Volume 18 (2020)
  Number 4

Journal full text:  Volume 18 Number 4

Contents


Pages

2291–2302 G. Argenti, F. Del Serra, N. Staglianò and I. Battaglini
Assessment of management effect on grasslands characteristics in an area of the Apennines (North Italy)
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Assessment of management effect on grasslands characteristics in an area of the Apennines (North Italy)

G. Argenti¹*, F. Del Serra¹, N. Staglianò¹ and I. Battaglini²

¹University of Florence, School of Agriculture, DAGRI, P.le delle Cascine 18, IT50144 Firenze, Italy
²Unione di Comuni Valdarno e Valdisieve, Via XXV Aprile, 10, IT50068 Rufina (FI), Italy
*Correspondence: giovanni.argenti@unifi.it

Abstract:

In many regions of Europe, semi-natural grasslands not properly utilized face different threats, concerning changes in botanical composition and structural evolution, which can lead to a reduction of the qualitative value of forage biomass or, in the mid-long term, forest recovery. The present paper assesses various semi-natural grasslands within a mountain public property located in Tuscany (North Apennines, Italy) subjected to different types of utilization. Some of them are managed through cattle grazing during summer, whereas some others are only periodically mowed and utilization is performed only by wildlife occurring in the area. The paper analyses the importance of resource management and its impact on botanical composition and on qualitative value of forage production. Data collection of studied areas was conducted by means of vegetation assessment performed with a fast procedure that simplifies the botanical composition sampling. Results show the relevance of some environmental factors on grasslands evolution and on their composition (such as altitude and slope) and the importance of management on grassland quality and on level of shrub encroachment.

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2303–2316 F. Arslan, H. Değirmenci, S. Kartal and F. Alcon
Mapping performance of irrigation schemes in Turkey
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Mapping performance of irrigation schemes in Turkey

F. Arslan¹*, H. Değirmenci², S. Kartal¹ and F. Alcon³

¹Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Gazipaşa MRB Vocational School, Animal and Plant Production Department, TR07350 Antalya, Turkey
²Department of Biosystem Engineering, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, 251/A, TR46040 Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
³Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 48, ES30203 Cartagena, Spain
*Correspondence: firat.arslan@alanya.edu.tr

Abstract:

Water is a crucial resource and approximately 70% usage of it in the agriculture sector in Turkey. Water user associations are in charge of irrigation water management. The core aim of this study is to assess water user associations have command area more than 1,000 ha (WUAs) within the districts of DSI (State Hydraulic Works) and to create spatial maps to show the distribution of the performance indicators used constantly by researchers especially around Mediterranean countries during the period from 2011 to 2015. Frequency and panel data analysis are used to figure out the relationship among performance indicators and attributes such as water diversion type, management type, source of water and district no. Panel data analysis was applied to examine statistical assessment over time. As a result, current performance indicators show that excessive irrigation water used due to low technology and management problem. Performance indicators show high differences among districts due to climate, water resources, and crop pattern. Moreover, low irrigation efficiency can be increased with a transition to pressurized irrigation systems, so more are can be irrigated with less water.

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2317–2327 J. Bazarnova, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva
A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae
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A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae

J. Bazarnova*, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Graduate School of Biotechnology and Food Science, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, RU195251, St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: j.bazarnova@spbstu.ru

Abstract:

Microalgae are distinguished from land plants by the high content of plastid pigments and the biodiversity of carotenoids. The aim of this study is to develop a technology for extracting a pigment complex from the biomass of the microalgae of the genus Chlorella and to determine the extracted pigments’ composition. To obtain biomass, a crude cell suspension of microalgae was used, which was obtained under laboratory conditions for pre-culture cultivation of C. sorokiniana (strain 211-8k). The extraction of plastid pigments from air-dry biomass after disintegration of cell membrane was performed in the 40 kHz mode. It was found that the highest pigment content in ethanol extracts was observed after 30 min (870.0 ± 27.1 mg L-1) at 45−50 °C. The pigments’ composition in the resulting total extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the Reverse Phase HPLC method. The established content of chlorophyll a in the obtained extracts was 537.5 ± 10.0 mg L-1, the content of chlorophyll b was 182.5 ± 27.5 mg L-1; the maximum output of the amount of carotenoids in extracts was 150.0 ± 10.0 mg L-1. Thus, the main identified forms of carotenoids in extracts from the biomass of microalgae C. sorokiniana were xanthophylls: lutein and fucoxanthin (18.6 and 4.7% of the amount of pigment in extract, respectively) and β-carotene (1.8% of the amount of pigment). It is planned to further fractionate the obtained total extracts of the pigment complex to obtain various forms of chlorophylls and carotenoids to study the spectrum of physiological activity of plastid pigments.

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2328–2339 J.N. Bougiouklis, Z. Karachaliou, J. Tsakos, P. Kalkanis, A. Michalakos and N. Moustakas
Seasonal variation of macro- and micro- nutrients in leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) under Mediterranean conditions
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Seasonal variation of macro- and micro- nutrients in leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) under Mediterranean conditions

J.N. Bougiouklis, Z. Karachaliou, J. Tsakos, P. Kalkanis, A. Michalakos and N. Moustakas*

Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Laboratory of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Iera Odos 75, GR11855 Athens, Greece
*Correspondence: nmoustakas@aua.gr

Abstract:

Leaves of ‘Smyrna’ fig (Ficus carica L.), variety ‘Smyrneiki’, were collected at four stages of the annual growth cycle, namely (1) at flowering, (2) during fruit development, (3) at fruit maturity and (4) after fruit harvest, during two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) and the leaf macro-(N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micro-(Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, B) nutrient concentrations were determined. Mean concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg ranged between 14.4–28.6, 0.5–1.7, 2–31.2, 22–80.3 and 2.1–6.7 g kg-1 (on a dry weight basis-d.w.), respectively, while concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and B, ranged between 84–280, 11–70, 2–86, 40–206, and 18–39 mg kg-1 d.w., respectively. The mean leaf concentration of N decreased significantly at each successive growth stage, whereas those of P, K, Fe and Zn, also decreased progressively, but not always to a statistically significant level between each stage. In contrast, the mean leaf concentration of Ca increased significantly throughout the season, while the concentrations of Mg and Cu also increased, but not to a statistically significant level at each stage. The Mn concentration of fig leaves decreased significantly at fruit maturity, then increased significantly after fruit harvest. Overall, the nutrient concentration of fig leaves varies throughout the period from flowering to fruit harvest, suggesting that trees may need different amounts of nutrients depending on the developmental stage. The seasonal variation of the nutrient concentration in fig leaves confirmed the need for reference values for each phenological stage for leaf analysis interpretation and for developing an efficient fertilization program.

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2340-2352 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, V. Nadykto, O. Parakhin, H. Kaletnik, L. Shymko and J. Olt
Motion stability estimation for modular traction vehicle-based combined unit
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Motion stability estimation for modular traction vehicle-based combined unit

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, V. Nadykto², O. Parakhin², H. Kaletnik³, L. Shymko¹ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
³Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, 3 Soniachna Str., UA 21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

One of the promising ways of efficiently applying high power intensity tractors is their design and utilisation in the form of modular traction vehicles comprising two modules: the power module and the process module. In order to provide for the sufficient manoeuvrability of the modular traction vehicle, when its process module passes a turn, the latter is equipped with vertical and horizontal hinge joints. The freedom of the process module’s rotation with respect to the power module in the horizontal plane through the agency of the above-mentioned vertical hinge joint is restrained by a hydraulic cylinder, in which the chambers above and below the piston are connected via a throttle valve with a hydraulic resistance coefficient of about 1.03×106 N m s rad–1. This paper is concerned with the theoretical and experimental research into the stability of motion (on turn spaces as well as in the transport mode) of a modular combined unit, when its velocity changes and/or the slip resistance coefficient of the tyres on the wheels of the process module, in which the hydraulic cylinder is equipped with a throttle valve with the above-mentioned hydraulic resistance coefficient, changes.

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2353–2364 M. Corneanu, E. Iurea and S. Sîrbu
Biological properties and fruit quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars from Romanian assortment
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Biological properties and fruit quality of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars from Romanian assortment

M. Corneanu, E. Iurea* and S. Sîrbu

Research Station for Fruit Growing, 175 Voineşti Str., RO707305 Iaşi, Romania
*Correspondence: iurea_elena@yahoo.com

Abstract:

The paper presents a 4-year study of the valuable characteristics in 15 autochthonous and cosmopolitan sweet cherry cultivars grown in northeastern Romania, named Moldavia area. Tree’s vigour, resistance to frost and anthracnosis, the fructification phenophases, epidermis colour, organoleptic and quality traits of fruits and also fruit’s and stone’s size were evaluated. Weak tree vigour was find at ‘Tereza’, ‘Ştefan’ and ‘Golia’ cultivars. From end of flowering to harvesting time were determined 39–40 days for the early cultivars (‘Scorospelka’, ‘Cătălina’), while for the late cultivars as ‘Marina’ and ‘George’ were identified 71–83 days. Eight cultivars have presented fruits’ resistance to cracking with low values between 1.3–9.3% fruits cracked. Fruit’s weight have varied between 5.9 g (‘Scorospelka’) and 9.2 g (‘Andreiaş’), while fruit’s equatorial diameter have varied between 22.4 mm (‘George’) and 25.8 mm (‘Paulică’). The cultivars with the largest fruit’s size were ‘Andreiaş’, ‘Bucium’, ‘Ştefan’, ‘Paulică’, ‘Golia’, ‘Van’ and ‘Stella’. The values of the soluble solids content range between 14.4°Brix (‘Scorospelka’) to 20.0°Brix (‘Bucium’), the titratable acidity has been between 0.39 (‘Andreiaş’) and 0.87 (‘Cătălina’) mg malic acid 100-1 mL juice and the total content of polyphenols has recorded values between 314.93–584.95 mg GAE 100-1 mL of fruit juice. The studied sweet cherry cultivars showed high variability but some got remarked through earliness, low vigour of the tree, large fruit’s size or fruit’s resistance to cracking.

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2365–2373 I.M. Donnik, A.S. Krivonogova, A.G. Isaeva, I.A. Shkuratova, K.V. Moiseeva and N.B. Musikhina
Special features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms in the regions with various levels of man-made pollution
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Special features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms in the regions with various levels of man-made pollution

I.M. Donnik¹, A.S. Krivonogova², A.G. Isaeva¹²*, I.A. Shkuratova², K.V. Moiseeva¹² and N.B. Musikhina¹

¹‘Ural State Agrarian University’ (FSBEI HE Ural SAU), Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education, 42, K. Liebknechta Str., RU620000 Ekaterinburg, Russia
²‘Ural Federal Agrarian Scientific Research Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences’ (FSBSI UrFASRC, UrB of RAS), Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, 112 А, Belinskogo Str., RU620000 Еkaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: isaeva.05@bk.ru

Abstract:

The research on the P. aeruginosa strains in animal and poultry farms located in the areas with various levels of technogenic pollution were done. The content of P. aeruginosa in composition of opportunistic pathogenic microflora in dairy, pig-breeding and poultry farms was stated. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to fluoroquinolone antibiotics and carbapenems was defined. The enterprises were located in the areas with various levels of contamination of agrobiocenosis with Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, As, Pb, 90Sr, 137Cs of technogenic origin. It was stated that content of P. aeruginosa in opportunistic pathogenic microbiota was the most in poultry farms. In man-made polluted areas P. aeruginosa was most often found in samples from oral cavity and cloaca of laying hens and broiler chickens, and in ‘clean’ areas’ – mostly in wash-offs from cages and drinking pans. In dairy farms content of P. aeruginosa was higher in environmentally friendly areas, as compared to the areas with technogenic pollution. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility has shown that in dairy farms average level of resistance of P. aeruginosa strains to carbapenems and fluoroquinolone was 12% and 6%, in pig-breeding farms – 9% and 13%, and in poultry farms – 6% and 18% correspondingly. At the same time, in environmentally neglected areas significant content of the strains with low susceptibility to the above-mentioned antibiotics was stated. The research is executed at the expense of a grant of the Russian scientific fund (project No. 18-16-00040).

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2374–2390 A.N. El-Sadek, F.I. Abd EL-Ghany and A.M. Shaalan
Simulating the effect of tillage practices on the yield production of wheat and barley under dryland condition
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Simulating the effect of tillage practices on the yield production of wheat and barley under dryland condition

A.N. El-Sadek¹, F.I. Abd EL-Ghany¹ and A.M. Shaalan²*

¹Ecology and Dry Land Agriculture Division, Desert Research Center, EG11753 El-Matarya, Cairo, Egypt
²Plant Production Department, Faculty of Desert and Environmental Agriculture, Matrouh University, EG51744 Matrouh, Egypt
*Correspondence: ahmedmahgoub@mau.edu.eg

Abstract:

In arid and semiarid regions, soil tillage practices have major effects on soil water dynamics. In this study, we compared the effects of Zero tillage (ZT) and Conventional tillage (CT) on the grain yield of rainfed barley and wheat at three locations i.e. Barrani, El-Neguilla and Matrouh in the north western coast of Egypt. We also tested the performance of the DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer). In the first season of 2017/2018, only barley plants in Barrani location were able to grow and produce yield due to insufficient rain. Results showed that ZT produced significantly higher grain yield (almost 200%) for barley as compared to the CT treatment. In the second season of 2018/2019, conventional tillage produced higher yields as compared to the zero tillage treatment over the three studied locations and for the two crops. The DSSAT model successfully simulated the grain yield, total biomass and harvest index with an excellent agreement between simulated and observed data with NSE values of 0.868 and 0.800 for grain yield and total biomass respectively and a satisfactory agreement with NSE of 0.431 in case of harvest index. Tillage had a noticeable impact on grain yield of barley and wheat and the DSSAT successfully simulated the effects of the tillage treatments.

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2391–2409 H. Kaletnik, I. Sevostianov, V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, V. Melnik, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt,
Development and examination of high-performance fluidised-bed vibration drier for processing food production waste
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Development and examination of high-performance fluidised-bed vibration drier for processing food production waste

H. Kaletnik¹, I. Sevostianov¹, V. Bulgakov², I. Holovach², V. Melnik³, Ye. Ihnatiev⁴ and J. Olt⁵,*

¹ Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, 3 Soniachna Str., UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
² National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³ Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44 Alchevskih Str., Kharkiv, UA61002, Ukraine
⁴ Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region,Ukraine
⁵ 5Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

Drying and processing wet particulate food production waste, such as distillery dreg, brewer’s grains, beet pulp, spent coffee and barley slurry etc. for their further use as cattle fodder or fuel is an important and topical problem, which needs effective solutions. As a solution of the problem, the authors have developed improved equipment and a fluidised bed vibration drier, which ensures reaching the required output of the work process and final moisture content in the waste at a minimum power and material intensity and features the combination of the high feasibility with the high reliability of design. In order to validate the improved drying work process together with the optimum parameters of the vibration drier, theoretical investigations based on the mathematical model of the process developed by the authors have been carried out. The process of the vibration drier’s frame oscillating together with the waste has been examined, which has resulted in the generation of the differential equation that analytically describes the said process. The work process under consideration has been researched into from the thermophysical point of view using the specific initial data typical for the specific food producer. The research has resulted in obtaining the following design and process parameters of the vibration drier, in particular, for its heating pipes: diameter rt = 0.1 m; length lt = 5 m; number nt = 20, heat-transfer factor Kp = 30 and the final temperature of the dried food production waste to2 = 80 °C. The listed parameters provide for reaching the required final moisture content in the dried food production waste. Also, new relations have been generated for determining the principal process parameters of the improved drier (productive capacity, heat consumption, mass of heat carrier, waste conveyance speed, sizes and masses of the drier’s actuating elements). The obtained relations can be applied in the further theoretical and experimental research on the drier as well as the development of standard methods for its design and calculation.

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2410–2424 E.I. Kiprushkina, O.V. Golovinskaia, E.A. Ovsyuk, V.V. Baklanova, L.A. Alekseeva, A.K. Tulina, V.R. Beloded and I.A. Shestopalova
Pancakes for a healthy diet: low-carb, prebiotic, gluten-free
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Pancakes for a healthy diet: low-carb, prebiotic, gluten-free

E.I. Kiprushkina, O.V. Golovinskaia*, E.A. Ovsyuk, V.V. Baklanova, L.A. Alekseeva, A.K. Tulina, V.R. Beloded and I.A. Shestopalova

ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnology and Engineering, 9 Lomonosova street, St. Petersburg, RU191002, Russia
*Correspondence: oksana2187@mail.ru

Abstract:

The work aims to develop pancake recipes corresponding to the standards of a healthy diet by replacing traditional components with ingredients containing nutritional functional properties. Corn and rice flour are gluten-free and can be used to design gluten-free pancakes. Barley flour contains beta-glucans, a large amount of fiber, reduces the glycemic index of products, is useful not only for a healthy diet but also for people suffering from diabetes and obesity. Rye flour is low in calories, as millet flour contains dietary fiber, vitamins, and lowers cholesterol. Dietary fiber and inulin contribute to the regulation of intestinal microbiota. The results show the possibility of 100% replacement of wheat flour with other types of flour in the production of low-carb, prebiotic, and gluten-free pancakes. The water absorption capacity of flour, dough viscosity, humidity, texture of products, and sensory analysis of finished products were investigated. Replacing wheat flour with alternative types of flour can improve the nutritional value of products, increase the content of dietary fiber, and reduce the calorie content of pancakes.

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2425–2435 H. Klikocka
Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer
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Boron content and some quality features of potato tubers under the conditions of using sulphur fertilizer

H. Klikocka

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Economics and Agribusiness, Akademicka 13, PL20-950 Lublin, Poland
Correspondence: hanna.klikocka@up.lublin.pl

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of sulphur application on the content and uptake of boron (B) with the yield of potato tubers. A field experiment with potato was conducted in 2009–2011, with S applied in different forms (elemental and K2SO4) and at different rates (0, 25, and 50 kg ha-1).
The content of B in tubers depended significantly on each fertilizer S rate and form. The uptake of boron with dry mass of tubers was equally advantageous in the application of each rate and form with sulphur fertilization compared to controls. No significant effect of weather on the content and uptake of boron tubers was found. The tuber yield and starch content were significantly increased by both the fertilizer S rate and form. A positive correlation was found between B content and B uptake of the yield of tubers. B uptake positively correlated with tuber yield and with a yield of DM and with the yield of starch.
Sulphur applied as sulphate increased the content of SO4-S in the soil. Application of elemental S at a rate of 50 kg ha-1 decreased the pH of the soil. Soil content of total C depended on each rate and form of S applied. No correlation was found between B content and B uptake between the analysed soil parameters. The content of total C in the soil was positively correlated with tuber yield. The pH of soil negatively correlated with tuber yield.

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2436–2448 L.E. Kolesnikov, I.I. Novikova, E.V. Popova, N.S. Priyatkin, E.V. Zuev, Yu.R. Kolesnikova and M.D. Solodyannikov
The effectiveness of biopreparations in soft wheat cultivation and the quality assessment of the grain by the digital x-ray imaging
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The effectiveness of biopreparations in soft wheat cultivation and the quality assessment of the grain by the digital x-ray imaging

L.E. Kolesnikov¹*, I.I. Novikova², E.V. Popova², N.S. Priyatkin³, E.V. Zuev⁴, Yu.R. Kolesnikova⁴ and M.D. Solodyannikov¹

¹Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnologies, Soil science and Ecology, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Petersburgskoe Shosse (highway), 2, RU196601 St-Petersburg – Pushkin, Russia
²All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection (VIZR), Laboratory of microbiological plant protection, shosse Podbel’skogo highway, 3, RU196608 Saint Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia
³Agrophysical Research Institute (ARI), plant biophysics division, Grazhdanskiy ave. 14, RU195220 St-Petersburg, Russia
⁴Federal Research Center N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), genetic resource of wheat department, plant introduction department, Bolshaya Morskaya street, 42–44, RU190000 St–Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kleon9@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The main trend of modern crop production is the expansion of the use of plant protection solutions and technologies, that ensure not only effective management of the number of populations of harmful organisms, but also the production of environmentally safe agricultural products with minimal anthropogenic impact on agro-ecosystems. One of our priorities is to develop new environmentally sound polyfunctional biopreparations, that combine useful properties of microbial strains such as phytopathogen antagonists and chitosan compositions that increase disease resistance. The introscopic analysis of the seed material quality realized with the non–destructive express techniques application was used for evaluation the effectiveness of the compositions’ complex influence on plants. The research studies the effectiveness of the influence of Bacillus subtilis strains and chitosan compositions, including their combined effect, on soft wheat productivity and its damage by disease agents. Data on the quality assessment of the grain using microfocus x-ray radiography and gas-discharge visualization (electrophotography) are also provided. The complex of more than 20 structural elements of wheat productivity was analysed during the research. Assessment of the plant damage intensity according to the standard criterion – the disease development, and additional phytopathological indicators was carried out. The evaluation of the grains’ introscopic characteristics was carried out by the microfocus x-ray radiography techniques combined with the digital x-ray image analysis. It is shown that the biopreparation complexes, containing B. subtilis strains and Chitosan, have a combined biological activity manifested in the optimization of wheat plants’ physiological state, increasing productivity, diseases resistance.

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2449-2464 B. Kulishov, K. Kulishova, N. Rudometova, A. Fedorov and A. Novoselov
Advantages of electric resistance method for baking bread and flour confectionery products of functional purpose
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Advantages of electric resistance method for baking bread and flour confectionery products of functional purpose

B. Kulishov¹*, K. Kulishova¹², N. Rudometova¹², A. Fedorov¹ and A. Novoselov¹

¹ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, Kronverkskiy ave. 49, RU 197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
²All-Russian Research Institute for Food Additives – Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS, Liteyniy ave. 55, RU 191014 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kulishov.b@list.ru

Abstract:

In this paper we studied the effect of the baking method on the preservation of beta-carotene in two types of products: pan wheat bread and sponge cake. Five sources of beta-carotene were used in the study, three of which are commercially available samples, and the two others are experimental samples of supramolecular complexes of beta-carotene with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins in powder form (molecular ratio 1: 1). Bread and sponge cake were baked by convective and electric resistance methods. The values of temperature and current flowing through the dough were monitored during electric resistance baking. The beta-carotene content was measured in the dough after kneading, in the cake batter after mixing and in the finished products after baking and cooling. The beta-carotene content was evaluated by spectrophotometry after extraction. The control samples of bread and sponge cake were baked without adding beta-carotene. Different sources of beta-carotene exhibited varying stability in bread and sponge cake. Bread samples baked by the electric resistance method with addition of supramolecular complexes had minimum losses of beta-carotene. Electric resistance baking ensured lower losses of beta-carotene in bread and sponge cake samples.

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2465-2477 M. Lanno, M. Silm, M. Shanskiy, A. Kisand, K. Orupõld and M. Kriipsalu
Open windrow composting of fish waste in Estonia
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Open windrow composting of fish waste in Estonia

M. Lanno¹*, M. Silm², M. Shanskiy¹, A. Kisand², K. Orupõld³ and M. Kriipsalu⁴

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Soil Science, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Hydrobiology and Fishery, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Chair of Environmental Protection and Landscape Management, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Chair of Rural Building and Water Management, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: marge.lanno@emu.ee

Abstract:

By-catch fish is caught unintentionally during the fishing and is currently thrown back in water bodies to cause the water pollution. Currently fishermen does not have a motivation to bring the by-catch fish to the shore, as it needs to be sorted by fish species, causing fishermen extra work without additional income. Estonian Ministry of Rural Affairs decided to give funding to present study with purpose to find solution to this matter. One possible solution for by-catch fish utilization is to produce high value nutrient rich fertilizer in order to close nutrient cycle and return valuable nutrients into soil. The adaptive study of outdoor windrow composting was conducted with consecutive treatments, rather than simultaneously, in order to make adaptive improvements to the set-up of each consecutive treatment. The consecutive treatments showed that fish waste composting is manageable from a technical perspective, feasible in a temperate climate, and that this type of compost holds high potential as an organic fertiliser or soil improver. Composting process started rapidly and, as required by the EU Commission regulation EU 142/2011, temperatures exceeded 70 °C for at least 1 h in all windrows. While initial treatments suffered from odours, as well as events inhibitive to the composting process, these disadvantages were successfully avoided in later treatments by adding a biofilter and inoculant from previous composting windrows, as well as lake sediments. Rather than disposing of low-value fish, these can be recycled into stable and nutrient-rich compost on-site, near fishing harbours.

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2478–2488 A. Miftakhutdinov, N. Zhuravel and I. Dikhtyaruk
Comparative economic efficiency of using pharmacological agents for the stress prevention in the course of immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis
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Comparative economic efficiency of using pharmacological agents for the stress prevention in the course of immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis

A. Miftakhutdinov, N. Zhuravel and I. Dikhtyaruk*

South Ural State Agrarian University, 13 Gagarina St., RU457100 Troitsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia
*Correspondence: nirugavm@mail.ru

Abstract:

This article describes the results of studies on the definition and comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of using SPAO-FA (stress protector antioxidant – feed additive) and SPAO-complex pharmacological preparation (stress protector antioxidant – complex preparation for birds) for the prevention of vaccine stress during immunization of birds against reovirus tenosynovitis. These preparations were used during 5 days (3 days before vaccination, on the day of vaccination and one day after vaccination) at the dose of 185 mg kg-1 body weight: SPAO-FA was given as a part of compound feed, SPAO-complex – with water. Stress prevention in chickens of the parent flock provides equally high level of protection of birds from a field virus, a causative agent of reovirus tenosynovitis: it reduces the development of a protective level of antibodies by 7 days. Using SPAO-complex contributed to the increase in antibody titers by a factor of 2.6, and to the decrease in the coefficient of variation by the term of monitoring immunity stress by 25.7%. Using SPAO-FA increased antibody titers by 1.6 times, but had no significant effect on vaccination homogeneity. Vaccination index that should be high in the case of successful vaccination was 3.5 times higher for SPAO-complex in comparison with the basic diet; this for SPAO-FA was 1.6 times higher. Positive effect of anti-stress therapy influences the livability of chickens which was 3.5% higher with SPAO-complex, 0.79% higher – with SPAO-FA; bird live weight and the yield of day-old chicks were also higher in comparison with the basic diet by 6.44 and 0.88%, and 4.22 and 0.55%, respectively. Cost-effectiveness of using SPAO-FA per RUR of costs amounted to 180.09 RUR, for SPAO-complex, this parameter amounted to 435.86 RUR.

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2489–2500 E.F. Myagkikh, S.S. Babanina, V.S. Pashtetsky and M.Yu. Karpukhin
Morphological variability of phenotypic traits in of oregano samples
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Morphological variability of phenotypic traits in of oregano samples

E.F. Myagkikh¹*, S.S. Babanina¹, V.S. Pashtetsky¹ and M.Yu. Karpukhin²

¹Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, Kievskaya Str., 150, RU295453 Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russia
²Ural State Agrarian University, Karla Libknekhta Str., 42, RU620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: myagkih_e@niishk.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to study the morphological variability of collection samples of oregano of the Crimean Peninsula. The experiments were carried out in 2016–2018 in the Foothill Zone of Crimea. The plant material consisted of 41 samples of origanum collected on the Crimean Peninsula territory. The degree of identification reliability of oregano collection samples by morphological traits was checked. The construction of relationship dendrograms was carried out by the Ward’s method based on the Manhattan distances. It was found that qualitative traits (coloration of corolla, leaf, bract, stalk and male fertility) showed themselves more consistently than quantitative ones. It was recommended to use the most polymorphic traits (entropy, H > 1.50 bits) for reliable identification of oregano samples from the Crimean peninsula: coloration of bract, stem, leaf and corolla, as well as the number of shoots and mass fraction of essential oil. The structure of the association differed by the years of study when constructing dendrograms (r = 0.58).Nevertheless, a fairly clear correspondence of the clusters of different years’ clusters to each other was established (78% of the samples). The established correspondence indicates the reliability of the genotypes combination into separate groups (clusters) and their similar reaction to environmental conditions. The most interesting combinations of samples for further breeding work were identified – these are clusters 2 and 5 (according to the 2018 data). In 42.7% of genotypes from the second cluster, the mass fraction of essential oil was at the level of 0.25–0.55% of the absolute dry mass (4–6 points). The samples from the second cluster could be used as high-oil sources, whereas samples from fifth cluster – as sources of high productivity of ‘green’ raw materials (up to 1,200 g plant-1). It is advisable to select parental forms from these two clusters for hybridization. The grouping of origanum samples used in the work divides the samples quite accurately separated them not only on qualitative, but also on economically valuable traits.

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2501–2511 V. Novák, K. Křížová and P. Šařec
Biochar Dosage Impact on Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status
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Biochar Dosage Impact on Physical Soil Properties and Crop Status

V. Novák¹*, K. Křížová¹² and P. Šařec¹

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Protection and Plant Health, Drnovská 507/73, CZ16106 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: novakvaclav@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

In the context of climate change and the ongoing population growth, current agriculture inevitably faces many challenges. Long periods of drought are often followed by shorter periods of heavy precipitation and degraded soil is often unable to retain the rainfall water properly. Apart from common organic fertilizers, soil amendments are currently considered a promising solution that might improve soil quality. The most discussed one is biochar, a natural soil conditioner that might under certain conditions improve soil properties. This study is based on the experiment that was established in 2017 in order to determine the impact of biochar dosage and it’s effect over time. Four parcels approximately 15×30 m were designed in Rapotín, Czech Republic. Each of them was treated with a specific dose of biochar (15, 30, 45, 60 t ha-1), and selected soil physical properties such as penetration resistance and reduced bulk density were then measured at the beginning of the cropping season 2019. In addition, vegetation properties were investigated with the use of handheld sensors repeatedly during the season on winter wheat. The dataset contained information about chlorophyll and nitrogen content as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index estimations. Acquired values were later compared with the results obtained from the fifth variant founded in 2014 with a 15 t ha-1 dose and from the control variant. Although the dosage levels applied were quite substantial, no significant difference was found when evaluating selected soil properties. Crop response gave similar results. Any of the examined characteristics differed among the 2017 variants and control. Nevertheless, when compared to the 2014 variant, clearly different results were detected. Thus, this study concluded that the effect of biochar dosage is might not be as significant factor, however, the time effect likely is. Therefore, the study has to continue and soil/crop properties will be observed in the upcoming season as well.

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2512–2519 N. Novytska, G. Gadzovskiy, B. Mazurenko, S. Kalenska, I. Svistunova and O. Martynov
Effect of seed inoculation and foliar fertilizing on structure of soybean yield and yield structure in Western Polissya of Ukraine
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Effect of seed inoculation and foliar fertilizing on structure of soybean yield and yield structure in Western Polissya of Ukraine

N. Novytska¹, G. Gadzovskiy¹, B. Mazurenko¹*, S. Kalenska¹, I. Svistunova² and O. Martynov³

¹National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, Heroiv Oborony street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Fodder production, melioration, and meteorology, Heroiv Oborony street 13, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination, Generala Rodimceva street 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: mazurenko.bohdan@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Growing soybeans requires adjustment of micronutrient nutrition on poorly fertile soils. Foliar fertilization can overcome the deficiency of micronutrients in plants in the most important period. Three factorial field experiment to study foliar fertilization with complex micronutrients, seed inoculation by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in two soybean varieties (Kassidy and ES Mentor) was conducted. Foliar fertilization with Quantum oil and WUXAL Oilseed significantly increased certain elements in soybean yield structure. Fertilizer WUXAL Oilseed with a higher concentration of Mo, Mn and B more effectively increased the number of pods and seeds from the plant and formed a higher yield in soybeans. Foliar fertilization with WUXAL Oilseed and Quantum oil increased seed yield to 3.00 t ha-1 and 2.94 t ha-1, respectively in regard to variant without fertilizing, where yield was 2.71 t ha-1. Variety Kassidy had greater number of pods and seeds, seed weight in comparison to foliar fertilizing ES Mentor. Seed inoculation gave a stable increase in yield under different foliar fertilizations in varieties Kassidy and ES Mentor.

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2520-2534 P.E. Oliveira, X. Petit-Breuilh, O.J. Rojas and W. Gacitúa
Production of cellulose nanostructures from Chilean bamboo, Chusquea quila
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Production of cellulose nanostructures from Chilean bamboo, Chusquea quila

P.E. Oliveira¹*, X. Petit-Breuilh², O.J. Rojas³ and W. Gacitúa⁴

¹Department of Industrial Process Engineering, Nucleus of Research in Bioproducts and Advanced Materials, Catholic University of Temuco, Manuel Montt Street, Postal Code CL4813302 Temuco, Chile
²School of Engineering and Business, Viña del Mar University, Diego Portales Street, Postal Code CL2580022, Chile
³Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems, Aalto University School of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 16300, 00076 Aalto, Finland
⁴Postgraduate Department of Wood Engineering, Biomaterials and Nanotechnology Center, Bío-Bío University, Collao Avenue 1202, Postal Code CL4051381 Concepción, Chile
*Correspondence: poliveira@uct.cl

Abstract:

In Chile, bamboo bushes of Chusquea quila genus (or popularly known as ‘quila’) have brought economic and ecological problems for decades in the south-central part of this country. On the other hand, this plant species was studied as a raw material for the production of nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) and nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC), presenting an opportunity for sustainable and environmentally friendly management, positioning Chile as a Latin American country at the forefront of studies with nanotechnological approaches. The methodology applied to generate these nanostructures contemplated hydrolysis with sulfuric acid and oxalic acid, in addition to an intermediate stage of microfluidization to generate nanofibrillated cellulose. The products obtained showed morphological and topographic homogeneity in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. The diameter values of the particles ranged from 10 to 20 nanometers for the CNCs. Through Fourier transformed spectrophotometry (FTIR) it was found that the processes of microfluidization and acid hydrolysis did not affect the molecular shape of the nanostructures and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was important to determine crystallinity index (IC), presenting values higher than 80%.

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2535-2549 G. Palumbo, S. Carfagna, V. Stoleru, V. Torino, P.M. Romano, F. Letizia and C. Di Martino
Environmental sustainability fruit quality and production in mycorrhizal tomato plants without P fertilizing
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Environmental sustainability fruit quality and production in mycorrhizal tomato plants without P fertilizing

G. Palumbo¹, S. Carfagna², V. Stoleru³, V. Torino¹, P.M. Romano³, F. Letizia¹ and C. Di Martino¹*

¹University of Molise, Department of Agriculture, Environmental and Food, Via F. De Sanctis 1, IT86100 Campobasso, Italy
²University of Napoli, Department of Biology, Via Foria 223, IT80137 Napoli, Italy
³Ion Ionescu de la Brad, University of Agricultural, UASMV, Iasi, M. Sadoveanu 3, RO700490, Romania
³Institute of Agricultural Technical Higher Education ‘S. Pardo’, IT86035 Larino, CB, Italy
*Correspondence: lello.dimartino@unimol.it

Abstract:

The influence of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Funelliformis mosseae, on fruit quality, production and environmental sustainability were evaluated in field-tomato plants grown exposed to P-limited soil 5 μg g-1 soil (basal-soil) with nitrate fertilization (50 μg g-1 soil), after greenhouse germination and fungus colonization. After 60 days sowing (DAS), when the percentage of mycorrhizal root length (% RLC) raised at about 50%, the plants were transplanted in open field.
During the experiment, the mycorrhization has affected a lot of physiological aspects like vegetative and reproductive growth, improving them and ended the fruiting with a major fruit production that was 50% higher than not mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The ripening process of the fruits was also followed by testing sugars content and ß-Amylase activity in fruits of NM and mycorrhizal (M) plants fruits. At 140 DAS, in the harvesting fruits stage, fruits of M plants showed significantly higher mineral nutrient sugars and organic nitrogen compounds as amino acids and protein, compared to fruits from NM plants. In particular, GLU-GLN-ASP and ASN raised about 35% more than fruits from NM plants, improving nutritional aspect and flavor of the product. THR-ILEU-LEU-VAL and LYS, essential amino acids in man nutrition, increased around 25% more than fruits from NM plants, too. In this contest, lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and glutathione (GS) and reduced form (GSH) were also tested in ripe fruits. The overall results suggest that tomato roots colonization by mycorrhizal fungus Funelliformis mosseae affects host plant nutritional status, modifying reproductive behavior, fruits production and nutritional quality.

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2550-2558 A. Parfeniuk, V. Mineralova, I. Beznosko, A. Lishchuk, V. Borodai and V. Krut
Mycobiota of the rhizosphere of raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus L.) under the influence of varieties and new fertilizers in conditions of organic production
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Mycobiota of the rhizosphere of raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus L.) under the influence of varieties and new fertilizers in conditions of organic production

A. Parfeniuk¹, V. Mineralova¹*, I. Beznosko¹, A. Lishchuk¹, V. Borodai² and V. Krut³

¹Institute of Agroecology and Nature Management of NAAS of Ukraine, Metrologichna, 12, UA03143 Kyiv, Ukraine
²The National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Heroiv Oborony, 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Institute of Microbiology and Virology named after D.K. Zabolotnyi of NAAS of Ukraine, Academician Zabolotny, 154, UA03143 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: valentinamk@ukr.net

Abstract:

The results of studies of influence of raspberry plant varieties and new organic fertilizers on the abundance and species composition of the micromycetes in rhizospheric soil in conditions of organic production are presented. The mycobiota of Joan J and Himbo-Top raspberry varieties during plant ontogeny was analyzed and the species composition of phytopathogenic micromycetes, which are presented in the rhizospheric plant soil, was defined. It was revealed that the following fungi species prevail in the population: Botrytis cinerea, Pers, Aspergillus niger, V. Tiegh, Alternaria alternata, (Fr.) Keissl, Fusarium sp. These fungi are producers of mycotoxins that can cause dangerous diseases in animals and humans. There is a stabilizing selection of microorganisms in the phase of separation of buds in inflorescences in the mycobiota of the rhizosphere of plants of raspberry varieties under the influence of the organic fertilizer VITERI with the addition of Basil essential oil.

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2559-2567 I.A. Plotnikov, M.M. Mukhamedyanov, I.A. Domsky, O.Yu. Bespyatykh and N.A. Makarova
Experience and prospects for application of by-products of processing of fruits in the production of animal feed
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Experience and prospects for application of by-products of processing of fruits in the production of animal feed

I.A. Plotnikov¹²*, M.M. Mukhamedyanov¹, I.A. Domsky¹, O.Yu. Bespyatykh³ and N.A. Makarova⁴

¹Russian Research Institute of Game Management and Fur Farming, 79 Preobrazhenskaya street, RU610000 Kirov, Russia
²Vyatka State Agricultural Academy, 133 October Avenue, RU610017 Kirov, Russia
³Vyatka State University, 12 Orlovskaya street, RU610002 Kirov, Russia
⁴Kirov State Medical University, 112 Karl Marx street, RU610998 Kirov, Russia
*Correspondence: bio.vniioz@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to study the feasibility of using by-products of the industrial processing of fruits for the production of full-feed mixed fodders with the possibility of using these mixed feeds as the only feed in the diets of herbivorous fur animals (nutria, brown muskrat, steppe marmot). Studies of chemical composition and nutrition have shown that non-traditional ingredients can be included in the composition of feed. At their expense, you can save up to 30% of leguminous feed, 9% – cake, 1% – meat and bone meal. This allowed us to reduce the cost of the studied batches of feed by 18–21%. Experiments have shown the effectiveness of using such feed in the diets of herbivorous fur-bearing animals. The inclusion of compound feed in the diet allowed to increase the number of commercial offspring per female muskrat by 0.8 heads, compared to the control group. The safety of young animals until the moment of depositing puppies from their mothers was approximately equal in both groups. Young muskrats of the experimental groups had 5.5–6.8% higher values of average daily increments, compared to control analogues. A similar pattern is established in male nutria. Marmots of the experimental group from the very beginning of the experiment were outnumbered by control animals. In July, these differences reached statistically significant values: 4,085 ± 71 g vs. 3,736 ± 73 g (p < 0.01). Thus, the marmots of the experimental group recovered faster after winter hibernation.

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2568-2580 H.S.A. Salama and H.H. Badry
Effect of partial substitution of bulk urea by nanoparticle urea fertilizer on productivity and nutritive value of teosinte varieties
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Effect of partial substitution of bulk urea by nanoparticle urea fertilizer on productivity and nutritive value of teosinte varieties

H.S.A. Salama¹* and H.H. Badry²

¹Crop Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Aflaton street, El-Shatby, EG21545 Alexandria, Egypt
²Soil and Water Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Aflaton street, El-Shatby, EG21545 Alexandria, Egypt
*Correspondence: heba.salama@alexu.edu.eg

Abstract:

The integration of nanoparticle urea (NPU) in the fertilization scheme of forage crops with high nutrients’ requirements, like teosinte (Zea mexicana L.), would help avoiding the environmental implications associated with the application of high rates of conventional bulk urea (BU), while not depriving the plant from its benefits. The effects of fertilization treatments composed of different percentages of NPU and/or BU, on yield, agronomic characteristics and quality attributes of three cuts of two teosinte local varieties were investigated in a split-split plot design during summers of 2018 and 2019. In general, the application of 50% NPU + 50% BU was similar to 100% BU in the production of highest amount of fresh yield, with the highest values for plant height and stem diameter, in addition to appreciable nutritive value, in terms of high crude protein (66.10 g kg-1) and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC), and low acid-detergent fiber (284.09 g kg-1) and crude fat (36.97 g kg-1) contents. While the 1st cut was characterized by the highest plant height (58.74 cm in average), stem diameter (7.64 mm in average) and leaf area (130.07 m2 in average), the 3rd cut produced the highest amount of fresh yield (39.68 t ha-1 in average). Variations in quality measures among the three cuts were almost non-significant. Variations in yield and quality were detected between the two tested local varieties. In conclusion, the combined application of 50% NPU with 50% BU is recommended for the production of fodder teosinte in similar environments.

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2581-2591 P. Šařec, O. Látal, P. Novák, J. Holátko, V. Novák, T. Dokulilová and M. Brtnický
Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils
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Changes in soil properties and possibilities of reducing environmental risks due to the application of biological activators in conditions of very heavy soils

P. Šařec¹*, O. Látal², P. Novák³, J. Holátko⁴, V. Novák¹, T. Dokulilová⁴⁵ and M. Brtnický⁴⁵

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Agrovýzkum Rapotín Ltd., Rapotín, Výzkumníků 267, CZ788 13 Vikýřovice, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 000 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic
⁴Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Department of Geology and Pedology, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
⁵Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of AgriSciences, Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Zemědělská 1, CZ61 300 Brno, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: psarec@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study aims at verifying the effect of farmyard manure (FYM) and of selected activators (Z’fix and NeoSol) on changes of soil properties. Their application should lead to improvement of soil physical properties and of organic matter fixation, to reduction of environmental risks, e.g. of tillage energy requirements. Experimental variants (0.7 ha each) were as follows: I (FYM with Z’fix); II (FYM with Z’fix + NeoSol); III (FYM); IV (Control NPK only). FYM was applied at rates: 50 t ha-1 (2014); 30 t ha-1 (2016). Additional NPK fertilizer (I–IV) was applied according to annual crop nutrient normative. The agent Z’fix was used as an activator of FYM biological transformation (5.5 kg t-1). The agent NeoSol was used as soil activator (200 kg ha-1; annually). In order to verify the effect, cone index, bulk density, tillage implement draft and chemical soil components (Humus, C/N ration and Ntot) were measured annually. Compared to the control, the application of FYM combined with the mentioned agents (I–III) increased Ntot more than two times. Moreover, it decreased (I–III) bulk density by 8.7%. Tillage implement draft decreased by 3% after the application of FYM with Z’fix (I, II). The study confirmed that FYM application combined with utilization of activators positively influenced soil fertility and helped to reduce environmental risks.

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2592-2601 K. Starý, Z. Jelínek, J. Kumhálová, J. Chyba and K. Balážová
Comparing RGB – based vegetation indices from UAV imageries to estimate hops canopy area
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Comparing RGB – based vegetation indices from UAV imageries to estimate hops canopy area

K. Starý¹*, Z. Jelínek¹, J. Kumhálová¹, J. Chyba² and K. Balážová²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: staryk@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Remote estimation of hops plants in hop gardens is imperative in field of precision agriculture, because of precise imaging of hop garden structure. Monitoring of hop plant volume and area can help to predict the condition and yield of hops. In this study, two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) – eBee X senseFly UAV equipped with Red Green Blue (RGB) S.O.D.A. camera and Vertical Take-Off Landing (VTOL) UAV FireFly6 Pro by BirdsEyeView Aerobotics equipped with MicaSense RedEdge MX camera were used to acquire images of hop garden at phenology stage maturity of cones (24 th July) before harvest. Seven commonly used RGB vegetation indices (VI) were derived from these RGB and multispectral (MS) images after photogrammetric pre-processing and orthophoto mosaic extraction using Pix4Dmapper software. Vegetation Indices as the Green Percentage Index (G%), Excess of Green Index (ExGreen), Green Leaf Index (GLI), Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI), Red Green Blue Vegetation Index (RGBVI), Normalised Green Red Difference Index (NGRDI) and Triangular Greenness Index (TGI) were derived from both data sets. Binary model from each of VI was derived and threshold value for green vegetation was set. The results showed significant differences in hop plant area based on the specifications of cameras, especially wavelengths centres, and design and flight parameters of both UAV types. The comparison of various indices showed, that ExG and TGI indices has the highest congruity of estimated vegetation indices in hop garden canopy area for both used cameras. Further processing by Fuzzy Overlay tool proved high accuracy in green canopy area estimation for ExG and TGI vegetation indices.

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2602-2612 V. Sterna, S. Zute, I. Jansone, E. Ence and E. Strausa
Evaluation of various legume species and varieties grown in Latvia as a raw material of plant-based protein products
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Evaluation of various legume species and varieties grown in Latvia as a raw material of plant-based protein products

V. Sterna¹*, S. Zute¹, I. Jansone¹, E. Ence² and E. Strausa²

¹Department of Plant breeding and Agroecology, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics ‘Dižzemes’, Dižstende, LV-3258 Talsi district, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Engineering Economics and Management, 6 Kalnciema street, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: vita.sterna@arei.lv

Abstract:

Nutrition value of legumes has been traditionally attributed to its high protein content. Protein content of legumes is variable dependent on different species and varieties, and highly affected by environmental factors. Usually protein quality is characterized by its owns amino acid profile in nutritional point of view. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the protein contents and amino acid profiles of pea (Pisum sativum L), faba beans (Vicia faba L) and soya (Glycine max L) grown in Latvia and evaluate their potential for food production. Overall results of a five-year analysis (2013–2017) showed that the protein content of peas, faba beans and soybean ranged from 20.0 to 26.1%, 26.6 to 30.5% and 35.9 to 40.9%, respectively. The corresponding values of total crude fat ranged from 0.8 to 1.2%, 0.7–1.3% and 16.6 to 19.3%, respectively. Results of study showed that the protein content of peas, faba beans and soybean was not differed by growing system (p < 0.05). The percentage of essential amino acids for pea, faba bean and soya were 34 to 38%, 57 to 59% and 62 to 64% respectively. The composition of pea flakes was preserved protein content of raw material. The pea flakes has high content of lysine of 10.1 g kg-1, phenylalanine+thyrosine of 11.6 g kg-1 and the sum of essential amino acids of 66.4 g kg-1. In nutritional point of view, pea flakes could be product with high-quality protein composition.

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2613-2626 N. Telekalo and M. Melnyk
Agroecological substantiation of Medicago sativa cultivation technology
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Agroecological substantiation of Medicago sativa cultivation technology

N. Telekalo* and M. Melnyk

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nataliiatelekalo@gmail.com

Abstract:

Medicago sativa is one of the most productive legumes, which provides high protein production. Application of the biostimulant and microfertilizers is quite relevant and effective. Theoretically substantiates and presents ways to solve the scientific problem of formation of Medicago sativa productivity and the impact on them of seed treatment and foliar nutrition, taking into account the conditions of the Forest-Steppe right bank of Ukraine. The research was conducted in the research field of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University in the village of Agronomichne, Vinnytsia district during 2016–2018. Sinyukha variety was sown (2010). There has been established that the use of pre-sowing treatment of seeds and crops of Medicago sativa with biostimulant and microfertilizer improves the conditions of growth and development of the crop and increases individual productivity. On the researches it is established that fodder productivity of Medicago sativa sowing is provided by application of biostimulators of growth and microfertilizers on crops, genetic potential the culture realized as much as possible on the 2nd year of cultivation. The effect of growth stimulants on Medicago sativa productivity was defined and the optimal combination of macro- and microelements in modern complex fertilizers was determined, which contributes to the maximum possible yield of Medicago sativa green mass. New technological regulations for the use of bioorganic preparations and components in the technological scheme of Medicago sativa cultivation have been developed. It was found that on average for three years of vegetation of Medicago sativa sown on gray forest soils in the Forest-Steppe Right Bank, the highest yield of seeds and green mass provides the option of treatment with biostimulator Saprogum® and microfertilizer Wuxal®. Creating optimal conditions for mineral nutrition for Medicago sativa plants through the use of bacterial fertilizers and foliar nutrition contributed not only to the formation of high grain yields, but also significantly improved biochemical parameters and, consequently, increased crude protein content in grain, which is important for solving the problem of vegetable protein and balancing the diets of farm animals. The research results are aimed at solving current problems of technological renewal and development of agro-industrial complex on the basis of development of bioorganic models of varietal technology of Medicago sativa cultivation with orientation at the level of adequate arable productivity and climate fertility.

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2627-2638 O.V. Tryhub, А.V. Bahan, S.M. Shakaliy, Yu.M. Barat and S.О. Yurchenko
Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity
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Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity

O.V. Tryhub¹, А.V. Bahan², S.M. Shakaliy³*, Yu.M. Barat² and S.О. Yurchenko²

¹Ustymivska Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd.a. V.Ya. Yuryev of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Ustymivka village, Hlobynskyi district, UA36003 Poltava region, Ukraine
²Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Selection, Seed Science and Genetics, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
³Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Plant Production, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
*Correspondence: shakaliysveta@gmail.com

Abstract:

To determine the ecological plasticity of crop varieties, there are a number of methods that are based on the analysis of the variability of the trait by contrasting years under the conditions. The stability and plasticity of the studied traits of varieties are due to the ability of genetic mechanisms of plants to minimize the consequences of the negative impact of the environment, that is, to resist them. The researches on establishing regularities of manifestation of plasticity, stability and homeostaticity of buckwheat varieties of different ecological and geographical origin were carried out in the conditions of the central part of Ukraine during the period of 2016–2018. The low adaptability of modern buckwheat varieties is a determining factor for low production yields of potentially high-yielding varieties in the sharply contrasting (climatic factors) cultivation conditions. The level of yield (as a complex characteristic) and its main component, the individual productivity of the plant have been determined as the differentiative indicators of modern varieties and new promising breeding material consisting of 35 samples from 5 countries of the world. The analysis of research data has identified a group of varieties (SYN 3/02, Sofiia, Selianochka, Slobozhanka, Yelena, Roksolana, Populiatsiia 7/07, P-330, P-455, P-620, Ametist, Feniks, Ilishevskaia, Batyr and Arno), which have a value as a highly adaptable varietal material for the cultivation conditions and have an increased selective value according to abiotic adaptability indicators and can be used to create a more adaptable material as a potentially more productive as well as more plastic and stable resource for selection.

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2639–2652 T. Vinnal, H. Puusepp, N. Shabbir, L. Kütt and M. N. Iqbal
Case study of non-linear PV inverter devices attached to the LV distribution network
Abstract |

Case study of non-linear PV inverter devices attached to the LV distribution network

T. Vinnal, H. Puusepp, N. Shabbir, L. Kütt and M. N. Iqbal

Tallinn University of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia.

Abstract:

Every year, more and more solar power plants are connected to the grid, producing electricity in an environmentally sustainable manner. The increasing number of photovoltaic (PV) installations and their integration into the low voltage (LV) distribution network (DN) is having an impact in terms of power quality (PQ). For example, the voltage in the DN can sustain high distortion values. The impact of a PV installation on the LV network is analysed in this research. The field measurements were carried out over a 3-week period at a solar power plant with a total output power of 160 kW in an Estonian rural municipality. The measurement results provide the opportunity to look more closely at the effect of the solar power plant on the supply voltage of the LV DN. Parameters such as voltage variation within a one-minute period, the asymmetry of the voltages and the total harmonic distortion of the voltages are discussed here.

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2653-2664 S.M. Viyugin, A.V. Kuchumov, G.V. Viyugina, S.E. Terentyev and I.A. Karamulina
Influence of regional technologies of varying intensity on the bioproductivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation
Abstract |
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Influence of regional technologies of varying intensity on the bioproductivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation

S.M. Viyugin¹*, A.V. Kuchumov², G.V. Viyugina³, S.E. Terentyev⁴ and I.A. Karamulina¹

¹Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Agronomy, Land Management and Ecology, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
²Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Economics, Department of Production Management, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
³Smolensk State University, Faculty of Natural Geography, Department of Biology and Ornamental Crop Production, 4 Przhevalskogo Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
⁴Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Agricultural Processing Technology, 10/2 B. Sovetskaya Str., RU214000 Smolensk, Russia
*Correspondence: vyugin_sm@mail.ru

Abstract:

This study is oriented to elucidating the role of the basic elements of regional farming systems in soil-crop complex using agricultural technologies of different levels of cultivation of field crops in the Smolensk Region.
As a result of monitoring carried out in 1991–2008 on a reference site located in the Smolensk Region, negative changes of soil profile were revealed. Degree of soil podzolization increased what contributed to its degradation. All genetic horizons demonstrated deterioration in the basic parameters of soil fertility.
Many years of experience showed a significant influence of the elements of studied technologies on soil acidity parameters, on the level of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium; the amount of humic compounds was, however, characterized by relative stability.
According to the total grain harvest of winter rye, spring soft wheat and barley, as well as of the green mass of perennial and annual herbs, studied variants were ranged in the following order: intensive, organic, adaptive, and extensive. Organic technology is suitable for getting environmentally friendly products.
Obtained results are recommended to be used in the development of regional technologies of various intensity for the bio-productivity of sod-podzolic medium loamy soil in the Central region of the Russian Federation, as well as in regions with similar soil and climatic conditions. Choice of particular variant is in each case determined by the baseline characteristics of soil, planned level of productivity and harvest quality, availability of material and monetary resources in the economy.

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2665-2676 W.R. Żelazny
Application of feature selection for predicting leaf chlorophyll content in oats (Avena sativa L.) from hyperspectral imagery
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Application of feature selection for predicting leaf chlorophyll content in oats (Avena sativa L.) from hyperspectral imagery

W.R. Żelazny¹²*

¹Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Management Systems, Drnovská 507/73, CZ161 06 Praha 6 Ruzyně, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: wzelazny@vurv.cz

Abstract:

Feature selection can improve predictions generated by partial least squares models. In the context of hyperspectral imaging, it can also enable the development of affordable devices with specialized applications. The feasibility of feature selection for oat leaf chlorophyll estimation from hyperspectral imagery was assessed using a public domain dataset. A wrapper approach resulted in a simplistic model with poor predictive performance. The number of model inputs decreased from 94 to 3 bands when a filter approach based on the minimum redundancy, maximum relevance criterion was attempted. The filtering led to improved prediction quality, with the root mean square error decreasing from 0.17 to 0.16 g m-2 and R2 increasing from 0.57 to 0.62. Accurate predictions were obtained especially for low chlorophyll levels. The obtained model estimated leaf chlorophyll concentration from near infra-red reflectance, canopy darkness, and its blueness. The prediction robustness needs to be investigated, which can be done by employing an ensemble methodology and testing the model on a new dataset with improved ground-truth measurements and additional crop species.

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2677-2686 V.A. Zubarev, Yu.A. Mazhaysky and T.M. Guseva
The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers
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The impact of drainage reclamation on the components of agricultural landscapes of small rivers

V.A. Zubarev¹, Yu.A. Mazhaysky² and T.M. Guseva³*

¹Institute of complex analysis of regional problems of the far Eastern branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 4 Sholom Aleichem Str., RU607016 Birobidzhan, Russia
²Meshchersky branch of the all-Russian research Institute of hydraulic engineering and land reclamation n. A.N. Kostyakova, 1A Meshcherskaya Str., RU390021 Ryazan, Russia
³Ryazan state medical University n. I. P. Pavlova, 22 Lenina str., RU 390000 Ryazan, Russia
*Correspondence: guseva.tm@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The traditional use of agricultural landscapes of small rivers is agricultural arable land, which requires a number of reclamations and agricultural work. Land drainage has a significant impact on the environment, but these activities were carried out almost without taking into account the requirements of environmental protection. Heavy metals have one of the most significant negative effects on the components of floodplain-channel complexes (floodplain soil, surface water, bottom sediments, macrophytes, hydrobionts). Studies have shown that drainage reclamation leads to a decrease in the content of humus in floodplain soil, collector-drainage runoff, changing the chemical composition of natural water, affects the processes of transit-accumulation of heavy metals from sediments to water. The integrated chemical and ecological assessment of the influence of drainage reclamation on the state of the floodplain soil – water-bottom sediments system showed a critical situation of pollution of agricultural landscapes of water basins with heavy metals. Drainage melioration also negatively affects the state of hydrobionts-aquatic vegetation and fish, heavy metals accumulate in their organisms, which leads to disruption of aquatic flora and fauna life processes.

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