strength in the fruits of sweet pepper of technical degree of ripeness were 6% higher than in the fruits of biological degree of ripeness.
Peculiarities of the ripeness degree significantly affected the amount of inedible part of the fruit (seeds, seed cavity and peduncle), which was 1.2 times less in sweet pepper fruits of technical degree of ripeness than biological degree of ripeness.
Considerable varietal difference of eggplant fruits by the amount of edible and inedible parts of the fruit was determined. Peculiarities of the variety also significantly affected the density and hardness of the fruit.
Red tomatoes fruits of Iskorka variety had tender pulp consistency and relatively low fruit density (0.88 g cm) and mechanical strength (3.00 kg cm). The objective organoleptic, structural-and-mechanical indicators of fruiting vegetables were determined depending on their degree of ripeness; to determine the optimal time of harvesting the fruits of eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato.

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2295–2305 L.L. Krumsteds, J. Ivanovs, J. Jansons and A. Lazdins
Development of Latvian land use and land use change matrix using geospatial data of National forest inventory
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Development of Latvian land use and land use change matrix using geospatial data of National forest inventory

L.L. Krumsteds*, J. Ivanovs, J. Jansons and A. Lazdins

Latvian State Forest Research Institute "Silava", Riga street 111, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: linards.krumsteds@silava.lv

Abstract:

Land use and land use change calculation matrix is one of the most important parts of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory in land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector providing information of an overall summary and changes in land use at a national level over a specified period of time. Information on land use and land use changes are further used to calculate other parameters important for determination of GHG emissions and carbon stock changes in living and dead biomass, soil and litter, as well as basic information on the impact of applied climate change mitigation measures. Calculations of land use change can be carried out in a partly automated process using GIS tools, which makes calculations easier to perform, reduces time consumption for this task and occasional mistakes due to manual operations. The aim of this study is to improve the methodology for development of land use and land use change matrix in the national GHG inventory system using geospatial data of National forest inventory (NFI) and auxiliary data sources. The developed system uses geospatial NFI data and auxiliary information provided by the land parcel information system (LPIS) and stand-wise forest inventory, and it improves accuracy and consistency of the land use and land use change matrix, providing the ability to apply the same land use accounting method for the whole reporting period since 1990 without a significant increase of uncertainty. The developed method determines land use changes in a 5-year period by comparing three successive NFI cycles. To determine the actual land use category in a particular year, we adjusted weights for different land use categories. Interpolation is used to determine year-by-year transitions.

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2306–2316 D. Kunecová and P. Hlaváč
Determination of activation energy of the pellets and sawdust using thermal analysis
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Determination of activation energy of the pellets and sawdust using thermal analysis

D. Kunecová and P. Hlaváč

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK-949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
Correspondence: kunecova@uniag.sk; peter.hlavac@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to describe the thermophysical properties of pellets and sawdust. Samples were chosen with regard to sustainability and environmental friendliness of materials. The main object of this paper was the investigation of thermal degradation of selected samples. Industrial pellets from Slovakia and sawdust from household source were compared. Materials suitable for pyrolysis are organic materials that degrade at increased temperature. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are main components of biomass (wood) in varying proportions. Thermal processes were carried out from 25 °C to 850 °C using inert nitrogen atmosphere. Heating rate was linear from 5 °C min-1, 10 °C min-1 to 20 °C min-1. Mass decrease to 150 °C corresponds to release of water and other lighter unbound hydrocarbons. Samples lose 6–8% of their mass due to the temperature. At main decrease the mass loss was between 62% and 69%. In some cases this decrease is in two drops that end at the temperature around 500 °C. Pyrolysis can be considered to consist of independent parallel reactions. In order to make theoretical groundwork for biomass pyrolysis available, activation energies were calculated with the help of two kinetic models (Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa model). The residuals from pyrolysed samples are determined and temperature dependent profiles of the materials were obtained.

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2317–2326 E. Kuprina, V. Filipov, A. Malova, V. Abramzon, A. Lepeshkin and M. Chikisheva
Technology development of obtaining essential fatty acids from hydrobionts hydrolyzates
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Technology development of obtaining essential fatty acids from hydrobionts hydrolyzates

E. Kuprina*, V. Filipov*, A. Malova, V. Abramzon, A. Lepeshkin and M. Chikisheva

ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Lomonosov street 9, RU191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: elkuprina@yandex.ru; valery98rus@mail.ru

Abstract:

ɷ-3, 6-fatty acids from hydrobiontsare a minor component in the nutrition of European countries population. This causes a number of diseases, such as cardiovascular ones, cancer etc. There is a task of concentrating these acids in oil due to the fact that to meet their daily needs it is problematic to use large quantities of fish oil-from 15 to 20 g. Particularly rich in ɷ-3, 6-acids are wastes from the cutting of hydrobionts, containing muscle tissue and skin.
Protein hydrolysates were obtained from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss) and Atlantic herring (Clupeaharengus) wastes by the electrochemical method using electrolyzers of the original design which are allowed to be used in food industry. A technological scheme of separating of lipids from protein hydrolyzates has been developed and experimental batches of oil samples have been developed. To concentrate the fatty acids the cryoconcentration method was used. The phase transitions of the obtained lipids were studied after their cryoconcentration in the temperature range from + 15 °C to minus 40 °C in the environment of calcium chloride using a low-temperature refrigeration unit. To analyze phase transitions the plant was used, which is a container with a solution of calcium chloride cooled by a low-temperature refrigeration machine. The properties of 5 fractions of lipids formed at the time of lipid phase transitions have been identified and studied (the fractional composition, acid, iodine numbers, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D3 and A).
It was established that as cryoconcentration increases the concentration of PUFAs, reaching values close to 90%, which allows the resulting product to be attributed to biologically active food additives (BAA). By calculation, it was shown that to create functional food products on fish base from fish of the Gadidae family it is enough to inject 4 grams of BAA to 100 grams of the product. Organoleptic properties of food products from low-fat fish species were improved.

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2327–2338 K. Makovskis, D. Lazdina, S. Kaleja, G. Spalva and K. Dumins
Planting and tending productivity comparison in mounds and disc trenches using containerized and bareroot coniferous seedlings
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Planting and tending productivity comparison in mounds and disc trenches using containerized and bareroot coniferous seedlings

K. Makovskis*, D. Lazdina, S. Kaleja, G. Spalva and K. Dumins

Latvian State Forest Research Institute "Silava", 111 Riga street, LV–2169 Salaspils, Latvia
*Correspondence: kristaps.makovskis@silava.lv

Abstract:

In 2016 more then 40,300 ha of forest was regenerated in Latvia, where 13,000 ha were seeded or planted and 30,300 ha were left in natural regeneration. Before planting, usually one of two soil preparation methods are used – mounding or disc trenching. In areas with optimal water regime, disc trenching is used, while in wet areas mounding is used. Tree planting and after planting tending is done manually by hand tools. The aim of the study was to compare planting and tending productivity in different soil preparation methods (mounding and disc trenching) by planting different stocktypes (containerized and bareroot seedlings). Planting time studies were done in 12 sites and tending time studies in 8 sites. In planting time studies, different planting operations were measured and compared. In tending time studies, GPS devices were used, where area, distance and working time (productive and rest) was counted from GPS data. Average planting time for containerized seedlings in disc trenches was 10.3 seconds, while in mounds 9.2 seconds per seedling, an 11% improvement. Average planting time for bareroot seedlings in mounds was 28.3 seconds, while in trenches – 18.2 seconds, a 35% improvement. Tending in trenches was done faster than in mounds. On average, one hectare tending time in mounds was 8.4 hours, while in trenches 7.4 hours, an 11% improvement. Walked distance for 1 hectare tending in mounds was 5.4 km, 7% shorter than the distance of 5.0 km in trenches. Factors that influence planting and tending productivity are soil preparation quality, logging residue, and water level on the site. Data from planting and tending time studies could be used for better plan work activities and select suitable planting material for a particular soil preparation method.

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2339–2349 V.V. Martirosyan, Kh.A. Baluyan, M.N. Kostyuchenko, V.D. Malkina, E.V. Zhirkova and M.F. Marshalkin
Biological effect of hydroxycitric acid within a Garcinia Cambogia extract on the nutrient metabolism
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Biological effect of hydroxycitric acid within a Garcinia Cambogia extract on the nutrient metabolism

V.V. Martirosyan¹³*, Kh.A. Baluyan¹, M.N. Kostyuchenko¹, V.D. Malkina², E.V. Zhirkova⁴ and M.F. Marshalkin⁵

¹Research Institute of Baking Industry, st. B. Cherkizovskaya, d. 26 ‘a’, RU107553 Moscow, Russia
²Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K.G. Razumovsky (PKU), st. Ground Val, 73, RU109004 Moscow, Russia
³All-Russian Research Institute of Corn, st. Yermolov, 14 ‘b’, RU357528 Pyatigorsk, Russia
⁴Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Stremyanny Lane, 36, RU117997 Moscow, Russia
⁵North-Caucasian Federal University, Pyatigorsk Branch, 40 Let Octyabrya Ave. 56, RU357500 Pyatigorsk, Russia
*Correspondence: v.martirosyan@gosniihp.ru

Abstract:

Among plant supplements, which once included in a food regimen, induce a favorable evolution in persons seeking to lose some weight, Garcinia cambogia fruit containing hydroxycitric acid deserves close attention. The aim of this study consisted in the investigation of a biological effect of hydroxycitric acid within a Garcinia cambogia extract on the nutrient metabolism. The study involved the use of a Garcinia cambogia extract comprising hyroxycitric acid in the amount of 60.23%. In view of simulating the conditions of digestion, model dietary media consisting of extrusion products added with a Garcinia cambogia extract and enzymes were developed. The simulation of digestion processes in experimental model media has shown the decrease of glucose formation. Possibly hydroxycitric acid inactivates the activity of amylases, what results in the decline in the content of free monosaccharides and in the reduction of synthesis of glycerol as a fat component with the effect of an inhibited triglyceride formation. The addition of an extrusion product comprising the Garcinia cambogia extract to the diet of laboratory animals (rats) after 28 days of the experiment resulted in a reliable reduction of blood total cholesterol and triglycerides by 13% and 28%, respectively, and also in the decrease of body weight of animals by 5.8%. The investigation confirms the data available in the literature on the properties of hydroxycitric acid within a Garcinia cambogia extract, which influences the nutrient metabolism, thereby allows using brindleberry processing products for the correction of body weight.

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2350–2358 G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov
Influence of precipitation and moisture reserves on the yield of crops under different tillage
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Influence of precipitation and moisture reserves on the yield of crops under different tillage

G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova*, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology by D.I. Ivanovsky’s, Department of Ecology and Nature Management, av. Stachki 194/1, RU344090 Rostov on Done, Russia
*Correspondence: loko261008@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Tillage technologies that promote resource-saving and increase in the yield of agricultural crops are being increasingly involved into the agriculture of arid territories of Russian Federation. Studies of the impact of new tillage on soil quality and yield in Russian Federation are necessary owing to the high soils and climate diversity. Yield enhancement of major crops – winter wheat and sunflower – have been observed in Russian Federation in recent years. During 2014–2019 in the south of the European part of Russian Federation (Rostov region), the effect of No-Till (NT) on soil quality and yield of field crops was studied. The studies were carried out over an area of 5,500 hectares in comparison with adjacent fields, where conventional tillage (CT) of soils with mould board plowing was used. The yield of sunflower and winter wheat depended significantly on the amount of precipitation during the growing season. In 2014–2017 the use of No-Till increased the yield of winter wheat by 26–114%, of sunflower – by 27–92% as compared with farms, where the conventional tillage of soil treatment was used. No-Till helped to save motor fuel, increase yields of agricultural crops and lower the cost of winter wheat and sunflower.

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2359–2372 L. Nadtochii, D. Baranenko, R. Melchakov, M. Muradova, A. Istomin and A. Istomin
Investigation of fly larvae Lucilia Caesar application in pet feed composition
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Investigation of fly larvae Lucilia Caesar application in pet feed composition

L. Nadtochii¹*, D. Baranenko¹, R. Melchakov¹, M. Muradova¹, A. Istomin² and A. Istomin²

¹ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Lomonosov street 9, RU191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²Zooprotein LLC, Soviet street 64, RU398042 Lipetsk, Russia
*Correspondence: l_tochka@itmo.ru

Abstract:

The biomass of insect larvae is world-widely used as a valuable raw material for the pharmaceutical, microbiological, cosmetic industry and feeding production, also in the food industry. There is certain complex technology for processing biomass of insect larvae, which affords to isolate many physiologically active substances – chitin, antimicrobial peptides, fatty acids mixture, organic forms of mineral substances, hormones, etc.
The company New Biotechnology (Lipetsk, Russia) has developed a technical process for producing of the protein-lipid preparation (commercial name is Zooprotein) based on the fly larvae of the species Lucilia Caesar. The utilization of food waste as a substrate, unpretentiousness to cultivating environment and high protein content are capable of considering insects of the species Lucilia Caesar as a promising object of cultivation and a reliable, cheap, replenishable source of nutrients for resource-saving process of the feed production.
On the bases of ITMO University, an investigation is being conducted on the qualitative composition of the Zooprotein and the possibility of pet feed application. Cats are the most demanding animals to the quantitative and qualitative composition of protein fractions of feed. In present research an evidence-based calculation of the balance of the Zooprotein composition is presented as a feed component for cats during growth. Accordingly, the unique chemical composition of the development product based on fly larvae Lucilia Caesar makes possible to maintain that it is a promising functional ingredient in feeding rations for various animal species.

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2373–2385 S. Nouar, M. Baha, M. Latati, R. Djebbar and L. Reguieg
Short-term effect of sawdust biochar and bovine manure on the physiological behavior of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) grown in open fields in the Algiers region
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Short-term effect of sawdust biochar and bovine manure on the physiological behavior of turnip (Brassica rapa L.) grown in open fields in the Algiers region

S. Nouar¹*, M. Baha², M. Latati¹, R. Djebbar³ and L. Reguieg¹

¹National School of Agronomy, Department of Plant Productions. Laboratory of Integrated Improvement of Agricultural Productions, Laboratory of Plant Production. Rue Hassen Badi, El Harrach DZ16200 Algiers, Algeria
²National School of Higher Education (ENS), Department of General Agronomy. Laboratory of Ecobiology animal. Post box 92 old Kouba1 DZ6308 Algiers, Algeria
³Université des Sciences et Technologies Houari Boumediene Faculty of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Biology and Physiology of Organisms. Mailbox 32 El Alia Bab ezzouar DZ16111 Algiers, Algeria
*Correspondence: samnour207@gmail.com

Abstract:

This study was designed to determine the effect of different doses of biochar (B) 5.10, 20 t ha-1 alone and mixed with manure (F) 10 t ha-1 on turnips. The results showed that the OM (organic matter) rate had a maximum of 93.7% for (B20*F) and a minimum of 14.5% for (F); the CEC (cation exchange capacity) showed a maximum of 32.2% for (B10*F) and a minimum of 0.2% with (B5*F) compared to the control (T) and finally the pH to be increased with a maximum value of 11.2% for (B20*F) and a minimum value of 1.7% for (F) compared to (T) (≤ 0.01).
For the chemical parameters of the turnip, the maximum nitrogen rate was 93.8% with (B10) and 2% for (B20). The highest value for phosphorus was recorded in (F) and a minimal value in (B5) (≤ 0.01). The potassium level was high 4.2% for the treatment (B20*F) with the lowest value of 4.4% for (B5) and (B10) compared to (T) (0.05).
For the yield components, the fresh weight of the most important bulb was obtained with (F) with the value of 116.8% and minimum weight of 0.4% in the treatment (B5). The highest bulb length value was 36.8% in (F) and the lowest was 0.5% obtained with (B20*F). The bulb diameter was the largest in the treatment (F) and the smallest was 4.8% in (B20). Finally, the fresh weight of the leaves showed a maximum of 106.9% in (F) and an increase of 6% in (B20) compared to (T) (≤ 0.01).

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2386–2398 Z. Pacanoski and A. Mehmeti
Pre-emergence grass weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with soil applied premixed herbicides influenced by precipitations
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Pre-emergence grass weed control in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with soil applied premixed herbicides influenced by precipitations

Z. Pacanoski¹ and A. Mehmeti²*

¹Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food, 16-ta Makedonska brigada 3, MK1000 Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia
²University of Prishtina, Department of Plant Protection, Bill Clinton p.n., XK10000 Prishtina, Republic of Kosovo
*Corresponding address: arben.mehmeti@uni-pr.edu

Abstract:

The field trials were conducted during two winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively) to estimate weed control, and influence of herbicides on grain yield with PRE premixes in winter wheat crops. The field trials were conducted with ‘Ingenio’ and ‘Pobeda’ winter wheat cultivars which were sowed in a well-prepared soil seedbed at a seeding rate of 220 and 240 kg ha-1. The experimental design was a randomised complete block with four replicates and elementary plots 25 m2. The efficacy of PRE herbicides varied with treatments among weed species and periods of efficacy estimation, regions and years, respectively. Overall, the performance of the PRE herbicide premixes correlated with the weather conditions. All PRE herbicide premixes effectively reduced the dominant weed species Milium vernale, Papaver rhoeas, and Galium aparine in the Bitola region in 2013–2014, but not in 2014–2015 due to heavy rain during the first two weeks of herbicide application. In contrast, the limited precipitation after PRE application may have contributed to the poor performance of PRE herbicides in the Probištip region in 2013 compared with 2014. In the Bitola region, the lowest crop yield was obtained in plots treated with diflufenican + isoproturon (2,960 kg ha-1) in both growing seasons. In the Probištip region, the wheat grain yields in 2013–2014 following all PRE applied herbicides were significantly lower (between 520 and 800 kg ha-1) than weed-free control. In 2014–2015, diflufenican + isoproturon herbicide treatment produced the lowest yield of 2,530 kg ha-1, whereas chlortoluron + triasulfuronwas the highest-yielding herbicide treatment (2,820 kg ha-1). However, results indicated that in Bitola region comparatively higher yield were found in plots treated with chlortoluron + triasulfuron (3,450 kg ha-1), in both growing seasons, also in Probistip region herbicide chlortoluron + triasulfuron achieved higher yield (2,820 kg ha-1), in both growing seasons).

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2399–2416 A. Põder,,, K. Lemsalu,, M. Nurmet, and J. Lehtsaar
Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship competencies and entrepreneurial activities of alumni: A comparison between the engineering and other graduates of Estonian University of Life Sciences
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Entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship competencies and entrepreneurial activities of alumni: A comparison between the engineering and other graduates of Estonian University of Life Sciences

A. Põder¹,²,*, K. Lemsalu¹,³, M. Nurmet¹,³ and J. Lehtsaar¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences,
Kreutzwaldi street1a, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Pennsylvania State University, The Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, 207C Armsby building, University Park, PA 16802, USA
³Tartu University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Economics and Business
Administration, J. Liivi street 4, EE50409 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: anne.poder@emu.ee

Abstract:

Entrepreneurial mind-set, knowledge and skills to recognise opportunities and implement ideas are vital competences for achieving success in the midst of rapid global changes. The main purpose of the entrepreneurship education is to foster those competencies. The present paper focuses on the role of the university education in developing various entrepreneurship competences, and the share of entrepreneurs among the alumni. The aim is more specifically to examine the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship competence development in university and the later entrepreneurial activities of the engineering alumni. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey of alumni entrepreneurship conducted in 2016 as a part of a programme ‘Edu ja Tegu- Development of  entrepreneurial education throughout all educational levels’. Chi-square tests, t-tests are used to compare the engineering alumni of Estonian University of Life Sciences with graduates from other fields. The overall share of entrepreneurs among the engineering alumni was 35.6%. The entrepreneurial activities were impacted by the time of graduation. It had also impact of whether the graduates had received entrepreneurship courses during their studies. In comparison with other alumni, the engineering graduates assessed that their university education helped them develop significantly better problem-solving skills, critical thinking, self- evaluation skills, ability to develop new ideas and solutions and leadership skills and obtained significantly less entrepreneurial and financial knowledge during their studies. However, in case of engineering alumni, entrepreneurship education did not have significant impact on their entrepreneurial activities and assessments of competences, thus indicating that other factors are in play.

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2417–2427 E. Skoufogianni, K.D. Giannoulis, D. Bartzialis and N.G. Danalatos
Cost efficiency of different cropping systems encompassing the energy crop Helianthus annuus L.
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Cost efficiency of different cropping systems encompassing the energy crop Helianthus annuus L.

E. Skoufogianni, K.D. Giannoulis*, D. Bartzialis and N.G. Danalatos

University of Thessaly, Department of Agriculture, Crop Production & Rural Environment, Fytokoy street, 38443, Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: kyriakos.giannoulis@gmail.com

Abstract:

Crop rotation and green manure are the most ancient and popular cropping systems. This study sought to analyze the economic efficiency of sunflower where pea (Pisum sativum L.) either harvested or incorporated at the flowering stage in the soil before the sowing of sunflower in Europe and the final agricultural profit of such a cultivation system. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to report the production costs and to find out which of the tested cultivation system gets sunflower cultivation economically viable in Greece and in Mediterranean region. To assess the economic efficiency, three-year field experiments were established in two contrasting environments in central Greece (Trikala and Larisa) and contained three different cultivation practices using legumes comprised the main-factor (T1: control, T2: legume incorporated at the flowering stage, T3: legume incorporated after seed harvest), while nitrogen fertilization comprised the sub-factor (N1:0, N2:50, N3:100 and N4:150 kgNha-1). The results derived from this study revealed the positive effect of the legume incorporation treatment (T2: legume incorporated at the flowering stage) where the final yield increased up to 5 t ha-1 regardless region. Moreover, depending on the year the T2 treatment increases the final yield 30–50% and a yield increase was also noticed to the treatment where the legume was harvested (T3: legume incorporated after seed harvest). Therefore the introduction of this scheme into future land use systems in Greece and more generally in Mediterranean basin should be seriously taken into consideration.

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2428–2437 V. Šranková, J. Lendelová, M. Žitňák, I. Karandušovská, T. Szabóová, Š. Mihina, M. Balková and Š. Pogran
Floor temperature as a risk factor for the quality of the environment in the chickens
Abstract |
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Floor temperature as a risk factor for the quality of the environment in the chickens

V. Šranková, J. Lendelová*, M. Žitňák, I. Karandušovská, T. Szabóová, Š. Mihina, M. Balková and Š. Pogran

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Building Equipment and Technology Safety, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: jlendelovauniag@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of the work is to analyze the environmental risk factors in chicken breeding in relation to the heat load of animals in summer. The research was carried out at a breeding hall with a capacity of 20,000 ROSS 308 broiler chickens for two summer period, with a breeding time of 39 days each. The indoor air temperature and relative humidity were continuously measured at two locations at a height of 0.8 m above the floor, using PT 100 temperature sensors and RS 800 humidity sensors. Data were recorded via a PLC unit at 10-minute intervals. The surface temperatures of the floors were measured by DS 80 sensors connected to dataloggers in two locations. It was observed that the floor temperature had an increasing tendency – due to heating, heat produced by animals and anaerobic biological processes – even during the second half of the breeding period. During the period from day 26 to day 39, the surface temperature of the concrete floor, as well as the temperature of the straw bedding rise to above 30 °C. The indoor air temperature in the hall was predominantly decreasing from the 26th day with rising floor temperature tendency. Between the day 26 and day 39 of the breeding period, the average litter temperature elevation over the air temperature exceeded 7 °C. Regression analysis showed negative dependence of floor temperatures on air temperature; for a 1 K unit air temperature reduction, an average floor temperature increase of 0.75 and 1.16 K was found, respectively.

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2438–2444 A.V. Trushkov, M.Y. Odabashyan, K.Sh. Kazeev and S.I. Kolesnikov
Change of physical properties of arable chernozem in the initial period of the after agricultural abandonment regime
Abstract |
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Change of physical properties of arable chernozem in the initial period of the after agricultural abandonment regime

A.V. Trushkov*, M.Y. Odabashyan, K.Sh. Kazeev and S.I. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology named
after D.I. Ivanovsky, Stachki Ave. 194/1, RU344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
*For correspondence: trushkov_tolik@mail.ru

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the botanical garden of the South Federal University (Rostov-on-Don, Russia), which was aimed at converting the old arable land plot to the arable regime. Physical properties of chernozems were studied during the first years of the postagrogenic period in different plots, such as: a virgin steppe plot, an arable plot and an abandoned plot. During the course of the experiment it was revealed that physical properties of postagrogenic soils change due to vegetation development after tillage is discontinued. Within three years of research a biological diversity of the floristic composition in the abandoned plot increased from 9 species (during the first year) up to 38 species of plants (3 years later). Vegetation development served as a cause of changes in physical properties of chernozems. Temperature of the abandoned soils decreased along with soil moisture growth, if compared to the relevant indices of the arable plot of land. Owing to the root development and cessation of the agricultural impact, density of the upper horizon in the abandoned plot dropped by 10% on average. A positive correlation was revealed between the chernozem density and its penetration resistance (r = 0.70) and temperature (r = 0.73), whereas an inverse correlation was detected between the chernozem density and its moisture content (r = -1.0).

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2445–2454 Y. Usherenko, V. Mironovs, V. Lapkovskis, S. Usherenko and V. Gluschenkov
Powder particle flow acceleration methods for simulation of interaction with materials used in spacecrafts
Abstract |
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Powder particle flow acceleration methods for simulation of interaction with materials used in spacecrafts

Y. Usherenko¹*, V. Mironovs¹, V. Lapkovskis¹, S. Usherenko² and V. Gluschenkov³

¹Riga Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, Scientific Laboratory of Powder Materials, Kipsalas str 6A-110, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²Belarusian National Technical University, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Department of Powder Metallurgy, Welding and Material Production Technology, Nezavisimosty Ave., 65, BL220013 Minsk, Belarus
³Samara University, Moskovskoye shosse, 34, NIL-41, RU443086 Samara, Russia
*Correspondence: osher_yu@mail.ru

Abstract:

In recent decades, the role of satellites for monitoring the condition of agricultural land and forests, as well as in the study of natural resources, has especially increased. The amount of debris in near-Earth space is constantly increasing, which creates a real danger to the operation of satellites and other flying objects. The failures of satellites and spacecrafts increase the cost of their production and inhibit the development of the industry, lead to pollution of near-earth space by space debris. The U.S.-based Space Surveillance Network is currently tracking about 40,000 space objects- the vast majority of which are defunct satellites and fragments from collisions. It was estimated that there are more than 8,378 tons of junk around the Earth at speeds of up to 70 km h-1, threatening functioning spacecrafts. Development of a new method for ground-based testing of protective materials, microchips and control systems will enable to avoid further pollution of near-Earth space.
This paper discusses methods for accelerating fine particles using explosive devices and an electromagnetic field and the possibility of using them to develop and research protective materials.

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2455–2459 I. Vitázek,, T. Ondro, I. Sunitrová, R. Majdan and M. Šotnar
Thermoanalytical investigation of selected fuel during isothermal heating
Abstract |
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Thermoanalytical investigation of selected fuel during isothermal heating

I. Vitázek¹,*, T. Ondro², I. Sunitrová³, R. Majdan¹ and M. Šotnar²

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Transport and Handling, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
²Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Engineering, Zemědělská 1, CZ61300 Brno, Czech Republic
³Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Faculty of Natural Sciences,
Department of Physics, Tr. A. Hlinku 1, SK94974 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: ivan.vitazek@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The thermal decomposition of woody biomass was studied using pellets made from residual processing spruce wood (Picea abies). The samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis in the isothermal regime at the temperatures 275 °C, 300 °C, 325 °C, and 350 °C, which corresponds to the main decomposition region. The results show that the main decomposition region can be described as a volatilisation of the main constituents at a temperature higher than 300 °C. Otherwise, the results indicate, that the lignin does not decompose at lower temperatures. Therefore, it can be concluded that the heating rate is one of the most important parameters that affect the thermal decomposition of lignin and could lead to different interpretations if non-isothermal measurements are used.

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2460–2473 A. Zymaroieva, O. Zhukov, T. Fedonyuk and A. Pinkin
Application of geographically weighted principal components analysis based on soybean yield spatial variation for agro-ecological zoning of the territory
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Application of geographically weighted principal components analysis based on soybean yield spatial variation for agro-ecological zoning of the territory

A. Zymaroieva¹*, O. Zhukov², T. Fedonyuk³ and A. Pinkin⁴

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²Oles Honchar Dnipro National University, Faculty of Biology and Ecology, Department of Zoology and Ecology, pr. Gagarina, 72, UA49010 Dnipro, Ukraine
³Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Ecology and Life Safety, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
⁴Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Engineering and Power Engineering, Department of Electrification, Automation of Production and Engineering Ecology, Stary Blvd. 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nastya.zymaroeva@gmail.com

Abstract:

In this study, the geographically weighted principal components analysis as an alternative method for agro-ecological characterization of the region was provided. The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of soybean yield was analyzed by using spatial statistics technology, which provided a good reference for agricultural development planning. The soybean yield was selected for the present study because it is a comprehensive indicator reflecting the production potential of the regional agroecosystems. The organized data set, which included the average per year yields of soybean in 10 regions (206 administrative districts) of Ukraine, was used for analysis. The regular temporal trend, specific for each district, was previously extracted from the time series data. The principal components analysis of the detrended data allowed to identify four principal components, which altogether can explain 58% of the soybean yield variation. The geographically weighted principal components analysis allowed to reveal that four spatially determined processes were influencing the yield of soybeans and had the oscillatory dynamics of different periodicity. It was hypothesized that the oscillating phenomena were of ecological nature. Geographically weighted principal component analysis revealed spatial units with similar oscillatory component of soybean yield variation. Our study confirmed the hypothesis that within the studied territory there are zones with the specific patterns of the temporal dynamics of soybean yield, which are uniform within each area but qualitatively different between zones. The territorial clusters within which the temporal dynamics of soybean yield is identical can be considered as agro-ecological zones for soybean cultivation.

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