Volume 18 (2020)
  Number 2

Full text of the journal: Volume 18 Number 2

Contents


Pages

314–323 T. Ahmadi, C.A. Casas Díaz, Y.E. García Vera and N. Escobar Escobar
A prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga Municipality. Colombia
Abstract |
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A prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga Municipality. Colombia

T. Ahmadi¹*, C.A. Casas Díaz¹, Y.E. García Vera¹ and N. Escobar Escobar²

¹Universidad de Cundinamarca, Facultad de Ingeniería, Diagonal 18 No. 20-29, Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
²Universidad de Cundinamarca, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Diagonal 18 No. 20-29, Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
*Correspondence: tahmadi@ucundinamarca.edu.co

Abstract:

Crop and animal production generate a high level of organic waste that causes negative effects on the environment and communities. The use of composting processes can improve the quality of these biowastes. Additionally, the application of technologies such as telemetry and remote sensors, allows optimizing the transformation of organic matter in a more controlled and efficient way. The city of Fusagasugá is well known in agriculture. However, it lacks sustainable management of the organic waste system.
In this study, after a three-dimensional electromechanical design, a prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga municipality will provide. The capacity of this prototype reactor is considered to be 20 litres. In order to control temperature and humidity of biowastes in different working conditions, it is used A PI controller with 3 temperature and a humidity sensors. With these sensors the compost materials temperature and humidity will remain at 65 °C and 55–60%. By using a special form of temperature sensor placement, the time to oxygenate the compost materials will be found. Furthermore, this system is integrated by a Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which allows the supervision and manipulation from a remote access user.

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324–345 K. Andersson, J. Eklund and A. Rydberg
Lean-inspired development work in agriculture: Implications for the work environment
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Lean-inspired development work in agriculture: Implications for the work environment

K. Andersson¹²³*, J. Eklund¹³ and A. Rydberg²

¹KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Division of Ergonomics, Hälsovägen 11C, SE-141 57 Huddinge, Sweden
²RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Division of Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food, Box 7033, SE-750 50 Uppsala, Sweden
³HELIX - Competence Centre, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
*Correspondence: karin.andersson@ri.se

Abstract:

Farmers operate in a turbulent environment that includes international competition, weather conditions and animal behaviour, for example, and is difficult for them to control. However, economy and productivity always have a high priority. As a consequence, farms have started to implement lean-inspired work systems. At the same time, health and safety are of urgent concern in the sector. This article explores how famers apply lean-inspired work processes. It identifies work environment changes during and after a lean implementation, as well as possible developments in the work environment following implementation of the lean philosophy. Data were collected from three groups: lean, lean-light and development-inclined reference farms (in total 54 farms), using a questionnaire and interviews. The results indicate that a majority of the lean farms were applying several lean principles and tools, and the lean philosophy. The lean-light farms applied parts of the lean concept, while the reference farms applied some of the more general tools, used in lean and elsewhere, such as visualisation in various forms and to various extents. The results showed positive effects of lean on the psychosocial work environment, better work structure and improved information, communication and co-operation. The physical work environment was improved to some extent by lean, where advantages such as a more structured and practical work environment with less physical movements and locomotion could be noticed. The lean concept provided a more structured and systematic approach to dealing with work and production environmental issues, for managers as well as for employees.

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346–359 P. Barbaś and B. Sawicka
Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation
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Dependence of potato yield on weed infestation

P. Barbaś¹* and B. Sawicka²

¹Department Agronomy of Potato, Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute, Jadwisin Research Center; Szaniawskiego street 15, PL05-140 Serock, Poland
²University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Plant Production and Commodities Science, Akademicka street 15, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
*Correspondence: p.barbas@ihar.edu.pl

Abstract:

Results of the research were based on a field experiment carried out in 2007–2009 at the Experimental Plant of the IHAR-PIB in Jadwisin, on podzolic soil with a granulometric composition of loamy sand. The experiment was established by means of a random sub-block method in a dependent split-plot pattern, in triplicate. The first order factor were the potato cultivars: ‘Irga’ and ‘Fianna’, the second order factor were the methods of weeds regulation: 1) control − without chemical protection; 2) extensive mechanical treatments (every 2 weeks) from planting to closing the rows; 3) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 before potato emergence; 4) Sencor 70 WG – 1 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 40 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% before potato emergence; 5) Sencor 70 WG – 0.5 kg ha-1 after potato emergence; 6) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Titus 25 WG – 30 g ha-1 + Trend 90 EC – 0.1% after potato emergence; 7) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Fusilade Forte 150 EC – 2 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence; 8) Sencor 70 WG – 0.3 kg ha-1 + Apyros 75 WG 26.5 g ha-1 + Atpolan 80 SC – 1 dm3 ha-1 after potato emergence. The number, floristic compositions, fresh weight and dry matter of weeds were determined. A high, yield-protective effect of herbicides was obtained as a result of limited competition of weeds. Mechanical care contributed to the increase in the total potato yield by 36.2%, and the marketable yield by 45.7%, as compared to the control object.

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360-375 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, S. Kiurchev, S. Pascuzzi, M. Arak, F. Santoro, A.S. Anifantis and J. Olt
The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture
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The theory of vibrational wave movement in drying grain mixture

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, S. Kiurchev², S. Pascuzzi³, M. Arak⁴, F. Santoro³, A.S. Anifantis³ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv UA 03041, Ukraine
²Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT70125 Bari, Italy
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

This paper outlines a theory that involves the vibrational wave transportation of bulk grain during the course of passing that grain under an infrared radiation source, in a working thermal radiation drying chamber, and using a vibrational wave transporter belt that has been developed by the authors of this paper. The main outstanding feature of the proposed design is the presence of mechanical off-centre vibration drives which generate the vibration in the working rollers at a preset amplitude and frequency, thereby generating a mechanical wave on the surface of the flexible transporter belt which ensures the movement of bulk grain along the processing zone which itself is being subjected to infrared radiation. A calculation method was developed for the oscillation system that is used in conjunction with the vibrational transportation of the grain mass, in order to be able to determine the forces that may be present in the vibrational system and to prepare the differential calculations for the movement of the vibrational drive’s actuators, utilising for this purpose Type II Lagrange equations. The solving of the aforementioned integral equations on a PC yielded a number of graphical dependencies in terms of kinetic and dynamic parameters for the vibrational system described above; the analysis of those dependencies provided a rational structural, along with kinetic and dynamic indicators. According to the results that were taken from theoretical and experimental studies on the functioning of the developed infrared grain dryer combined with a vibrational exciter, stable movement for its working roller takes place if the angular velocity of a drive shaft is changed within the range of between 50–80 rads–1, whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. It has been discovered that a rational speed when transporting soy seeds during infrared drying falls between the range of between 0.15–0.60 cm s-1, whereas the amplitude of the indicated oscillations falls within the range of 3.0–4.0 mm. An increase of this parameter within the stated limits increases the time that it takes to achieve the stage in which a constant drying soy speed is reached by more than 2.5 times (from 205 seconds to 520 seconds), stabilising the figure at a level of 520 seconds, which makes it possible to recommend a range of transport speeds of between 0.15–0.40 cm s–1 under infrared radiation for the seeds in order to achieve the required moisture content with a single pass of the produce on the wave transporter.
With that in mind, the power consumption levels for the vibrational exciter do not exceed 50W, while the angular velocity of the drive shaft’s rotation falls within the range of between 100–120 rads–1. The results of the experimental study that has been conducted indicated that a rational transportation speed for the soy seeds on the wave transporter under infrared radiation is between 0.15–0.40 cm s–1.

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376–392 D. Chodová and E. Tůmová
Insects in chicken nutrition. A review
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Insects in chicken nutrition. A review

D. Chodová* and E. Tůmová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Animal Science, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: chodova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Increasing chicken meat production needs an alternative and easily available protein source as a potentional substitute for soybean meal or fishmeal. The insect meals seem to be the most appropriate alternative. Of all insect species, Tenebrio molitor, Hermetia illucens and Musca domestica are the most suitable species for commercial exploitation in poultry feed. On the basis of numerous studies, insect meals contain sufficient nutrients (high quality protein and fat) for broiler production. Potential of insect meals used for feed of chickens is discussed based on published data. Many reviews summarizing the latest insights about the insect meals as an alternative protein source in poultry have been written. However, the present work describes not only the insect production, nutritional value and digestibility of the insect meals, but mainly the effect on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of chickens fed insect meals, which has not been in any review summarized yet. The study describes also the risks and safety of the insect meals. Based on numerous studies, insect meals can have a positive influence on growth without negative impact on carcass and meat quality characteristics.

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393–403 D. Derevjanko, I. Holovach, V. Bulgakov, V. Kuvachev and, J. Olt
Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds
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Theoretical and experimental research into impact of threshing tools in combine grain harvesters on quality of cereal crop seeds

D. Derevjanko¹, I. Holovach², V. Bulgakov², V. Kuvachev³ and, J. Olt⁴*

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, 7, Staryi Blvd, UA 10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony street, UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51006 Tartu, , Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The theoretical and experimental research into the micro-damaging of cereal crop seeds in the process of their harvesting by combine grain harvesters in relation to the strains, forces and stresses imparted to them by the threshing tools has been carried out. The propagation of deformations and cracks in the seeds as well as the nature of their strength and the damage that is sustained, when the critical load is applied, have been investigated. It has been established that the onset of cracks, the direction of their propagation and their quantity in the bodies of grain seeds depends in the majority of cases on the direction of action of the external forces and the specifics of the seeds’ internal biological properties. It has been established that the strength of the grain seed is, apart from the arisen cracks, also under the significant effect of the microtraumas in the germ, endosperm as well as the seed coat and shell. Theoretical calculations have been carried out on the PC and the effect that the drum and rotor threshing apparatus have on the deformation and damage sustained by cereal crop seeds has been substantiated. The said calculations and the obtained graphic relations support the results of the experimental investigations and prove that the macro- and especially micro-damage sustained by the seeds of winter wheat and rye is different, when they are threshed with the use of different types of threshing apparatus, which has a considerable impact on the final quality of the harvested cereal crop seeds. The results obtained in the experimental investigations, field and laboratory tests on the topic of the effect of mechanical loading on the sustained damage and quality of seeds indicate that the damage rate accounted for the work processes of the reaping and postharvest treatment of the cereal crop heaps of different winter wheat varieties with the use of rotor threshing apparatus is 3.1% as compared to the drum threshing apparatus – 6.4%, that is, 2 times lower. The total amount of the seeds with microtraumas collected in the hopper after threshing amounts to 23.0% and 54.0%, respectively, which is a significant difference. Similar results have been obtained in the experimental investigations on the effect of the equipment on the sustained damage and quality of seeds in the cleaning, chemical treatment and sowing of cereal crops.

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404–409 S.B. Ismuratov, T.V. Bedych, T.I. Gluchshenko, D.S. Ismuratov and V.S Kukhar,
Production of bioethanol from biomass in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan
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Production of bioethanol from biomass in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan

S.B. Ismuratov¹, T.V. Bedych¹, T.I. Gluchshenko², D.S. Ismuratov³ and V.S Kukhar⁴,*

¹M. Dulatov Kostanay Engineering and Economic University, Department of Energy
and Mechanical Engineering, 59 Chernyshevskogo Str., KZ110000, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
²A. Baitursynov Kostanay State University, Agricultural and Technical Institute,
Department of Energetics, Str., Baitursynova 47, KZ110000, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
³Almaty Management University, Doctoral PhD, Str., Rozybakieva 227, KZ050060 Almaty, Kazakhstan
⁴Ural State Agrarian University, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Street Karl
Liebknecht 42, RU620075, Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract:

This article describes using renewable energy for bioethanol production. Kostanay Region is a developed agricultural region. Most part of its area is under grain crops and corn, oil crops and vegetables. In the course of production, transportation, storage and processing of agricultural crops, a large part of them becomes unsuitable for use; in future they cannot be used for the intended purpose. Substandard product often stays in the fields to rot or is thrown away. Information considered in this article demonstrates that agricultural waste can be used to produce rather inexpensive bioethanol. Most part of the population in this region is rural. Settlements are far apart from each. It would be reasonable to use bioethanol as a source of electric and thermal energy to meet the needs of rural residents and infrastructure. Wastes from bioethanol production can be used for feeding animal stock what is also important for rural areas and reduces environmental burden. In the course of human life, solid waste is formed that is suitable for producing bioethanol, and consequently, for generating thermal and electric energy. Presented calculations show the feasibility of processing municipal solid waste into bioethanol. EU countries successfully use researches performed by their scientists for developing technologies for the production of bioethanol and synthetic fuels. Kazakhstan, with its experience in cultivation
of oilseeds and required planted area, can successfully develop bioethanol industry. No researches in this respect have been conducted to this day in Kazakhstan. Using bioethanol provides
consumers with their own energy sources that meet quality standards, thereby increasing energy security of region, reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere, and creating small-scale energy enterprises where rural residents can work.

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410–421 A. Jansons, J. Dzenis, R. Matisons, V. Samariks and B. Jansone
Intra-annual height growth dynamics of Scots and lodgepole pines and its relationship with meteorological parameters in central Latvia
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Intra-annual height growth dynamics of Scots and lodgepole pines and its relationship with meteorological parameters in central Latvia

A. Jansons¹*, J. Dzenis², R. Matisons¹, V. Samariks¹ and B. Jansone¹³

¹Latvian State Forest Institute ‘Silava’, Rigas 111, LV 2169 Salaspils, Latvia
²Nature Conservation Agency, Baznīcas 7, LV 2150 Sigulda, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Forestry Faculty, Liela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: aris.jansons@silava.lv

Abstract:

The Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the second-most widely used tree species in forestry in Latvia and is the only species used for afforestation on nutrient poor soils that cover considerable forest land in Latvia. Several studies have shown that, in such conditions, the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) may be more productive in terms of biomass and yield. It is important to consider climate change studies to assess the potential for a larger-scale use of the lodgepole pine in forestry. The aim was to assess the intra-annual height growth patterns of both species, the differences between them, and the influence of meteorological parameters on their height growth. Their height growth was monitored on a weekly basis in two sampling sites in central Latvia, and the height increment curves were described by Gompertz’s model. The height growth dynamics of individual trees and species differed notably, indicating the potential for the selection of the best-adapted genotypes. Our results indicate that the early onset of the active growth phase might be the most important factor determining the total height increment for both species. Temperature-related meteorological parameters were the only ones with a statistically significant influence on pines height growth and only when at least one of the variables were standardised prior to the analysis. A temperature increase had a slightly stronger positive effect on the growth of the lodgepole pine, indicating that it might be suitable for more intensive use in forestry under the climate change scenarios for Latvia.

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422–431 I. Kakabouki, A. Tzanidaki, A. Folina, I. Roussis, E. Tsiplakou, P. Papastylianou, P. Kanatas and D.J. Bilalis,
Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) fodder yield and quality as affected by cutting frequency
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Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) fodder yield and quality as affected by cutting frequency

I. Kakabouki¹, A. Tzanidaki¹, A. Folina¹, I. Roussis¹, E. Tsiplakou², P. Papastylianou¹, P. Kanatas¹ and D.J. Bilalis¹,*

¹Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Crop Production, 75 Iera Odos Str., GR11855 Athens, Greece
²Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Nutritional Physiology and Feeding, 75 Iera Odos Str., GR11855 Athens, Greece

Abstract:

Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) is a well-adapted, fast-growing crop with competitive forage quality as its nutritive value for livestock fodder is similar to other grasses utilized as hay or ensiled feeds. Two field experiments were conducted from May to October 2017 in order to determine the effect of cutting frequency on yield and quality of teff (Eragrostis tef) as fodder crop under Mediterranean climatic conditions. The agronomic performance and nutritive value of teff was analyzed in order to define alternatives to local forages for animal feeding in the Mediterranean region. The experiments conducted at two sites (Western and Central Greece) were laid out in a completely randomized design with three replicates and three cutting frequencies (10, 20, 30 days’ interval between cuttings – F10, F20, and F30, respectively). The results of this study demonstrate that the cutting interval has a marked effect on the fodder yield and quality. The highest total dry matter yield (6,322–6,778 kg ha-1) was found in F10 treatment. In terms of qualitative characteristics, the highest fat levels and lowest ADF levels was found in F30 treatment, the highest protein levels and the lowest NDF levels in F10 treatment, and the highest levels of fibrous substances, ADF and NDF, in F20 treatment. Data suggest that teff could be successfully integrated into Mediterannean grasslands with the prospect for improving their nutritional quality and the possibility for increasing protein yield through the application of frequent cuttings.

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432–449 S. Karydogianni, M.K. Darawsheh, I. Kakabouki, Ch. Zisi, A.E. Folina, I. Roussis, Z. Tselia1 and D. Bilalis,
Effect of nitrogen fertilizations, with and without inhibitors, on cotton growth and fiber quality
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Effect of nitrogen fertilizations, with and without inhibitors, on cotton growth and fiber quality

S. Karydogianni¹, M.K. Darawsheh², I. Kakabouki¹, Ch. Zisi¹, A.E. Folina¹, I. Roussis¹, Z. Tselia1 and D. Bilalis¹,*

¹Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of
Agronomy, 75 Iera Odos Str., GR11855 Athens, Greece
²Hellenic Agricultural Organization - Demeter/Institute of Industrial & Forage Crops - National Cotton Classification Centre, 1st km Karditsa-Mitropili, Gr43100 Karditsa,
Greece

Abstract:

Considering cotton, one of the most non environmentally friendly crops, new types of fertilizers, such as the urease inhibitor, are now being used for fertilization. Furthermore, the need of increasing the nutrient use efficiency which is an important contributor to yield has arisen. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of four different urea combinations (Urea, Urea+NI+UI, Urea+NI, Urea+UI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yield and fiber traits. For this purpose, different inhibitors used on urea fertilizer such as nitrification inhibitor (NI), dicyandiamide (DCD), urease inhibitor (UI), N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide, and a combination of urease (UI) and nitrification inhibitor (NI) (double inhibitor). Additionally, Nitrogen indicators were also used to evaluate the efficiency of these combinations. Two field experiments were conducted in Agrinio and Copaida region, Central Greece during 2019. The total dry weight ranged from 13,027 to 14,481 kg ha-1 in Agrinio area and from 12,567 to 14,136 kg ha-1 in Copaida area. The highest seed cotton yield was recorded under Urea+NI+UI fertilization at 5,145 kg ha-1 application in Copaida area and 5,318 kg ha-1 application in Agrinio area. Also, the total plant nitrogen uptake (kg N ha-1) was affected by the inhibitors NI and UI. The range for Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency (NUtE) index was 9.27 to 23.06. Moreover, results indicated that NI and UI inhibitors have a marked effect on fiber quality such as strength (g Tex-1). In the Mediterranean region of Greece, the combined use of inhibitors UI and NI resulted in higher yield and finest fiber quality.

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450–460 M. Khajbullin, G. Kadaeva, B. Akhiyarov, A. Valitov and R. Gajfullin
The quality of spring rape seeds and its dependence on the doses of mineral fertilizers under the conditions of Southern Urals
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The quality of spring rape seeds and its dependence on the doses of mineral fertilizers under the conditions of Southern Urals

M. Khajbullin¹*, G. Kadaeva², B. Akhiyarov², A. Valitov³ and R. Gajfullin⁴

¹Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Soil science, botany and plant breeding, 50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
²Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Crop production, plant breeding and biotechnology, 50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
³Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Plant growing and agriculture,50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, 450001, Ufa, Russia
⁴Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Bashkir State Agrarian University, Department of Crop production and agriculture,50-letiya Octyabrya Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
*Correspondence: khaibullinmuhamet@rambler.ru

Abstract:

Spring rape is a high-marginal crop that can be used in different areas of the national economy. Despite this, the area used for sowing this crop in the Russian Federation is still small, and the quality of its seeds does not always meet the standards. The purpose of the research is to identify the most effective doses of mineral fertilizers that allow obtaining the planned harvest of high-quality spring rape seeds in the southern forest-steppe of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The paper presents the results of triennial field researches (2016–2018) on the effect of mineral fertilizers on some indicators of the quality of spring rape seeds of the Iubileynyi variety. The research was carried out in the educational and scientific center of Bashkir State Agrarian University (Ufa, the Russian Federation) on leached black soils of heavy loam granulometric composition. The positive effect of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers on the object of interest was evident. Fertilization increased the spring rape yield capacity and its oil content by 0.34–0.51 t ha-1 and 0.1–1.8%, respectively. The yield of oil per hectare also increased. The use of fertilizers increased the content of nitrogen and potassium, averaging over three years 3.32–3.36% and 1.00–1.03%, respectively. The use of fertilizers did not significantly effect the content of phosphorus. The content of phosphorus did not exceed 1.74–1.79%. Crude protein content was 19.4–19.6% for researched period.

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461–471 O.A. Kiseleva,, O.G. Loretts and D.V. Veselkin
Seed size and cold stratification affect Acer negundo and Acer ginnala seeds germination
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Seed size and cold stratification affect Acer negundo and Acer ginnala seeds germination

O.A. Kiseleva¹,*, O.G. Loretts² and D.V. Veselkin³

¹Institute Botanic Garden, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
street 8 March 202 A, RU620144 Yekaterinburg, Russia
2Ural State Agrarian University, street Karl Liebknecht 42, RU620075, Yekaterinburg,
Russia
³Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
street 8 March 202, 620144 Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to determine how the germination of seeds of the invasive tree Acer negundo depends on the period of cold stratification under the snow and the duration of stratification in the air on the branches of the trees. For comparison with A. negundo, we used seeds of Acer ginnala, introduced but not invasive tree in the Middle Urals. The period of stratification in the air modeled by collecting seeds in October and December. The duration of cold stratification under the snow was 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months. We hypothesized that the duration of stratification in the air did not affect the germination of A. negundo and A. ginnala seeds. Cold stratification under the snow had a positive effect on seed germination of both species. The best seed germination of A. negundo and A. ginnala was after 4 months of cold stratification under the snow, the germination rate differs: in A. negundo 12 ± 4% (small seeds) and 79 ± 7% (large seeds), in A. ginnala – 1 ± 2% (small seeds) and 18 ± 4% (large seeds). In both species, large seeds germinated at 7 to 18 times more intensively than small ones. In A. ginnala case, even after cold stratification under snow for 4 months, no more than 22% of the seeds germinated. The germination of A. ginnala seeds was 4–5 times lower than that of A. negundo seeds.

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472–482 I. Kuznetsov,, F. Davletov, N. Anokhina, I. Akhmadullina and F. Safin
Influence of weather condtion on the field peas (PisumsativumL.ssp. sativum) vegetation period and yield
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Influence of weather condtion on the field peas (PisumsativumL.ssp. sativum) vegetation period and yield

I. Kuznetsov¹,*, F. Davletov², N. Anokhina¹, I. Akhmadullina¹ and F. Safin¹

¹Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State Agrarian University”, Department ofPlant Growing, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 50 Anniversary of October Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia
²Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Bashkir State Agrarian University”, Laboratory of Biochemical Analysis and Biotechnology, 50 Anniversary of October Str., 34, RU450001 Ufa, Russia

Abstract:

Field pea (Pisumsativum L. ssp. sativum) is a universal pulse crop. One of the actual problems in its production is the influence of weather condition on the variability of pea economic characters and its properties. The purpose of the research (2009–2018) was to compare the vegetation period and interstage periods of the Hangildin and Chishminskiy 229 pea varieties with weather condition and seed yield. According to the results of the conducted research, it can be seen that the duration of the vegetation period and the yield of field pea grain was influenced by weather condition. The average daily air temperature affected the duration of the sowingsprouting period in pea varieties Hangildin and Chishminskiy 229. The duration of the two periods (sprouting-flowering and flowering-ripeness) was influenced by features of the used varieties and the temperature condition (r = -0.472, the link is significant and r = -0.788). The duration of the sprouting-ripeness period depended on the average daily temperatures (r = -0.481), the amount of precipitation (r = 0.937), and the HTC (hydrothermal coefficient) (r = 0.927). Precipitation increased the duration of the full vegetation period (r = 0.892). On average, over 10 years of research on field pea it should be noted that there wasa close relationship between the duration of its vegetation period (r = 0.844), the duration of the flowering-ripeness period (r = 0.679) and the yield of seeds. The relationship between the seed yield and the sowing – sprouting period (r = 0.451) and between the seed yield and the sprouting – flowering period (r = 0.446) was revealed. The connection was found positive. The connection with the average daily air temperature of this period was negative (r = -0.213). The results of the research can be successfully used during cultivation of domestic and foreign varieties of field pea. In international practice, the results of this experiment can be successfully applied in selective improvement of field pea and the development of new, high-tech varieties.

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483–493 L.G. Muhamedyarova, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova
Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain
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Influence of bio-humus on soil fertility, productivity and environmental safety of spring wheat grain

L.G. Muhamedyarova*, M.A. Derkho, G.V. Meshcheriakova, O.A. Gumenyuk and S.S. Shakirova

Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education ‘South-Urals State Agrarian University’, Department of natural Sciences, RU457100, Chelyabinsk region, Troitsk, Russia
*Correspondence: muhamedyarovaliliya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The influence of bio humus on chemical indicators of the arable layer of soil, productivity and ecological safety indicators of spring wheat of ‘Chelyaba – 75’ variety during the period of 2017–2019 were studied. The object of research was samples of the soil arable layer from the control and experimental field, the structure of wheat yield from control and experimental plots. Bio humus aqueous extract was introduced in the soil of the experimental field before wheat sowing and in the phase of spring tillering at the rate of 10 L/200 L /1 hm2 using the trailer sprayer ‘Zarya’ (Russia) during the dark hours of day.
In the study of soil and grain samples, generally accepted methods and techniques were used. It is established that regular chernozems under the conditions of technogenic impact of emissions of thermal power plants are characterized by low humus content (4.58–4.60%) and weak acid reaction of medium (pH = 6.1–6.5); imbalance between biochemically active (copper, zinc, cobalt) and toxic (lead, nickel, cadmium) elements, as confirmed by soil contamination coefficients: for copper (C0 = 1.50–1.58), zinc (C0 = 0.79–0.85). The introduction of bio humus in the tilth top soil before sowing and during tillering of spring wheat contributed to the increase in humus composition by 1.88 times, the change in acidity to pH = 6.9–7.0, reduction of lead and cadmium concentrations in 1.63 and 1.20 times against the background of increased zinc and cobalt levels by 15.62% and 7.98%; increase of field germination of spring wheat from 75.0 ± 0.4 to 82.0 ± 0.9%; quantity of developed stems to be harvested per 1 m2 by 10.15%, productive tilling capacity by 8.33%, average quantity of spikes per ear by 20.00%, average quantity of grain per ear by 7.69%, mass of 1,000 grains by 16.12%, and wheat yield increase by 10.2 hwt ha-1 and decrease in spring wheat grain concentration of lead and cadmium at 14.00 and 16.00%.

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494–506 S.V. Murashev, S.D. Kiru, V.G. Verzhuk and A.V. Pavlov
Potato plant growth acceleration and yield increase after treatment with an amino acid growth stimulant
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Potato plant growth acceleration and yield increase after treatment with an amino acid growth stimulant

S.V. Murashev¹, S.D. Kiru²*, V.G. Verzhuk³ and A.V. Pavlov³

¹ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Lomonosova street 9, RU191002 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Saint-Petersburg Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnologies, soil science and ecology, Department of Plant Production named I.A. Stebut, Peterburgskoe highway 2, RU196601 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
³N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), Bolshaya Morskaya street 42–44, RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: s.kiru53@mail.ru

Abstract:

An increase in the productivity of potato plants and natural resistance of tubers to external influences during growth, while preserving the qualitatively new properties of tubers in the process of low-temperature preservation, can be achieved through the effect of bioactive compounds on the metabolism of potato plants in our work, we used a regulator derived from the hydrolysis of natural collagen down to low molecular weight fractions and pure glycine. The evidence of its effectiveness is based on shortening the growing season and increasing plant productivity as well as the content of bioactive and nutrient compounds in their storage organs, reducing losses during low-temperature preservation caused by natural biological processes, physiological diseases and damage by microorganisms. The paper deals with issues related to the growth and development of potato plants and their storage organs until the growing season is over and a possible increase of potato productivity after the planting material was treated with an amino acid growth regulator.

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507–515 S. Rakutko, A. Avotiņš, I. Alsina and K. Berzina
New assessment tool for artificial plant lighting: case of tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.)
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New assessment tool for artificial plant lighting: case of tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.)

S. Rakutko¹, A. Avotiņš², I. Alsina³ and K. Berzina²

¹Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, branch in Saint Petersburg, Tyarlevo, Pushkinsky distr., RU196625 St. Petersburg, Russia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Kalku street 1, LV-1658 Riga, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant and Soil Science, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia

Abstract:

Growing crops under artificial conditions need a very favourable environment, especially the spectral composition of radiation influencing the plant biometry greatly. The study objective was to find how to assess the closeness of real growing conditions to the optimal ones using a single coefficient, which would reflect several time dependencies of individual growth indicators. The plant growth friendliness factor (KG)was proposed for this purpose. Tomato transplants (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill., ‘Polonaise F1’) were grown in a peat substrate under two lighting systems with different light quality.One system consisted of eight fluorescent lamps OSRAM L58W / 840 LUMILUX Cool White and eight lamps L58W / 77 FLUORA mounted on the standard frame, alternating the lamp types (Type I spectrum).In the other lighting system, the PCB Star LEDs with wavelengths of red 630 nm and far-red 735 nm were added(Type II spectrum). The irradiance level was maintained at 140 μmol m-2 s-1, the photoperiod was 16 h. The ratio of long-wave flux to the total flux KL was calculated for these lighting systems (0.37 rel.units for Type I spectrum and 0.50 rel.units for Type II spectrum) and KG factor was determined by the proposed formula. The value of KG was found to be twice as small for Type I spectrum than for Type II spectrum. The significant difference in biometric parameters of tomato transplants grown under Type I and Type II spectra was revealed. The plants grown in the environment characterized by higher KG, were higher; they had more significant wet mass and stem neck diameter.

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516–528 M. Rasva and E. Jürgenson
Changes of agricultural producers in Estonia according to the size of land use
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Changes of agricultural producers in Estonia according to the size of land use

M. Rasva* and E. Jürgenson

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Chair of Geomatics, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006, Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: marii.rasva@emu.ee

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the changes in Estonian agricultural producers according to the size of the land use. To present the situation in Estonian agriculture, and its recent changes, Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB) data from 2011 and 2016 is used. This data shows that agricultural land use area per producer has gone up in Estonia and most of the agricultural land is used by agricultural producers in size groups 400–< 1,000 ha and > 1,000 ha. This means that there is a situation in Estonia, where small number of agrucultural producers are using large area of agricultural land. For excample, the largest agricultural producer was using 27% of agricultural land located in Türi municipality in 2016. As the outcome of the study shows that in Estonia, there is the trend of farm size growth and there is a need to find out if this model of agricultural production guarantees us food and future of sustainability.

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543–553 D.S. Sattarov,, S.Kh. Vyshegurov2 and R.R. Galeev2
Monitoring the species diversity of medicinal plants typical for the south slope of Hissar Ridge / Tajikistan /
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Monitoring the species diversity of medicinal plants typical for the south slope of Hissar Ridge / Tajikistan /

D.S. Sattarov¹,*, S.Kh. Vyshegurov2 and R.R. Galeev2

¹Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Republican Center for Genetic
Resources, Rudaki Avenue, 21/1, TJ734000 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
2Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Novosibirsk
State Agrarian University”, Street Dobrolyubova, 160, RU630039 Novosibirsk, Russia

Abstract:

This paper is a summary of literature reviews concerning the diversity of medicinal plants and the results of our many years studies. It includes scientific and practical justifications of the importance of monitoring species diversity of the studied object. Results of monitoring the species composition of wild medicinal plants in some areas of the southern slope of the Gissar Range are specified. As a result of studying 11 gorges (Gazhne, Safedchashma, Gusgarf, Shamal, Obi-Zugora, Gulobod, Yos, Yavroz, Semiganch, Odzhuk, Magov), 174 species of medicinal plants were found that belong to different botanical taxa. This number of plants includes representatives of 106 genera belonging to 46 families, among which representatives of the aster family predominate: Asteraceae (36 species), Rosaceae (19 species), Lamiaceae (16 species), etc. Compared with the number of known plants growing within the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, the number of species found was 11.6%. In relation to the number of plants that are recognized as medicinal in the world, species diversity of the southern slopes of Gissar Range is less than one percent. However, the number of species is comparable to locations with similar climatic conditions.

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554–566 I. Sepelevs, J. Zagorska and R. Galoburda
A food-grade antioxidant production using industrial potato peel by–products
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A food-grade antioxidant production using industrial potato peel by–products

I. Sepelevs*, J. Zagorska and R. Galoburda

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Department of Food Technology,
22 Rigas street, LV–3004 Jelgava, Latvia

Abstract:

Currently, industrial potato processing waste recycling and re–use is an important topic in the food industry, but no actual processing facilities could be found at the moment of this study. The main aim of present research was to develop a method that could, potentially, be practically applicable for industrial potato peel waste recycling into encapsulated phenolic compounds (fine powder), with a further approbation as an antioxidant for ground pork meat. Potato peel wastes were collected from the local potato processing facility, homogenized in the solvent media, and two accelerated extraction technologies (microwave assisted (MAE) and ultrasound accelerated extractions) were applied for the extraction of biologically active compounds and encapsulation wall material. Produced extracts were concentrated (recovered solvent had been collected and reused) and directed for spray-drying. In general, MAE alone showed higher extraction yields than in combinations with ultrasound treatment. Extracts reached maximal biologically active compound concentrations (and were possessing highest radical scavenging activities) after 10 min of MAE treatment. Produced capsules (food grade antioxidant) inhibited ground pork meat lipid oxidation during the storage study at accelerated oxidation conditions. Acquired results form a basis for development of a potato peel industrial scale processing technology.

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567–578 P. Svoboda, I. Raimanová, R. Duffková, P. Fučík, G. Kurešová and J. Haberle
The effects of irrigation on root density profiles of potato, celery, and wheat
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The effects of irrigation on root density profiles of potato, celery, and wheat

P. Svoboda¹, I. Raimanová¹, R. Duffková², P. Fučík², G. Kurešová¹ and J. Haberle¹*

¹Crop Research Institute, v.v.i, Drnovská 507, CZ161 06 Praha 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute for Soil and Water Conservation, v.v.i., Žabovřeská 250, CZ15600 Praha 5 - Zbraslav, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: haberle@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Irrigation rate should correspond to the effective root depth, however, crop root growth is influenced by a number of factors, and little data is available on the impact of irrigation. This contribution presents the results of several experiments in which the influence of sprinkler or drip irrigations on root density distribution of shallow, medium and deep rooted crops within the soil profile were studied. Irrigation significantly increased the root density of potato, celery, and wheat in the topsoil zone. On the contrary, at most cases there was only a slightly reduced root density in the subsoil layers. Total root length, to maximum root depth, only increased significantly with drip irrigation in potato. The root depths of these crops were not significantly modified by irrigation. The results suggest that the use of a constant value for the calculation of maximum irrigation depth in a specific crop may not correspond to the variability of root depth nor the distribution in different years or fields.

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579–594 A. Széles, and L. Huzsvai
Modelling the effect of sowing date on the emergence, silking and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in a moderately warm and dry production area
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Modelling the effect of sowing date on the emergence, silking and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in a moderately warm and dry production area

A. Széles¹,* and L. Huzsvai²

¹University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology, Böszörményi út 138, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary
²University of Debrecen, Faculty of Economics and Business, Institute of Statistics and Methodology, Böszörményi str. 138, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary

Abstract:

This research focused on accurately modelling emergence (VEEmergence) and silking (R1) dates using 5 cm deep soil temperature (ST) and how sowing date (SD) affects VEEmergence and R1 date of different maturity hybrids and which is the optimum sowing date in the changed climate. Three sowing dates were used between 4th April and 10th May. The same maize hybrids (FAO 290, FAO 350, FAO 420) were involved in the experiment between 2011–2013. The 5 cm deep soil temperature could be used for simulating the date of VEEmergence and R1 and the Percentage of Predicted Deviation (PD) was below 10%. When calculating the effective heat units (HU) at 5 cm depth, setting 6 °C as base temperature leads to better modelling. SD did not clearly affect yield since due to the influence of genotype and crop years. The FAO 290 hybrid had the lowest yield (11.534 t ha-1) and it responded sensitively to sowing date. Its highest yield (12.788 t ha-1; P < 0.05) could be obtained with SD3. FAO 350 and FAO 420 hybrids provided stable yields without any significant effect of SD. The highest yield was provided by the FAO 420 hybrid (13.494 t ha-1) with a wide SD interval (4th April – 10th May). The obtained findings help farmers in making grounded decisions to obtain high and stable yield under the changed climatic circumstances. The obtained findings help farmers in making grounded decisions to obtain high and stable yield under the changed climatic circumstances.

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595–602 I. Travlos, A. Tataridas, P. Kanatas, I. Kakabouki and P. Papastylianou
Weed management in soybean with a special focus on the control of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)
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Weed management in soybean with a special focus on the control of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)

I. Travlos¹*, A. Tataridas¹, P. Kanatas², I. Kakabouki¹ and P. Papastylianou¹

¹Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Crop Science, Laboratory of Agronomy, 75 Iera Odos str., Athens GR11855, Greece
²Agricultural Cooperative of Mesolonghi-Nafpaktia, Mesolonghi GR30200, Greece
*Correspondence: travlos@aua.gr

Abstract:

Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is globally an important perennial weed. Infestations from this species lead to significant losses in yield and quality of crop production. A field study was conducted at Kopaida region in Greece, to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for the weed management in soybean. The evaluation of the herbicides was based on the efficacy against purple nutsedge and the effect on soybean biomass production and crop seed yield. Treatments included an untreated control, two pre-emergence applications (with S-metolachlor and pendimethalin), as well as three post-emergence applications (with trifloxysulfuron, bentazone and pyrithiobac sodium). A single application of S-metolachlor maintained the density of purple nutsedge at 15 plants per m2 in soybean and allowed the crop to compete adequately with the weed. S-metolachlor also resulted in a seed yield of 3.26 tn ha-1, a value 52% higher than the untreated control and 38–45% higher than the other herbicides. The results from this study demonstrated that a combination of high seed density in soybean and effective application of herbicides like S-metolachlor can lead to economically acceptable yields.

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603–618 J.R. Trettel, M. D.S. Queiroz, M.M. Andrade and H.M. Magalhães
In vitro effects of regulators on growth and morphogenesis of Ocimum basilicum L. ‘Alfavaca Green’ stem apexes
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In vitro effects of regulators on growth and morphogenesis of Ocimum basilicum L. ‘Alfavaca Green’ stem apexes

J.R. Trettel, M. D.S. Queiroz, M.M. Andrade and H.M. Magalhães*

University Paranaense, Department of Biotechnology, Mascarenhas de Moraes Square, 4282, BR87502-210 Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil
*Correspondence: helidamara@prof.unipar.br

Abstract:

Large-scale cultivation of contamination free plants requires a good standardization protocol and production methods. Basil is widely used for cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical industries as it is rich in many bioactive compounds. This present study aimed to evaluate the growth and in vitro anatomical aspects of apical buds of basil grown under different concentrations rowth regulators like: NAA (Naphthalenoacetic Acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), and KIN (Kinetin). The in vitro establishment was evaluated every 20 days to calculate the, the percentage of plants with calluses, appearance of the roots, any abnormal seedlings, any oxidized seedlings, and the number of sprouts per plant. Growth, physiological, and morpho-anatomical evaluations were performed at 80 days. Basal callogenesis was observed when cytokinin’s and auxins are used in combination. Auxin treatments caused hyperhydricity in the stems and leaves. Medium A2 (0.05 mg L-1 of NAA and 0.1 mg L-1 of BAP), and A3 (0.05 mg L-1 of NAA and 0.1 mg L-1 of KIN) resulted in the best development of basil plants, cultivar ‘Alfavaca Green’. The A2 produced plants with greater numbers of leaves, an average bud length of 59.81 mm, and the best root properties. A2 and A1 have a higher percentage of hyperhydricity (83 and 67%). The A3 resulted in an acceptable number of leaves (range: 21–39), and this treatment produced the best shoot properties as well as fewer plants with hyperhydricity. In addition, the A3 treatment produced plants with a shoot length, high shoot fresh and dry mass (2.82 and 0.23 g), high chlorophyll index and leaf anatomy that was similar to the control. Excluding the control, the other treatments presented more than 90% of the explants with calluses in their bases.

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619–627 O. Ulianych, K. Kostetska, N. Vorobiova, S. Shchetyna, G. Slobodyanyk and K. Shevchuk
Growth and yield of spinach depending on absorbents’ action
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Growth and yield of spinach depending on absorbents’ action

O. Ulianych¹, K. Kostetska²*, N. Vorobiova¹, S. Shchetyna¹, G. Slobodyanyk¹ and K. Shevchuk¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection Department of Vegetable Growing, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Uman National University of Horticulture, Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain, 1 Instytutska street, UA20305 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: kostetskakateryna@gmail.com

Abstract:

The use of absorbents from Maximarin for growing spinach contributed to its faster germination, increased plant growth and development, and resulted in an increase in yields of commodity products by 2.0–6.1 t ha-1 and an increase in chemical composition. The use of absorbents in open ground for spinach made it possible to obtain the highest amount of contingent net profit for making the drug Maximarin in the form of a gel and the company Eco – with small granules, and in the Krasen Polissia variety – 2,160 and 2,102 USD ha-1, in the Malakhit variety for introduction the drug Maximarin in the form of a gel 1,949 USD ha-1 and the company Eco absorbent with potassium – 1,575 USD ha-1. Profitability for the Matador variety has reached 75%, Malakhit grade – 69–75%, Keb – 3.0–3.2. It was established that in the closed ground application of the drug Maximarin in the form of gel and granules for spinach made it possible to obtain the highest amount of contingent net profit, which was Matador 3,079 and 3,025 USD ha-1, in the Malakhit variety for the introduction of gel 4,304 USD ha-1 and granules – 4,245 USD ha-1. Profitability for the use of drugs for the Krasenʹ Polissia variety reached 84–77%, Malakhit – 118–116%, the bioenergy efficiency ratio – 3.0–3.3.

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628–639 E. Wilczewski, G. Harasimowicz-Hermann and G. Lemańczyk
Effect of sowing method and density on the physical properties of the seed bed and oilseed rape yield
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Effect of sowing method and density on the physical properties of the seed bed and oilseed rape yield

E. Wilczewski*, G. Harasimowicz-Hermann and G. Lemańczyk

UTP - University of Science and Technology, Al. prof. S. Kaliskiego 7, PL85-796
Bydgoszcz, Poland

Abstract:

Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus), as a plant requiring shallow sowing, is sensitive to water deficiency in the soil during germination. The lack of rainfall results in the delay of emergence and a reduction in plant density before winter. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of various sowing methods (sowing with the furrow method – in furrows 6–8 cm deep; direct sowing into non-cultivated soil using disc coulters and conventional sowing) on the physical properties of the seed bed and winter oilseed rape yield depending on the sowing density (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 seeds per m2). The field study was carried out in 2011–2014, in Albic Luvisols with fine sandy loam texture. Furrow sowing and direct sowing provided higher seed bed moisture than conventional sowing. The use of furrow sowing resulted in the formation of a greater number of siliques per plant than in other sowing methods. Furrow sowing made it possible to produce a higher seed yield than direct sowing, however the oilseed rape yield did not increase significantly in relation to conventional sowing. The winter rapeseed yield after sowing 80–120 seeds per m2 was significantly higher than after sowing 40 and 60 seeds per m2. When using low sowing densities (40 seeds per m2), furrow sowing made it possible to produce a higher seed yield than conventional sowing. The possibility of improving oilseed rape yield by differentiating sowing methods at a density of 60–120 seeds per m2 was not demonstrated.

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640–649 N.A. Yurina,,, D.V. Osepchuk, M.P. Semenenko, E.V. Kuzminova and E.G. Chuprina
The study of new feed additives in the ration in newly-calved high producing cows
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The study of new feed additives in the ration in newly-calved high producing cows

N.A. Yurina¹,²,*, D.V. Osepchuk¹, M.P. Semenenko¹, E.V. Kuzminova¹ and E.G. Chuprina¹

¹Krasnodar Research Center for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Pervomaiskaya street 4, RU350055 Krasnodar, Russia
²Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, 13, Kalinina street, RU350000 Krasnodar, Russia

Abstract:

The paper highlights the results of a study on the combined use of the CattlePro Effect amido-vitamin-and-mineral complex and PassPro Ballans feed product in the diets of newlycalved high producing cows. The studies were carried out in the conditions of the Bolshevik collective farm of the Kalacheevsky district of the Voronezh region (Russia) according to the method of A.I. Ovsyannikov (1976) for three months after a 21-day equalizing period. During the course of the experiment, it was determined that the introduction of new feed additives into the diet leads to an increase in the consumption of dry matter by lactating animals by 1.0–6.2%. The basic fat content and protein content of milk was increased by 11.6–19.1%, and when adjusting the milk yield for 4% milk – by 9.3–17.4%. The digested feed particles in the feces were closer to normal in the cows of the experimental groups, which indicates the beneficial effect of the feed additive on the digestive processes of animals. When applying the studied feed additive, there was a certain decrease in enterobacteria and staphylococci in the samples of the rumen fluid and at the same time there was an increase in lactic acid microorganisms 1.6–2.0 times.

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650–661 A. Zapałowska, Cz. Puchalski, S. Stankowski and M. Gibczyńska
Fertilisation with ash from wood and with sewage sludge versus contents of macro-and microelements in the soil following cultivation of Helianthus tuberosus L.
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Fertilisation with ash from wood and with sewage sludge versus contents of macro-and microelements in the soil following cultivation of Helianthus tuberosus L.

A. Zapałowska¹, Cz. Puchalski¹, S. Stankowski² and M. Gibczyńska³

¹University of Rzeszow, Department of Bioenergetics, Food Analysis and microbiology, Zelwerowicza 4, PL35-601 Rzeszów, Poland
²West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Agroengineering, Papieża Pawła VI 3, PL71-459 Szczecin, Poland
³West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Department of Bioengineering, Słowackiego 17, PL71-434 Szczecin, Poland

Abstract:

The present study investigated the effects produced in the soil by municipal sewage sludge and wood ash applied during the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke. The impact of the presence of applied the fertilizer materials on changes in soil and a macro- and microelements contents were investigated. The comparative analyses took into account 3 factors; the first factor – 4 levels of wood ash – 0; I–4.28; II–8.57; III–12.85 t ha-1, the second factor – 2 levels of sewage sludge – 0; 1 – 30.3 t ha-1, the third factor – 2 varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Gigant, Albik. Application of the fertilisers did not resulted in significant change in the total contents of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in soil examined after Jerusalem artichoke was harvested. Application of ash from coniferous trees, with high levels of calcium, resulted in increased total contents of calcium in the soil. Fertilisation of the soil with ash from coniferous trees or with sewage sludge, as well as cultivation of two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke, resulted in a significant increase in the concentrations of cadmium and lead, and produced no effects in the levels of nickel, zinc and copper identified in soil. The above findings, and in particular the fact that the limit values were not exceeded, indicate the possibility of using both sludge and biomass ash for fertilizing Jerusalem artichoke.

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662–670 D. Zeka, P. Sedlák, V. Sedláková, P. Vejl, Sh. Fetahu, I. Rusinovci and S. Aliu
Study of correlation among ploidy level and steroid glycoalkaloids content in resistance in cultivated and uncultivated potato species from an in vitro genebank
Abstract |
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Study of correlation among ploidy level and steroid glycoalkaloids content in resistance in cultivated and uncultivated potato species from an in vitro genebank

D. Zeka¹*, P. Sedlák², V. Sedláková², P. Vejl², Sh. Fetahu¹, I. Rusinovci¹ and S. Aliu¹

¹Department of Plan Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, University of Prishtina, Bul. “Bill Clinton” XK10000 Prishtinë, Republic of Kosovo
²Department of Genetic and Breeding, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague 6 – Suchdol CZ165 21, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: dukagjin.zeka@uni-pr.edu

Abstract:

The present research was carried out with the aim to determine the correlation between ploidy level, steroid glycoalkaloids (SGAs) content and resistance against Late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary), and Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) in cultivated and wild Solanum species preserved in the Potato Gene Bank of Czech Republic. In this study 27 species were included which consist of five cultivated and 22 wild species, with a total of 31 genotypes (four species represented by two accessions). In this study 70.97% of genotypes were evaluated as diploid, 3.23% were triploid, 19.35% tetraploid and 6.45% hexaploid as depicted from counting of chromosomes. The highest concentration, of foliage α-solanine (5,450 mg kg-1) and α-chaconine (9,420 mg kg-1) of dry matter was found in the specie S. yungasense 00070, whereas lowest 1.1 mg kg-1 and 2.3 mg kg-1 in S. pinnatisectum 00051, respectively, Tukey’s test of one way anova was performed for getting significance from the data obtained and found significant variation among species of steroid glycoalkaloids (SGA) content in dry weight at level of P ≤ 0.01. Leaf damages by Leptinotarsa decemlineata under field experiment circumstances were also recorded. In vitro study, S. bulbocastanum PIS 06-17 and S. bulbocastanum 00240 shown resistant to P. infestans upon inoculation of aggressive isolates and strong resistance was observed in S. stoloniferum 00295, S. sucrense 0062 and S. yungasense 0070. Nevertheless, there was no correlation of ploidy level, SGA contents and resistance to the CPB (r = 0.00) and late blight (r = 0.076) found in the investigated Solanum species.

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