Volume 18 (2020)
  Special Issue II

Full text of the journal: Volume 18 Special Issue II

Contents


Pages

1115–1126 C.A. Alesso, P.A. Cipriotti, M.J. Masola, M.E. Carrizo, S.C. Imhoff, L. Rocha-Meneses and D.L. Antille
Spatial distribution of soil mechanical strength in a controlled traffic farming system as determined by cone index and geostatistical techniques
Abstract |
Full text PDF (506 KB)

Spatial distribution of soil mechanical strength in a controlled traffic farming system as determined by cone index and geostatistical techniques

C.A. Alesso¹*, P.A. Cipriotti², M.J. Masola¹, M.E. Carrizo¹, S.C. Imhoff¹, L. Rocha-Meneses³ and D.L. Antille⁴*

¹ICiAgro Litoral, Universidad Nacional del Litoral-CONICET, Kreder 2805, Esperanza, Santa Fe S3080HOF, Argentina
²IFEVA, Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET, Av. San Martín 4453, Buenos Aires C1417DSE, Argentina
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
⁴CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Black Mountain Science and Innovation Precinct, Clunies Ross street, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
*Correspondence: calesso@fca.unl.edu.ar, Dio.Antille@csiro.au

Abstract:

Controlled traffic farming (CTF) is a mechanisation system in which all load-bearing wheels are confined to the least possible area of permanent traffic lanes and where crops are grown in permanent, non-trafficked beds. In well-designed systems, the area affected by traffic represents less than 15% of the total field cropped area. The extent and distribution of soil compaction at locations laterally outboard of the permanent traffic lanes may explain the performance of the crop on the rows located either side of the wheeling. This compaction is due to lateral displacement of soil caused by repetitive wheeling, the effect of soil-tyre interaction and the soil conditions (strength) at the time of traffic. The impact of compaction on crop rows adjacent to permanent traffic lanes is also dependent on the seasonal effect of weather, because of changes in soil water availability. This work was conducted to model the spatial distribution of soil mechanical strength under increasing number of tractor passes to simulate the soil conditions that may be encountered in CTF systems at locations near-permanent traffic lanes. The study was conducted on a Typic Argiudoll (26% clay, 72% silt, 2% sand) with four traffic intensities (0, 6, 12 and 18 passes) using a 120 HP tractor (overall mass: 6.3 Mg). Traffic treatments were applied to experimental plots using a completely randomized block design with three replications per treatment. The spatial distribution of soil strength within wheeled and non-wheeled zones was determined using a cone penetrometer (depth range: 0–300 mm) and geostatistical techniques. In all treatments, cone index showed a quadratic response with depth, which explained between 67% and 88% of the variation in soil strength. The number of tractor passes had no effect on the range of spatial dependence of residuals. No differences were observed in the proportion of grid cells where penetration resistance was greater than 2 MPa (considered to be the soil strength limit for root growth of most arable crops) between-traffic treatments, or wheeled and non-wheeled zones, respectively. The overall mean proportion (± 95% confidence interval) of grid cells (4.9 ± 4.5%) suggested that this measure has a relatively high variability and therefore may not be a reliable parameter to be used in the design of future experimental work.

Key words:

, , ,




1127–1137 E. Aplocina
Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing Boer goats
Abstract |
Full text PDF (294 KB)

Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing Boer goats

E. Aplocina

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela iela 2, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
Correspondence: elita.aplocina@llu.lv

Abstract:

In developing countries, goat kids are usually reared naturally under extensive conditions, but kids that are fed high concentrate diets generally have higher daily gains, dressing percentage and carcass quality then those produced in extensive system. Feeding of goat kids is the main factor affecting growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing Boer goats. A study was carried out within the framework of the project ‘Zootechnical and economic efficiency of feeding of fodder pulses to ruminant’s meat production’. Eight kids of Boer breed were individually fattened for 60 days under an intensive management system, of which 4 kids received ad libitum concentrated feed of melted grain mix (GG) that was produced in farm and consisted of 25% oats, 25% barley and 50% fodder beans, but 4 kids received pelleted concentrated feed (CG) produced in feed company. Fattening performance, slaughter traits and carcass characteristics were evaluated. The carcasses were analyzed by weight and proportion of tissue: muscle, bone, fat. Daily live weight gain during 60 days of the fattening period was 235 g per day for CG kids, which is by 42.4% greater than for GG group kids (165 g per day (P < 0.05)). Feeding of GG kids by grain mix showed a lower growth rate of kids than feeding by pelleted concentrated feed (31.1 kg and 35.5 kg pre-slaughter, respectively), but had a higher dressing percentage (49.5% and 43.5%, respectively). Consequently, there was no significant difference in carcass weight (14.36 kg and 14.50 kg, respectively). GG carcasses had a higher fat content – 11.8% vs. 9.4%. In terms of the muscle-to-fat ratio, the carcasses of the kids of the two groups were significantly different (P < 0.05), where in the GG group there was 5.0 kg of muscle tissue per kg of fat and in the CG group there was 6.8 kg of muscle tissue. Total feed costs per day per animal and per kg live weight gain were higher in the CG group, as the feed price from a feed company was significantly higher than for farm-based grain meal. The results suggest that diet has an impact on the goat kid growth performance and carcass quality, and in intensive fattening systems it is more profitable to use a self-produced grain mix.

Key words:

, , ,




1138-1146 A. Avotins, K. Kviesis, J. Bicans, I. Alsina and L. Dubova
Experimental Analysis of IoT Based Camera SI-NDVI Values for Tomato Plant Health Monitoring Application
Abstract |

Experimental Analysis of IoT Based Camera SI-NDVI Values for Tomato Plant Health Monitoring Application

A. Avotins¹*, K. Kviesis¹, J. Bicans¹, I. Alsina² and L. Dubova²

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Industrial Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Azenes street 12/1, LV-1048, Riga, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant and Soil Science, Liela Street 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: ansis.avotins@rtu.lv

Abstract:

This paper reveals an IoT based camera design to capture SI-NDVI parameters and describes first obtained data analysis regarding luminary spectrum impact on readings in real greenhouse application. For experimental comparison, measurements of Encore, Strabena, Audiance, Bolzano, Forticia and Chocomate tomato plants, both for the ‘best’ and the ‘weakest’ plant sample, using IoT based camera solution and portable leaf spectrometer. First experimental results show that this approach can be applied for tomato plant monitoring, and reveals some ideas about possible precision improvements.

Key words:

, , , ,




1147–1153 D. Bartzialis, K.D. Giannoulis, E. Skoufogianni, A. Lavdis, G. Zalaoras, G. Charvalas and N.G. Danalatos
Sorghum dry biomass yield for solid bio-fuel production affected by different N-fertilization rates
Abstract |
Full text PDF (240 KB)

Sorghum dry biomass yield for solid bio-fuel production affected by different N-fertilization rates

D. Bartzialis*, K.D. Giannoulis*, E. Skoufogianni, A. Lavdis, G. Zalaoras, G. Charvalas and N.G. Danalatos

University of Thessaly, Dept. of Agriculture, Crop Production & Rural Environment, Fytokoy street, GR38443 Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: dbartz@uth.gr; kyriakos.giannoulis@gmail.com

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to examine the effect on the dry biomass yield of two different sorghum hybrids (H1 and H2) under five different N-fertilization levels (0, 70, 140, 210 and 280 kg ha-1) in a soil which was formed by lacustrine deposits of Karla Lake and is characterized from the downward movement of calcium carbonate from the surface horizons due to leaching (Fluventic Xerochrept) during 2017. The results demonstrated a significant effect (P < 0.05) of fertilization only for one hybrid. Biomass yield ranged from 22.2 to 37.5 t ha−1. For both hybrids, sorghum accumulated a high amount of biomass in stems. Dry stem/total biomass ratio was rather constant throughout the different fertilization treatments achieving 81.6 and 77.5% for the first (H1) and the second hybrid (H2), respectively. The second hybrid (H2) had a higher percentage of leaf biomass (20.1 vs. 13.8%) than the first (H1), but lagged behind in seed production (2.4 vs. 4.6%). Biomass dry matter partitioning and total dry weight are important selection criteria for energy crops, due to different gross calorific value and ash content but also because of the different economic importance they may have e.g. the seed is also used as animal feed. The above high biomass yields of sorghum, confirming the high potential of this crop, should be taken into serious consideration regarding land use planning, but further investigation for the gross calorific value and the ash content is needed as well as biomass characteristics that are quite important in case to improve the combustion process.

Key words:

, , , ,




1154–1162 M. Bertins, A. Bardule, L. Busa, A. Viksna, D. Lazdina and L. Ansone-Bertina
Impact of different fertilisers on elemental content in young hybrid aspen stem wood
Abstract |
Full text PDF (656 KB)

Impact of different fertilisers on elemental content in young hybrid aspen stem wood

M. Bertins¹*, A. Bardule², L. Busa¹, A. Viksna¹, D. Lazdina² and L. Ansone-Bertina³

¹University of Latvia, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, 1 Jelgavas street, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
²Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas street, LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
³University of Latvia, Faculty of Geography and Earth Science, Department of Environmental Science, 19 Raina Blvd, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.bertins@lu.lv

Abstract:

The biomass production using fast-growing tree species such as hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. x Populus tremula L.) has been recognized as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach. Growing these species can reduce the negative impact of earlier land mismanagement and at the same time provide additional biomass growth. The application of fertilisers may introduce not only the necessary macro elements (N, P, K) but also significant amounts of toxic heavy metals. Therefore, the knowledge about elemental flows from fertilised soil to the different parts of hybrid aspen trees is essential and especially meaningful for the evaluation of element content in specific environmental ecosystems. The impact of different fertilisers (sewage sludge, digestate and wood ash) on the concentrations of micro- and macro elements in the wood of six-year-old hybrid aspen stands grown on former agricultural land was studied. The determination of element concentrations in different tree rings of hybrid aspen trees was accomplished by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to determine the nitrogen and carbon content and isotope ratios in different parts of hybrid aspen trees. Stem disc samples from hybrid aspen trees were obtained from agricultural land in the central part of Latvia. Samples were taken from six-year-old hybrid aspen trees that at the moment of planting were fertilised with sewage sludge, a residue of biogas production (digestate) and wood ash. The obtained results indicated that the chemical element accumulation in hybrid aspen was affected by the applied fertiliser type. In this study, the use of wood ash, as well as digestate, affected the elemental content in hybrid aspen to a greater extent than the use of sewage sludge, relative to unfertilised (control) subplot. The analysed elements varied in the analysed stem plane (across the tree rings). The most significant changes between the rings were observed for the content of K and Ca.

Key words:

, , , ,




1163–1176 G.F. Botta, D.L. Antille, F. Bienvenido, D. Rivero, E.A. Avila-Pedraza, E.E. Contessotto, D.G. Ghelfi, A.I. Nistal, F.M. Pelizzari, L. Rocha-Meneses and A. Ezquerra Canalejo
Effect of cattle trampling and farm machinery traffic on soil compaction of an Entic Haplustoll in a semiarid region of Argentina
Abstract |
Full text PDF (452 KB)

Effect of cattle trampling and farm machinery traffic on soil compaction of an Entic Haplustoll in a semiarid region of Argentina

G.F. Botta¹*, D.L. Antille²*, F. Bienvenido³, D. Rivero⁴, E.A. Avila-Pedraza⁵, E.E. Contessotto¹, D.G. Ghelfi¹, A.I. Nistal¹, F.M. Pelizzari⁴, L. Rocha-Meneses⁶ and A. Ezquerra Canalejo⁷

¹Universidad Nacional de Lujan, Departamento de Tecnología, Ruta 5 y Avenida Constitución, AR6700 Luján, Argentina
²CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Black Mountain Science and Innovation Precinct, Clunies Ross Street, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
³Universidad de Almería, CIMEDES Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Cañada de San Urbano, ES04120 Almería, Spain
⁴Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, Facultad de Agronomía, Ruta 35 (km 334), AR6300 Santa Rosa, Argentina
⁵Universidad del Tolima, Facultad de Ingeniería Agronómica, Calle 42, Ibagué 730006299, Tolima, Colombia
⁶Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
⁷Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Montes, Forestal y del Medio Natural, Ciudad Universitaria, ES28040 Madrid, Spain
*Correspondence: gfbotta@agro.uba.ar; Dio.Antille@csiro.au

Abstract:

Soil compaction has detrimental effects on the physical, mechanical and hydraulic properties of soils, and affects important soil processes and function, and crop productivity. This work was conducted to investigate soil compaction impacts in integrated arable cropping-livestock systems managed under conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT). The work examined the combined effects of cattle trampling and farm machinery traffic on: soil strength, soil deformation, and water infiltration into soil. The following treatments were applied to soil (Entic Haplustoll, 60% sand) managed under CT and NT: three traffic intensities (1, 5, 7 passes) performed with light (2WD, 53 kN) and heavy (4WD, 100.4 kN) tractors, and two stocking densities (400 and 700 kg ha-1), respectively. Controls were also used to represent the condition of the soil without any effect of livestock or field traffic. In both tillage systems, soil penetration resistance (strength) increased and water infiltration into soil decreased as traffic intensities or stocking rates applied increased. There was a significant traffic intensity × stocking rate interaction, which influenced the depth and extent of soil compaction at depth. Despite these results, stubble grazing during fallow should not be discouraged as this practice offers mixed farming systems several agronomic and financial benefits. If stubble was to be grazed, the system would need to be carefully managed: (1) avoid ‘random’ traffic using permanent or semi-permanent traffic paths to minimise the field wheeled area, (2) vacate livestock from the field, or confine it to a sacrificial area, when the soil water content exceeds a critical level above which
soil damage is likely, and (3) maintain more than 60%–70% ground cover. Tillage repair treatments can be targeted to those sacrificial or ‘hot-spots’ areas so that localised, as supposed to widespread, compaction problems are rectified before the next crop is established.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1177-1188 V. Bulgakov, S. Nikolaenko, I. Holovach, A. Boris, S. Kiurchev, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
Theory of motion of grain mixture particle in the process of aspiration separation
Abstract |

Theory of motion of grain mixture particle in the process of aspiration separation

V. Bulgakov¹, S. Nikolaenko¹, I. Holovach¹, A. Boris², S. Kiurchev³, Ye. Ihnatiev³ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11, Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA08631, Kiev Region, Ukraine
³Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine,
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The paper describes the development of a mathematical model for the motion of a seed mixture particle in the aspiration channel of the separator after the particle passes the cone-shaped spreader and enters the workspace of the aspiration channel in the pneumatic dynamics and vibration unit devised by the authors. The unique feature of the proposed new design is the presence of the central pipe with sail members in the aspiration channel. The sail members in the air stream generate the self-oscillatory mode of motion of the central pipe, which results in the efficient separation of the grain seed mixture into the required fractions. On the basis of the prepared equivalent schematic model, the differential equations of the motion of a seed mixture particle in the process of aspiration separation have been generated. Basing on the results of the PC-assisted numerical modelling of the motion paths, on which the material particles (seeds) of the heavy and medium fractions travel, it has been established that they move on different courses, and the course of the heavy fraction seeds is such that, after they pass the cone-shaped spreader and advance further in the air stream through the space of the aspiration channel, they move closer to the pipe of the aspiration channel. Also, their velocities and accelerations are greater than the same kinematic parameters of the medium fraction seeds. The seeds of the light fraction move upwards under the action of the air stream and leave the aspiration separator at its top.

Key words:

, , , ,




1189-1202 N. Castrillón, V. González, J.A. Osorio, A.P. Montoya and G. Correa
Assessment of the methane emission for different typologies of fattening swine facilities in the department of Antioquia – Colombia
Abstract |
Full text PDF (407 KB)

Assessment of the methane emission for different typologies of fattening swine facilities in the department of Antioquia – Colombia

N. Castrillón²³*, V. González¹³, J.A. Osorio¹, A.P. Montoya¹ and G. Correa¹

¹Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Carrera 65 #59A-110, Código postal CO050034 Medellín, Colombia
²Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellín, Facultad de Minas, AV 80 #65-223, Código postal CO050034 Medellín, Colombia
³Grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Genética Molecular (BIOGEM), Departamento de Producción Animal, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, Carrera 65 No. 59 A-110, CO050034 Código, Colombia
*Correspondence: ncastrillon@unal.edu.co

Abstract:

The explosive growth of swine production at high stocking densities in confinement farming worldwide, has raised concerns the environmental impact, health and livestock productivity and the production of associated gases in this type of large-scale farms. The aim of this paper was to study the methane gas concentration and emissions of ten different typologies of swine production installations. The facilities were in the department of Antioquia – Colombia, they were located between 800–2,300 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) of heights, they mainly employed natural ventilation as refrigeration strategy and they were used for pigs in fattening stage. Methane measurements were taken at animal height. Sensors were located at intermediate points of the ventilation inlet and outlet areas. The behaviour of methane concentration and emission of the facilities were analysed along with the correlation and temporal evolution of climatic variables, comfort indices and construction typologies. The information was analysed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Were found an average of CH4 Emission Rate (ER) per facility (kg year-1) of 607.9, Global Warming Potential (GWP) per facility (kg year-1) of 15,197.42 and significant correlations between ER and cleaning frequency (CF), animal unit (AU), air flow (Q), animal density (AD) and relative humidity (RH) were evidenced. This is the first research reported in Colombia, that will be important to create some governmental policies.

Key words:

, , , ,




1203-1212 J. Chlebowski, M. Gaworski, T. Nowakowski and B. Matusiak vel Matuszewski
Association between body condition and production parameters of dairy cows in the experiment with use of BCS camera
Abstract |
Full text PDF (461 KB)

Association between body condition and production parameters of dairy cows in the experiment with use of BCS camera

J. Chlebowski¹*, M. Gaworski²*, T. Nowakowski¹ and B. Matusiak vel Matuszewski¹

¹Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Biosystems Engineering, Nowoursynowska street 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
²Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Engineering, Nowoursynowska street 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: jaroslaw_chlebowski@sggw.pl; marek_gaworski@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Dairy production effectiveness in the farm depends on many technical, technological and biological factors. State of the dairy cow condition constitutes one of the most important element in the assessment of dairy herd and production indices. Including access to modern technical solution to assess body condition of dairy cows, i.e. BCS camera, some results of observation in the herd with 362 cows were collected to find any relationship between BCS index and milk yield per cow including 5 lactation groups and cows differed in age as well as four seasons. Basing on data collected in the period of 11 months it was found that cows with the BCS index lower than 2.9 showed the highest daily milk production. Increase in BCS index was associated with decrease in amount of produced milk per day. The statistical analysis showed significant effect of lactation period, age of animals and season on BCS results in the considered dairy cow production cycle.

Key words:

, , , ,




1213–1219 F.A. Damasceno, J.L. Monge, J.A.C. Nascimento, R.R. Andrade, M. Barbari, J.A.O. Saraz and G.A.S. Ferraz
Estimate of manure present in compost dairy barn systems for sizing of manure storage
Abstract |
Full text PDF (213 KB)

Estimate of manure present in compost dairy barn systems for sizing of manure storage

F.A. Damasceno¹*, J.L. Monge², J.A.C. Nascimento¹, R.R. Andrade³, M. Barbari⁴, J.A.O. Saraz⁵ and G.A.S. Ferraz¹

¹Federal University of Lavras, Department of Engineering, BR37200-000 Lavras -Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Univeridad Nacional de Villa María, Institute of Basic and Applied Sciences, Agronomic Engineering, Córdoba, Argentina
³Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, BR36570-000 Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
⁵Univeridad Nacional de Colombia, Agrarians Faculty, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Medellin, Colombia
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@ufla.br

Abstract:

Milk production is increasingly modernized as a result of the growing demand for food around the world. Improvements in livestock facilities are observed, with a large increase in the use of feedlot systems such as the Compost Dairy Barn. Increasing milk production in confinement systems has also raised concerns such as the management of wastes (water, faeces and urine) from the system, which has become one of the most important issues in the intensive dairy farms. The aim of this work was to estimate the amount of manure present in compost dairy barn systems in order to size the manure storage. The study was conducted at four compost dairy barns in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. These compost barns had different bedding materials and dimensions. In each farm, data on milk yield and quality (daily production, fat and protein content), animal weight and amount of feed ingested by the animals were collected. Total-day manure delivered by the cows in the feeding alley and milking parlour was piled up together and weighed. Based on the results, it was observed that, in the compost dairy barns, only part of the total manure produced per day was delivered in the milking parlour (1.6 and 2.0%) and in the feed alley (27.6 to 49.3%). These results are very important for designers for the proper manure management system design of the dairy farms.

Key words:

, , , ,




1220–1234 I. S. Dunmade, E. Akinlabi and M. Daramola
A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa
Abstract |
Full text PDF (447 KB)

A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa

I. S. Dunmade¹*, E. Akinlabi² and M. Daramola³

¹Mount Royal University, Calgary, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Environmental Science, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary T3K 0C3, Canada
²University of Johannesburg, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa
³University of Witwatersrand, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa
*Correspondence: idunmade@mtroyal.ca

Abstract:

West African region has abundant second generation biomass resources consisting of agricultural residues, forest resources; municipal solid wastes; and animal wastes that could be harnessed to produce liquid biofuels. A number of countries in the region have developed energy policies to foster bioenergy production. Despite the national intent expressed in various countries’ bioenergy policies, development of bioenergy facilities and liquid biofuels production from cellulosic sources in the region are essentially at the research and development stage. This study, through comprehensive reviews of various bioenergy policies, news reports, related journal articles and development reports, examined the reasons for the delay in the development of bio-refineries in the region. The study then articulated feasible solutions to address the challenges. Among the discovered causes of the delay are over-dependence on fossil fuels and defective energy policy implementation manifesting in the form of lack of continuity. Other issues include poor private sector’s involvement and inadequate incentives necessary for private investors’ participation. This study concludes that boosting liquid biofuels production in West Africa would require public-private collaboration that is built from bottom-up. Successful bioenergy facilities’ development in the region would need to be community level scaled rather than being mega projects, and it would need to involve participation of communities as collaborators. In addition, to ensure sustainable production, it would be necessary to incorporate public enlightenment, and grant tax incentives to investors. Moreover, it would need to include a sustainable technology training package that would empower local engineers and technicians to not only develop bioenergy facilities that are suitable for the locality but also to maintain and improve them. Furthermore, Continuity and consistency in policy implementation and financing prioritization are essential to boosting liquid biofuel production in the West African region and to enable West African region to occupy its rightful place in the global bioeconomy.

Key words:

, , , ,




1235–1243 J. Dvořák, J. Hart and J. Kumhálová
Atmospheric attenuation of the Ku band along the space-earth path due to clouds and rain
Abstract |
Full text PDF (516 KB)

Atmospheric attenuation of the Ku band along the space-earth path due to clouds and rain

J. Dvořák¹, J. Hart² and J. Kumhálová³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (CULS), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: kubadvorka@gmail.com

Abstract:

The weather conditions formed in troposphere causes the greatest signal attenuation in satellite communication systems especially at frequencies above 10 GHz. This paper describes possible signal attenuations on the satellite-earth path due to rain and clouds. It was measured whether it is advantageous to use the Ku band for data transmission over other bands. The measurement was carried out in the Czech Republic using a beacon signal from Eutelsat 12W satellite at 12.5 GHz. Clouds and the rainfall rate at the measured location were obtained from the CHMI portal. The measurements show that the clouds cause negligible attenuation. Significant attenuation was caused by rainfall. The measured values of slant path rain show a significant decrease in signal strength even in light rain. The measured cumulative rainfall rate was found to be close to the ITU-R model. The measurements show that the Ku band is advantageous for data transmission in rain poorer regions including Central Europe.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1244–1254 P.F.P. Ferraz, V.C. Gonzalez, G.A.S. Ferraz, F.A. Damasceno, J.A.S. Osorio and L. Conti
Assessment of spatial variability of environmental variables of a typical house of laying hens in Colombia: Antioquia state Case
Abstract |
Full text PDF (483 KB)

Assessment of spatial variability of environmental variables of a typical house of laying hens in Colombia: Antioquia state Case

P.F.P. Ferraz¹*, V.C. Gonzalez², G.A.S. Ferraz¹, F.A. Damasceno³, J.A.S. Osorio² and L. Conti⁴

¹Federal University of Lavras – UFLA. Department of Agricultural Engineering – DEA- PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín. Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Código postal 050034 Medellín, Colombia
³Federal University of Lavras – UFLA. Department of Engineering – DEG- PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: patricia.ponciano@ufla.br

Abstract:

This paper aimed to analyze the magnitude and spatial variability of environmental variables: Temperature and Relative Humidity Index (THI), Radiant Thermal Load (RTL), Globe Temperature and Relative Humidity Index (BGTH) and Enthalpy (H), inside a house for laying hens, in the state of Antioquia (Colombia) during the month of August. A traditional Colombian poultry house with natural ventilation was used. All variables were manually measured at equally spaced 1.0×1.0 m points, totaling 99 data collection points inside the poultry house. Geostatistical techniques were used through semivariogram analysis, and isochore maps were generated through data interpolation by kriging. The semivariogram was fitted by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The used mathematical model was the spherical one. After adjusting the semivariograms, the data were interpolated by ordinary kriging. The semivariograms and the isochore maps allowed identifying the non-uniformity of the spatial distribution of all evaluated variables throughout the poultry house. The results show that THI, RTL, BGTH and, H presented values above the comfort limits in the most significant part of the poultry house during the observed period. It is possible to concluded that the use of natural ventilation alone was not sufficient to guarantee the homeothermy conditions for the layers. Thus, it is suggested that in addition to natural ventilation, secondary modifications should be used to improve farm productivity.

Key words:

, ,




1255–1266 M. Gaworski and S. Turbakiewicz
Understanding animal welfare by students and graduates of different studies
Abstract |
Full text PDF (335 KB)

Understanding animal welfare by students and graduates of different studies

M. Gaworski* and S. Turbakiewicz

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Engineering, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Nowoursynowska 166, PL02-787 Warsaw, Poland

Abstract:

Animal welfare is one of the key elements of contemporary approach to animal production. Social consciousness of animal welfare concerns first of all persons responsible for practical implementation of individual solutions for animal welfare improvement. But what about other group of peoples and their relation to animal welfare? The aim of the paper was to analyze some aspects of animal welfare assessment including opinions given by young Polish citizens. The idea of the paper was to investigate, how kind of higher education represented by citizens show effect on understanding of animal welfare problems. The scope of the paper included survey, where 165 graduates of different studies (humanities, polytechnic, medical, economic, art and life sciences studies) had the possibility to present and assess their knowledge on animal welfare. In one of the questions, interpreting an ideal farm with animal production, most respondents, regardless of the field of study, pointed to the key role of maintaining the highest standards determining the welfare and comfort of livestock.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1267–1277 K.D. Giannoulis, D. Bartzialis, E. Skoufogianni, G. Charvalas and N.G. Danalatos
Comparison of two perennial energy crops for biomass production at the end of their life cycle
Abstract |
Full text PDF (427 KB)

Comparison of two perennial energy crops for biomass production at the end of their life cycle

K.D. Giannoulis*, D. Bartzialis, E. Skoufogianni, G. Charvalas and N.G. Danalatos

University of Thessaly, Dept. of Agriculture, Crop Production & Rural Environment, Fytokoy street, GR38446 Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: kyriakos.giannoulis@gmail.com; kgiannoulis@uth.gr

Abstract:

Nowadays fossil fuels are decreasing, causing the world’s interest in renewable energy sources to rapidly grow. One of the most interesting renewable and ecologically pure fuels is biomass, which is considered to be carbon neutral. Biomass is a promising source of energy, as it can be used directly as an energy resource. Its quality characteristics such as gross calorific value and ash content are of paramount importance so as to improve the combustion process. Furthermore, during the last three decades, there has been an increasing interest in the production of biomass pellets for domestic and industrial use. Alternative feed stocks will need to be sourced to meet the demand for biomass pellets. Investigation for new energy crops that produce high amounts of biomass under low inputs and of high energy efficiency are the main tasks of this field. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the biomass yield and the quality characteristics (gross calorific value and ash content) of two perennial energy crops (Cynara cardunculus L. and Panicum virgatum L.) growing in a typical soil (Fluventic Xerochrept) of the main agricultural land of central Greece. The comparison for both cultivated crops was made in order to show the results during their 8th growing year. The examined factors were the irrigation (two levels: irrigated and rainfed) and the nitrogen fertilization (two levels: 0 and 80 kg N ha-1) as well as their effect on the dry biomass yield and the gross calorific value. It was found that higher dry biomass yield was produced from cardoon (21.3 vs. 14.23 t ha-1), while the higher average gross calorific value was observed for switchgrass biomass (17.31 vs. 15.65 Mj kg-1). Finally, multiplying the dry biomass yield (t ha-1) with the gross calorific value (Mj kg-1) it was found that 334 and 245 Gj ha-1 from a cardoon and a switchgrass cultivation could be produced, respectively. Cardoon has better results than switchgrass probably due to the fact that switchgrass is growing from March till October; while cardoon’s growing period is from October to June and in such areas precipitation is in shortage during summer months. Both crops could achieve high amounts of energy per hectare and thus their introduction in future land use systems, for an environmentally friendly energy production should be seriously taken into consideration.

Key words:

, , , ,




1278–1287 J.R.M.R. Gonçalves, G.A.S. Ferraz,, D.B. Marin, E.F. Reynaldo, P.F.P. Ferraz, D. Sarri and M. Vieri
Comparative environmental analysis of soil sampling methods in precision agriculture for lime application in Paraná State, Brazil
Abstract |
Full text PDF (552 KB)

Comparative environmental analysis of soil sampling methods in precision agriculture for lime application in Paraná State, Brazil

J.R.M.R. Gonçalves¹, G.A.S. Ferraz²,*, D.B. Marin², E.F. Reynaldo³, P.F.P. Ferraz², D. Sarri⁴ and M. Vieri⁴

¹IBMR Laureate International - IBMR, Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura - Avenida das Américas 2603, BR22631-002 Barra da Tijuca-RJ, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University, Campus, BR37.200-000 Lavras-MG, Brazil
³Field Equipment Manager - Syngenta - Rua Providence 236, BR38407-744 Uberlândia-MG, Brazil
⁴University of Florence, Department of Agricultural, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Biosystem Engineering Division, Piazzale delle Cascine 15, IT50144 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: gabriel.ferraz@ufla.br

Abstract:

Precision agriculture (PA) provides techniques that favour the localized application of inputs allowing their rational use. This makes the PA a potential indicator of reduced operational costs, input volume, and environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the environmental effects of three different sampling methods used in PA for the lime application. The first sampling method evaluated was the grid sampling (GS). It was performed at a density of one sample per hectare in a 100×100 m georeferenced grid. The second method was the directed sampling, that was performed after defining the management zones by soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) using a soil electrical conductivity sensor. The lest sampling method was the Altitude-based management zone (AMZ) sampling that was developed based on altitude maps of the field. These sampling methods were tested in three different areas in the south of Brazil. This study evaluated the spatial variability of the lime volume in the soil and compared quantitatively and spatially the recommended application volumes achieved by each sampling method. Results highlighted that the sensor-directed soil sampling method was the alternative that would generate the lowest environmental impact.

Key words:

, , ,




1288–1299 N.L. Grachev, V.V. Bourdeiniy, V.V. Reshetnyak, M.S. Volkhonov, M.D. Elokhin, N.G. Karenkova and V.S. Kukhar
Improvement of the elk domestication technology at Sumarokovsky State Nature Reserve
Abstract |
Full text PDF (439 KB)

Improvement of the elk domestication technology at Sumarokovsky State Nature Reserve

N.L. Grachev¹, V.V. Bourdeiniy², V.V. Reshetnyak²*, M.S. Volkhonov², M.D. Elokhin¹, N.G. Karenkova¹ and V.S. Kukhar³

¹State nature reserve Sumarokovsky 156940 Kostroma region, Krasnoselsky district, village of Sumarokovo, Russia
²Kostroma State Agricultural Academy 156530, Kostroma Region, Kostroma District, Karavaevo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Faculty of Engineering and Technology (Agricultural Mechanization), Russia
³Ural State Agrarian University 620075, Sverdlovsk region, Ekaterinburg, International scientific educational and marketing center
*Correspondence: Resh_vv76@mail.ru

Abstract:

The paper discusses the technology of elk domestication and measures for its improvement at Sumarokovsky state nature reserve, the largest world center for the domestication of elks, as well as an environmental, research, cultural and educational institution. The article contains the data on ethological observations, the evolution of elk behavior in the conditions of ecological tourism, on elk keeping and on the conditions of the food base, on technological processes and suggests possible ways to correct them. It has the description of the organizational structure of the reserve, of the forestlands around and of their forage capacity; gives information about the vegetation composition, the mode of keeping and feeding elks. The reserve, due to its presence in a specially protected area, experiences significant restrictions on forest use on its territory, which leads to a deterioration and decrease in the area and quality of forage land for domesticated elks. The article shows the necessity of improving the regulatory framework as well as of the development and implementation of biotechnological measures to preserve and increase the forage capacity of frestland. It also shows that the technological chain of domestication makes it possible to get a controlled, stress-resistant, calm, friendly and safe animal, to carry out the selection period for the formation of dairy herds earlier, to obtain unique milk with both high nutritional and medicinal properties. Considering the fact that the largest number of domesticated elks in the world is concentrated in the reserve, the technology there is unique. Because of the potential danger of an elk as a source of human infection with various pathogens, the veterinary service requires intensification. It includes monitoring, development of treatment methods, drug application, prevention and control measures for diseases, provision of normative documents, etc. A change in the elk domestication technology under the increasing role of ecological tourism has led to the formation of a new economical type of a reserve, which combines elements of a stationary-exit, multidisciplinary and enclosure types.

Key words:

, ,




1300–1306 K. Grausa, V. Komasilovs, L. Brossard, N. Quiniou, M. Marcon, M. Querne, A. Kviesis, N. Bumanis and A. Zacepins
Usability improvements of the Thermipig model for precision pig farming
Abstract |
Full text PDF (373 KB)

Usability improvements of the Thermipig model for precision pig farming

K. Grausa¹, V. Komasilovs¹, L. Brossard², N. Quiniou³, M. Marcon³, M. Querne³, A. Kviesis¹, N. Bumanis¹ and A. Zacepins¹*

¹University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Information Technologies, Department of Computer Systems, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²PEGASE, INRAE, Agrocampus Ouest, 35590 Saint-Gilles, France
³IFIP-Institut du Porc, BP35104, 35651 Le Rheu cedex, France
Correspondence: aleksejs.zacepins@llu.lv

Abstract:

Pig livestock farming systems encounter several economic and environmental challenges, connected with meat price decrease, sanitary norms, emissions etc. To deal with these issues, methods and models to assess the performance of a pig production system have been developed. For instance, Thermipig model represents the pig fattening room and simulates performances of pigs at the batch level, taking into account interactions between the individual variability of pigs, farmer’s practices, room characteristics and outdoor climate conditions. The model requires some static basic inputs fulfilled in several spreadsheets (such as rooms, pigs, and dietary characteristics) but also data files for voluminous variable inputs (such as outdoor temperature or climate control box parameters) for further modelling and outcome producing. This leads to challenges in data providing by the farmers and have to be improved. This paper deals with the implementation of the separate modules of the developed data warehouse system for usability improvements of the Thermipig model. The idea is to substitute input from the data files with online data input and automated variable processing by the model using the python script for connection to the remote data warehouse. The data warehouse system is extended with ‘Property Sets’ section dealing with all the operations that can be performed to a set of input variables. This approach demonstrates the ability of the data warehouse to act as data supplier for the remote model. As well the outcome of the model is also transferable back to the data warehouse for evaluation. This work is done within the Era-Net SuSan PigSys project – Improving pig system performance through a whole system approach.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1307–1315 I. Jansons, L. Degola, V. Sterna and S. Zute
Influence of local extruded soybean cake and imported soybean meal on fattening pig productivity and pork quality
Abstract |
Full text PDF (218 KB)

Influence of local extruded soybean cake and imported soybean meal on fattening pig productivity and pork quality

I. Jansons¹*, L. Degola², V. Sterna¹ and S. Zute¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, ‘Dizzemes’, Dizstende, Libagi parish, LV3258 Talsi County, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela street 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia.
*Correspondence: imants.jansons@arei.lv

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of feeding local and imported soybean protein feeds to fattening pigs and examining it impact on the quality of pork. The trial was created with 40 pigs divided in two groups (20 in each). Pigs in the control group received imported soybean meal, in the trial group local farm grown in Latvia extruded soybean cake mixed in the compound feed. The diets were designed to be nutritionally equivalent. For fattening pigs each diet were available on an ad libitum basis to pens. During the study pigs were weighed three times at 84, 140 and 190 days at age. Feed consumption, pig carcass traits and meat chemical composition were determined. The final live weight in control group was 108.33 ± 2.904 kg and in trial group was 111.88 ± 2.793 kg there were no significant difference (P > 0.05). Average daily live weight gain in the all experimental period in control group was 0.779 ± 0.096 kg and in trial group was 0.822 ± 0.103 kg, there were no significant difference (P > 0.05). Feed consumption per kg of live weight in control group was 2.39 kg in trial group was 2.24 kg. Pig carcass traits and meat chemical composition were similar for both groups without significant differences (P > 0.05). Soybeans grown and processed in Latvia were equivalent to imported soybeans and gives good rates of pig growth and quality of pork.

Key words:

, ,




1316–1322 D. Jonkus, L. Paura and L. Cielava
Longevity and milk production efficiency of Latvian local breeds during last decades
Abstract |
Full text PDF (323 KB)

Longevity and milk production efficiency of Latvian local breeds during last decades

D. Jonkus¹*, L. Paura² and L. Cielava¹

¹Latvia University of Life sciences and technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Animal Science, Liela str. 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life sciences and technologies, Faculty of Information Technologies, department of Control Systems, Liela str. 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: daina.jonkus@llu.lv

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to analyse the longevity and the amount of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per day of local dairy cattle breeds Latvian Brown (LB) and Latvian Blue (LZ). The study was based on the data of LB genetic resources (LB) 1770 and LZ 921 cows, which were born from January 1st, 2000 till December 31st year 2015. Milk productivity and longevity of the LB and LZ cows were analysed by birth year periods: 2000–2005, 2006–2010 and 2011–2015. LZ culled cows lifespan was in average 2,762.8 ± 55.14 days, or 7.6 years and it was significantly higher than for LB. The average lifespan of LB culling cows was 6.7 years. There are cows which had closed 7–12 lactations. On average, cows’ lifespan decreased during analysed period. In general, LZ cows are characterized by higher length of productive life and milking days. LZ cows produced more EC milk during their productive life; however, they had the lower milking day ECM productivity than LB cows.

Key words:

, ,




1323–1335 A.Y. Khaled, A. Kabutey, C. Mizera, P. Hrabe and D. Herák
Modelling of hot-air and vacuum drying of persimmon fruit (Diospyros kaki) using computational intelligence methods
Abstract |
Full text PDF (516 KB)

Modelling of hot-air and vacuum drying of persimmon fruit (Diospyros kaki) using computational intelligence methods

A.Y. Khaled¹*, A. Kabutey¹, C. Mizera¹, P. Hrabe² and D. Herák¹

¹Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Praha-Suchdol, Czech Republic
²Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Praha-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: f_yahya87@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The study evaluated the feasibility of applying computational intelligence methods as a non-destructive technique in describing the drying behaviour of persimmon fruit using vacuum drying (VD) and hot-air-drying (HAD) methods and to compare the results with thin layer mathematical models. Drying temperatures were 50, 60 and 70 °C. Kinetic models were developed using semi-theoretical thin layer models and computational intelligence methods: multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector regression (SVR). The statistical indicators of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used to assess the suitability of the models. The thin-layer mathematical models namely page and logarithmic accurately described the drying kinetics of persimmon slices with the highest R2 of 0.9999 and lowest RMSE of 0.0031. ANN showed R2 and RMSE values of 1.0000 and 0.0003, while SVR showed R2 of 0.9999 and RMSE of 0.0004. The validation results indicated good agreement between the predicted values obtained from the computational intelligence methods and the experimental moisture ratio data. Based on the study results, computational intelligence methods can reliably be used to describe the drying process of persimmon fruit.

Key words:

, , , ,




1336–1349 L.E. Kolesnikov, M.I. Kremenevskaya, I.E. Razumova, Yu.R. Kolesnikova, E.V Tambulatova and E.O. Yazeva
The biological basis for the use of protein growth stimulant made from cattle split for wheat foliar feeding and disease suppression
Abstract |
Full text PDF (853 KB)

The biological basis for the use of protein growth stimulant made from cattle split for wheat foliar feeding and disease suppression

L.E. Kolesnikov¹*, M.I. Kremenevskaya², I.E. Razumova¹, Yu.R. Kolesnikova³, E.V Tambulatova² and E.O. Yazeva²

¹Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnology, Soil science and Ecology, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, 2 Petersburg Shosse (highway), RU196601 St-Petersburg – Pushkin, Russia
²ITMO University, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, 49 Kronverksky Pr., RU197101 St- Petersburg, Russia
³Federal Research Center N.I. Vavilov All Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), Ministry of Science and higher education, Department of Plant Introduction, 42-44 Bolshaya Morskaya street, RU190000 St-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kleon9@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The new modern preparation – protein growth stimulant – was generated in accordance with technology of employees of Saint-Petersburg ITMO University and Saint-Petersburg State Agrarian University. Biological activity of the preparation was determined by measurements of 20 indicators of the wheat productivity. In addition, 16 indicators of different types of pathogenesis were determined. These can be formed at distribution of Helminthosporium root rot, wheat rust species, powdery mildew and wheat leaf blotch. The use of the protein growth stimulant promoted increase of potential yield in 80% of samples. In comparison with the control, 15 wheat varieties, treated with the preparation, showed an increase in the main productivity indicators: the length of the spike, the number of spikelets per spike, the weight of 1,000 grains, the productive tilling capacity and the general bushiness. The intensity of Helminthosporium root rot development decreased 11.9% (it was found in 53.3% of samples) and the wheat leaf blotch by 15.6% (in 66.7% of samples). The wheat brown rust development intensity decreased insignificantly (3.6% compared to the control). In the same time, values of the pathogen pustule area decreased at average by 79.8%. There was an increase in total nitrogen in wheat leaves at 92% of samples. As was revealed, the effectiveness of the protein growth stimulant largely depends on the wheat variety. To conclude, the prospect of using the new effective protein growth stimulant to increase productivity of wheat and protection from diseases was shown.

Key words:

, , ,




1350–1358 O. Komasilova, V. Komasilovs, A. Kviesis, N. Bumanis, H. Mellmann and A. Zacepins
Model for the bee apiary location evaluation
Abstract |
Full text PDF (791 KB)

Model for the bee apiary location evaluation

O. Komasilova¹, V. Komasilovs¹, A. Kviesis¹, N. Bumanis¹, H. Mellmann² and A. Zacepins¹*

¹University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Information Technologies, Department of Computer Systems, Liela iela 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Computer Science, Adaptive Systems, Humboldt University of Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, DE10117 Berlin, Germany
*Correspondence: aleksejs.zacepins@llu.lv

Abstract:

Honeybees are predominant and ecologically as well as economically important group of pollinators in most geographical regions. As a result of analysing current situation in studies and practices, a conclusion was drawn that beekeeping sector is in decline. The identified reasons for this are land-use intensification, monocropping, pesticide poisoning, colony diseases, parasites and adverse climate. One of the solutions is to find a proper bee colony harvesting location and use luring methods to attract bees to this location. Usually beekeepers choose the apiary location based on their own previous experience and sometimes the position is not optimal for the bees. This can be explained by different flowering periods, variation of resources at the known fields, as well as other factors. This research presents a model for evaluation of possible apiary locations, taking into account resource availability estimation in different surrounding agricultural fields. Authors propose a model for real agricultural field location digitization and evaluation of possible apiary location by fusing information about available field resources. To achieve this, several steps have to be completed, such as selection of fields of interest, converting selection to polygons for further calculations, defining the potential values and coefficients for amount of resources depending on type of crops and season and calculation of harvesting locations. As the outcome of the model, heat map of possible apiary locations are presented to the end-user (beekeeper) in the visual way. Based on the outcome, beekeepers can plan the optimal placement of the apiary and change it in the case of need. The Python language was used for the model development. Model can be extended to use additional factors and values to increase the precision for field resource evaluation. In addition, input from users (farmers, agricultural specialists, etc.) about external factors, that can affect the apiary location can be taken into account. This work is conducted within the Horizon 2020 FET project HIVEOPOLIS (Nr.824069 – Futuristic beehives for a smart metropolis).

Key words:

, , ,




1359–1367 V.B. Minin, V.D. Popov, D.A. Maksimov, A.A. Ustroev, S.P. Melnikov and E. Papushin
Developing of modern cultivation technology of organic potatoes
Abstract |
Full text PDF (265 KB)

Developing of modern cultivation technology of organic potatoes

V.B. Minin¹*, V.D. Popov¹, D.A. Maksimov¹, A.A. Ustroev¹, S.P. Melnikov² and E. Papushin¹

¹Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, – BFSBSI ‘Federal Scientific AgroEngineering Centre VIM’, Filtrovskoe shosse, 3, p.o. Tiarlevos, RU196625 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, building A2, Peterburgskoe shosse, Pushkin, RU196601 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: minin.iamfe@mail.ru

Abstract:

Medium term field experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of biological ways to increase potatoes yield on the sod-podzolic, light loamy soil.
The effects of the following two groups of factors were studied:
1. The level of mineral nutrition provided by compost;
2. Microbiological pant protection product (bio preparations): Flavobacterin which has N fixer attribute and Vitaplan and Kartofen, which have bio fungicide features.
Potatoes varieties ‘Nevsky’ and ‘Udacha’ were cultivated. The compost was applied in the dose range from 0 to 160 kg N ha-1. Treatment with bio-preparations was carried out by potato tubers during planting and leaves during the growing season. Weeds were removed mechanically. Weather conditions had a significant impact on the formation of the crop. The average yield of standard potato tubers for 2017–2018 ranged from 14.1 to 29.3 t ha-1. The use of both microbiological preparations and compost gave approximately the same effect and increased yields by 35–37% compared to the control. The use of compost together with bio-preparations provided an output of 27.6–29.3 t ha-1 of potatoes. In 2019, the joint use of compost and bio-preparations allowed to reach a yield of 40 tons ha-1 of marketable potatoes. On the basis of the obtained data, the mathematical dependencies of the yield of potatoes on the dose of compost, the type of biological preparation and the complex indicator of the year conditions were determined.

Key words:

, , , ,




1368–1379 D. Nemeikšytė and V. Osadčuks
Design of modified movement planning system as a component of an intelligent planning system for robot manipulator
Abstract |
Full text PDF (994 KB)

Design of modified movement planning system as a component of an intelligent planning system for robot manipulator

D. Nemeikšytė and V. Osadčuks*

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, 5 J. Cakstes blvd., LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: nemeiksyte.daiva@llu.lv, vitalijs.osadcuks@llu.lv

Abstract:

Different fields of industry and in-service support widely use robots, mechatronic and robotic technology systems in their activities. This is related to growing functionalities that result from using more advanced control systems the development of which is based on available achievements in the technical measures of computing. Therefore, the subject of study in this article was movement of a robot manipulator in using a fuzzy logics and neural network, and the goal of the study was to develop methods for designing combined intelligent planning and control systems for robot-manipulator movement in static dynamic environments based on the combined use of fuzzy logic apparatus and artificial neural networks to reduce the possibility of robot-manipulator’s joints colliding into unknown obstacles located in its operating area. Based on this, the robot arm model has been developed after calculating in the article the missing parameters of the experimental robot manipulator in order to analyze the peculiarities of using the fuzzy logics device as well as the specifics and challenges of using neural network. As a result of the study performed in the article, significant data were obtained based on which a method was offered for an intelligent system for planning robot manipulator movement in static environment using a fuzzy blocks, which was characterized by the use of neural network corresponding each block, and localization of each solution to the task of planning robot manipulator movement in each specific situation, which enables to improve the accuracy and efficiency of movement planning.

Key words:

, , , ,




1380–1387 V. Osadčuks, A. Kostromins, A. Pecka, V. Koteļeņecs and J. Jaško
Experimental efficiency evaluation of 445 nm semiconductor laser for robotized weed control applications
Abstract |
Full text PDF (465 KB)

Experimental efficiency evaluation of 445 nm semiconductor laser for robotized weed control applications

V. Osadčuks¹*, A. Kostromins², A. Pecka², V. Koteļeņecs³ and J. Jaško³

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Čakstes blvd. 5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Information Technologies, Liela street 2, LV-3001, Jelgava, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute for Plant Protection Research “Agrihorts”, Paula Lejina iela 2, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vtl@tvnet.lv

Abstract:

Robotized weed control is one of perspective approaches for decreasing ecological impact of farming. Although current level of technology development allows robotized weed control to be economically reasonable only in specific applications, it is only a matter of time to introduce them in full-scale industrial farming. In general terms weed control using agricultural robots consist of two parts: recognition and spatial localization of weeds (distinguishing them from crops) and precision application of some kind of growth limiting activity. Recognition and localization is usually carried out using computer vision solutions (image filtering and transformations, artificial neural networks etc.). Growth limiting in its turn is performed by mechanical, precise chemical, thermal, cryogenic or other means. This article covers application of laser radiation for thermal destruction of unwanted plant canopies. In most cases CO2 type lasers with 10.6 μm wavelength is used as they are affordable and they are applicable to use with plant biomass due to their spectral characteristics. Drawbacks of CO2 lasers are low efficiency, size, weight and complex maintenance. In recent years relatively powerful short-wavelength semiconductor lasers have became broadly available on market. Light absorption of healthy green leaves is much better in blue-UV spectrum than in green, far infrared and near infrared, which is almost completely reflected by leaves. Thus an experimental study of using 12 W output 445 nm blue semiconductor laser for weed canopy cutting was carried out. The experiments were performed with direct laser radiation, the laser module was positioned using robotic manipulator with different speeds and cutting patterns.

Key words:

, , ,




1388–1403 A. Panfilova,, A. Mohylnytska, V. Gamayunova, M. Fedorchuk, A. Drobitko and S. Tyshchenko
Modeling the impact of weather and climatic conditions and nutrition variants on the yield of spring barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Abstract |
Full text PDF (618 KB)

Modeling the impact of weather and climatic conditions and nutrition variants on the yield of spring barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.)

A. Panfilova¹,*, A. Mohylnytska², V. Gamayunova¹, M. Fedorchuk¹, A. Drobitko¹ and S. Tyshchenko²

¹Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agricultural technologies,
73 Karpenko Str., UA54000 Mykolayiv, Ukraine
²Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, Faculty of Management, 9 George Gongadze Str., UA54020 Mykolayiv, Ukraine

Abstract:

Crop yield is a result of the interaction between plant genetic traits, soil properties, agrotechnology and climatic regimes. Low yield tend to be formed in regions where it is limited to the extent of water availability, heat stress and the short duration of the grain filling period. High temperature and drought stress are projected to reduce crop yields and threaten food security. The article presents the results of studies on the effectiveness of treatment of spring barley crops with modern growth-regulating drugs on the background of mineral fertilizers, carried out in different weather and climatic conditions in 2013–2017 yrs on the Southern chernozem in the conditions of Steppe of Ukraine. It was studied the influence of weather and climatic conditions, varietal characteristics of spring barley and nutrition variants on the formation of grain yield. It was determined that the cultivation of spring barley, the introduction of pre-sowing cultivation of mineral fertilizer at a dose of N30P30 (background) and the use of crop foliar fertilizing at the beginning of the phase of stooling and earing by the complex organo-mineral fertilizer Escort bio created favorable conditions for the growth and development of plants of the studied varieties, which in turn had a positive effect on grain yield. Thus, according to this variant of nutrition, on average, during the years of research, it was formed the yield of 3.25–3.61 t ha-1 grains depending on the studied variety.
Results of researches showed that weather conditions during the years of research significantly influenced on the productivity of spring barley varieties. In 2016 the amount of precipitation was the highest (174.0 mm), the temperature during vegetation of spring barley was +14.9 °C. In 2013 the amount of precipitation was the lowest (67.4 mm), the temperature was +18.5 °C. The lowest crop yield was formed in 2013, and the highest yield was formed in 2016. Studies showed that the influence of weather factors in various interfacial periods of growth and development of spring barley was significant enough for the manifestation of signs of yield and its elements and is more dependent on rainfall.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1404–1417 R. Põldaru and H. Luik-Lindsaar
The impact of herd health on the efficiency of dairy farms
Abstract |
Full text PDF (316 KB)

The impact of herd health on the efficiency of dairy farms

R. Põldaru and H. Luik-Lindsaar*

Estonian University of Life Sciences, The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Fr. R. Kreutzwaldi 1A, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: helis.luik@emu.ee

Abstract:

Maximization of profit is one of the main interests of any farmer. Profit depends on managerial decisions and many economic factors, but also on the health of the herd. Thus, it is important to study how different factors related to herd health impact farms’ economic performance. The objective of this paper is to determine how herd health influences farm technical efficiency by comparing Estonian farm data from two periods, the years 2012 and 2017. Typically, the major herd health issues are related to udder problems, followed by reproduction issues and limb disorders. We used the FADN (Farm Accounting Data Network) database and data from Estonian Livestock Performance Recording Ltd. The two-stage mathematical approach was chosen as the research method. In the first stage the DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) was used to estimate farms’ technical efficiency. The output-oriented VRS (Variable Returns to Scale) approach was applied to the data of 64 farms. In the second stage, we used the FRM (Fractional Regression Model) to define which the technical efficiency drivers were among herd health and economic factors. The study revealed that major changes have occurred between the two periods analysed. The main herd health factors influencing farms’ technical efficiency are the somatic cell count (SCC) and age at first calving.

Key words:

, , ,




1418–1423 J. Priekulis, M. Mangalis and A. Leola
Rational selection and usage of rotary type milking equipment
Abstract |
Full text PDF (280 KB)

Rational selection and usage of rotary type milking equipment

J. Priekulis¹, M. Mangalis¹* and A. Leola²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd.5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Kreutzwaldi 56EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: maris.mangalis@llu.lv

Abstract:

The advisable time of operation of the rotary type milking equipment per day depending on the specific exploitation costs has been investigated. It has been stated that these costs can be reduced, if the rotary type milking equipment load is increased. Therefore, it is advisable to organise the work of milkers in two shifts, so that the milking equipment is operated even up to 16 h per day. For this reason the herd of cows should be accordingly large. For instance, milking twice with the equipment with 50 milking places the cow herd can reach having even 2,500 cows, but at milking three times – up to 1,400 cows.

Key words:

, , ,




1424–1432 L. Prysiazhniuk, Y. Honcharov, S. Chernii, S. Hryniv and S. Melnyk
The use of DNA markers for the evaluation of maize lines and hybrids based on cytoplasmic male sterility
Abstract |
Full text PDF (497 KB)

The use of DNA markers for the evaluation of maize lines and hybrids based on cytoplasmic male sterility

L. Prysiazhniuk¹*, Y. Honcharov², S. Chernii¹, S. Hryniv¹ and S. Melnyk¹

¹Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination, Henerala Rodymtseva Str. 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Research Institute of Agrarian Business, Berezynska Str. 80, UA49130 Dnipro, Ukraine
*Correspondence: prysiazhniuk_l@ukr.net

Abstract:

The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is very important for the production of maize hybrids. The new inbred lines and hybrids of maize of Ukrainian breeding were studied. In the field, four pairs of sterile analogue of line RL106S were obtained during four backcrossing (17М, 19М, 23М, 27М and 29М) and maintainer lines of RL106fS (18М, 20М, 24М, 28М and 30М) for S type cytoplasm and RL108C (195С, 201С, 205С, 207С, 209С) і RL108fC (196С, 202С, 206С, 208С, 210С) for C type respectively. For S type, the following combinations were obtained: RL23S×RL106fS, RL107S×RL106fS, RL98S×RL106fS, RL105S×RL106fS, RL113S×RL106fS and for C type: RL109C×RL108fC, RL110C×RL108fC, RL112C×RL108fC, RL114C×RL108fC, RL115C×RL108fC. The obtained hybrid combinations were planted the following year in a control nursery for field trials. According to the results of the field assessment, all the hybrids were sterile. The types of sterility of the studied lines and hybrids were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers for C and S types of cytoplasms. The presence of specific amplicons 398 and 799 bp was determined in sterile lines with C and S types of cytoplasm, respectively. Amplicons 398 and 799 bp were identified in simple-cross and simple reconstituted hybrids on a sterile basis, and can be used to determine the type of hybrid and its maternal component at the stages of selection and examination of new hybrids.

Key words:

, ,




1433–1443 D. Rapoport,,, T. Patrmanova, J. Kopecky, M. Mareckova,, G. Clemente and A. Salvalaggio
Isolation of streptomycetes causing common scab from 3-years old potato samples from South America
Abstract |
Full text PDF (395 KB)

Isolation of streptomycetes causing common scab from 3-years old potato samples from South America

D. Rapoport¹,²,*, T. Patrmanova², J. Kopecky², M. Mareckova²,³, G. Clemente⁴ and A. Salvalaggio⁴

¹Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics and Microbiology,
Viničná 5, CZ-12843 Prague 2, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Ecology of Microorganisms, Drnovská 73, 161 06 Prague, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food, and Natural
Resources, Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Kamýcká 129, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
⁴INTA, Agricultural Experimental Station Balcarce, 7620 Balcarce, Buenos Aires,
Argentina

Abstract:

In this paper, we aimed at assessing the best conditions for the isolation of actinobacteria from old potato samples. A set of media and pretreatments were tested. The optimal were chosen for the isolation of actinobacteria from potatoes from Peru, Chile and Argentina. Isolates were tested on the presence of thaxtomin phytotoxin by amplification of the respective gene. Phylogenetic position of strains was compared with their geographical origin, pathogenic potential and existence of common scab (CS) symptoms on potato sample. We demonstrated that RNAlater can be successfully used for the long-term preservation of potato peel for subsequent isolation of actinobacteria on R2A medium. Many streptomycetes were thaxtomin-positive, though they are distantly-related to described pathogens causing CS. Genus Nocardia was first reported to be thaxtomin-positive. Potentially pathogenic strains were isolated not only from infected potato but also from those lacking CS symptoms. Some strains from scabby potatoes were thaxtomin-negative.

Key words:

, , ,




1444–1454 L. Regni#, D. Pezzolla#, G. Gigliotti and P. Proietti
The sustainable reuse of compost from a new type of olive mill pomace in replacing peat for potted olive tree
Abstract |
Full text PDF (243 KB)

The sustainable reuse of compost from a new type of olive mill pomace in replacing peat for potted olive tree

L. Regni¹#*, D. Pezzolla²#*, G. Gigliotti² and P. Proietti¹

¹Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, via Borgo XX Giugno, 74, IT06121 Perugia, Italy
²Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Perugia, via G. Duranti 93, IT06125 Perugia, Italy
#these authors contributed equally to the work
*Correspondence: regni.luca.agr@gmail.com; daniela.pezzola@unipg.it

Abstract:

The attention for the replacement of peat in growing substrates is increasing due to its environmental and economic advantages. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of peat substitution by new type olive mill pomace and its compost on the vegetative activity of potted olive trees. A new type of humid pomace (hP) derived from an innovative two phase extraction system and its derived compost (C-hP) are used as total or partial (50% vol/vol) replacement of peat in olive growing substrate. The main chemical characteristics (moisture, water extractable organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio and electrical conductivity) of the hP and C-hP were measured. In order to evaluate the effects of the peat substitution on the plants vegetative activity, measurements of mortality, plant height, leaf net photosynthesis and plant growth (through final destructive measurements) were carried out. The use of hP resulted in a significant increase of the salinity of the substrate. The water extractable organic carbon concentration was higher in all substrates where peat was ewplaced and in particular when C-hP was used. The total replacement of peat with hP caused 100% mortality of the plants while C-hP can substitute peat up to 50% without causing a significative reduction of the final plant growth.

Key words:

, , ,




1455-1462 D. Ruska, D. Jonkus and L. Cielava
Evaluation of feed conversion efficiency for different dairy cows breeds by milk yield, milk content and faecal amount
Abstract |
Full text PDF (251 KB)

Evaluation of feed conversion efficiency for different dairy cows breeds by milk yield, milk content and faecal amount

D. Ruska*, D. Jonkus and L. Cielava

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: diana.ruska@llu.lv

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluation of feed conversion efficiency for Latvian Brown (LB) and Holstein Black and White (HM) dairy cows breeds to define optimal crude protein (CP) content in the feed. In the research study were completed three (A, B, C) dairy cows group (8 cows in each group) with LB and HM breed’s cows in the early lactation period, from 10 till 30 lactation days. Each groups cows were feeder with total mixed ration (TMR) with different CP content (approx. 18.0%, 17.5%, 17.0% accordingly). In the research period were controlled the amount of feed fed and regularly collected feed samples. After 21 days feeding was controlled milk yield, collected milk samples for content testing, and faecal amount and samples. Milk samples were analysed for fat, total protein (%) and urea content (mg dL-1). Milk samples for content parameters were analysed in an accredited milk quality laboratory. The statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS program package. The results acquired show that in all studied parameters were not significant differences between study groups. To evaluate the feed conversion efficiency during the study, we used the energy corrected milk (ECM) and the feed dry matter content during research and calculated the coefficient for each cow individually and on average in the study group. Milk yield, protein and faecal amount were significantly different among breeds. Milk urea content was average 28.5 mg dL-1 for all LB breed cows in all groups, for HM breeds it was 23.6 mg dL-1. These results show that LB breed cows did not converse feed proteins wholesome. Total milk and faecal amount were decreased in a group with CP 17% in feed by 10% and 7% accordingly. By using this data, the farmer may make evaluations and forecast of farming efficiency; cows breed preference and environmental threats.

Key words:

, , ,




1463-1471 L.M. Santos, G.A.S. Ferraz, A.V. Diotto, B.D.S. Barbosa, D.T. Maciel, M.T. Andrade, P.F.P. Ferraz and G. Rossi
Coffee crop coefficient prediction as a function of biophysical variables identified from RGB UAS images
Abstract |
Full text PDF (389 KB)

Coffee crop coefficient prediction as a function of biophysical variables identified from RGB UAS images

L.M. Santos¹*, G.A.S. Ferraz¹, A.V. Diotto², B.D.S. Barbosa¹, D.T. Maciel², M.T. Andrade¹, P.F.P. Ferraz¹ and G. Rossi³

¹Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University Campus, BR37.200-000 Lavras-MG, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Department of Water Resources and sanitation, University Campus, BR37.200-000 Lavras, Brazil
³University of Florence, Department of Agricultural, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Florence, Italy
*Correspondence: luanna_mendess@yahoo.com.br

Abstract:

Because of different Brazilian climatic conditions and the different plant conditions, such as the stage of development and even the variety, wide variation may exist in the crop coefficients (𝐾𝑐) values, both spatially and temporally. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a methodology to determine the short-term 𝐾𝑐 using biophysical parameters of coffee plants detected images obtained by an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). The study was conducted in Travessia variety coffee plantation. A UAS equipped with a digital camera was used. The images were collected in the field and were processed in Agisoft PhotoScan software. The data extracted from the images were used to calculate the biophysical parameters: leaf area index (LAI), leaf area (LA) and 𝐾𝑐. GeoDA software was used for mapping and spatial analysis. The pseudo-significance test was applied with p < 0.05 to validate the statistic. Moran’s index (I) for June was 0.228 and for May was 0.286. Estimates of 𝐾𝑐 values in June varied between 0.963 and 1.005. In May, the 𝐾𝑐 values were 1.05 for 32 blocks. With this study, a methodology was developed that enables the estimation of 𝐾𝑐 using remotely generated biophysical crop data.

Key words:

, , , ,




1472-1478 I. Sematovica, O. Ponomarjova, I. Kanska, A. Vanaga and T. Martinsons
Embryo transfer results in endangered cow breeds in Latvia
Abstract |
Full text PDF (710 KB)

Embryo transfer results in endangered cow breeds in Latvia

I. Sematovica¹*, O. Ponomarjova¹, I. Kanska², A. Vanaga¹ and T. Martinsons¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kr. Helmaņa iela 8, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
²Animal Breeders Association of Latvia, Republikas laukums 2, LV-1010 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: isem@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Since 2017 multiple ovulation (MO) and embryo transfer (ET) were used to save endangered cow breeds in Latvia. The aim of this work was to analyse results to establish factors influenced recipients’ pregnancy obtained up to now. Recipients age, induced (IRC) or native reproductive cycle (NRC), level of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in recipients’ blood on ET day, stage and quality of embryo, fresh or thawed embryo usage and person provided ET were taken into account. Repeated artificial insemination (AI) had been provided in 19 (22.1%) recipients before ET. Pregnancy was accepted in 23 out of 76 recipients (30.3%) until now. Higher pregnancy results were obtained using fresh embryos (19 out of 53 (35.8%)) vs thawed embryos (4 out of 23 (17.4%)), (P < 0.05). The IRC was more productive than NRC (P < 0.05). The development stage, quality of embryos, E2 level were significant factors to reach pregnancy (P < 0.05) but recipients age, P4 level and person provided ET did not influence the pregnancy rate in the present study (P > 0.05). More successful pregnancies were reached using embryos obtained from donors which had a higher glucose and cholesterol level in blood (P = 0.05). In conclusion, our newly educated MOET team should gain their experience and results could be improved using IRC in recipients, fresh embryos, and more attention could be paid to the donor-cows management in order to reach more qualitative embryos. Somatic cell count in the donors’ milk could be one of the indicator to avoid unsuccessful embryo obtaining.

Key words:

, ,




1479–1486 E. Shalavina, A. Briukhanov, E. Vasilev, R. Uvarov and A. Valge
Variation in the mass and moisture content of solid organic waste originating from a pig complex during its fermentation
Abstract |
Full text PDF (444 KB)

Variation in the mass and moisture content of solid organic waste originating from a pig complex during its fermentation

E. Shalavina*, A. Briukhanov, E. Vasilev, R. Uvarov and A. Valge

Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM (FSAC VIM) 3, Filtrovskoje Shosse p.o. Tiarlevo, RU196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: shalavinaev@mail.ru

Abstract:

The focus of the study was the fermentation of an organic waste mixture originating from a pig-rearing complex. The organic waste was processed in the laboratory-scale drum fermenter. Through the fermentation process, the fermented material was weighed by a system of four strain gauges installed under the fermenter. In our previous study, the following initial mixture characteristics were justified to have the fermentation process going – 65% to 70% moisture content and 400–600 kg m-3 density. The optimal operation mode of the fermenter was identified depending on the initial mixture composition – aeration frequency of 5 min h-1; air consumption of 11.3 m3 h-1 per 1.7 m3 of the fermenter volume; drum rotation interval – three times every 12 hours. Under this operating mode, the mass loss was 3% already on the third fermentation day and 7% – on the fifth day. As a result, the mass of the finished organic fertiliser was 9% smaller than that of the loaded mixture. The moisture content of the processed material also decreased: under the average moisture content of the loaded mixture of 68.7%, the average moisture content of the organic fertiliser was 66.4%. Based on the resulting experimental data, the mathematical models describing the dependence of the mass and moisture content of the processed material on the fermentation time were created. The study outcomes allow concluding that the solid-state aerobic fermentation is one of the promising options for the utilisation of the solid fraction of pig slurry.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1487–1497 E.V. Shatskikh,, O.V. Molokanova and R.Yu. Timoshenko
Study of influence of proteolytic action fodder additive in the composition of feed on productivity and development of broilers chickens’ internal organs
Abstract |
Full text PDF (565 KB)

Study of influence of proteolytic action fodder additive in the composition of feed on productivity and development of broilers chickens’ internal organs

E.V. Shatskikh¹,*, O.V. Molokanova¹ and R.Yu. Timoshenko²

¹Ural State Agrarian University, Department of Biotechnology and Food Products,
Street Karl Liebknecht 42, RU620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia
²Rep. office of Novus Europe S.A./N.V., Street Pryanishnikova 23A, of.33 RU127550
Moscow, Russia

Abstract:

In the system of comprehensive assessment of feed nutritional value, protein plays a special role. With the correct selection of proteolytic enzymes in the diet and with appropriate conditions (pH, temperature, duration and quantity of enzymes), most feed proteins can be degraded to preferred degree in the body: either partially, limited by proteolysis, or deep and complete – to individual amino acids, which is accompanied by an increase in animal productivity.
The objective was to study the efficiency of using the exogenous enzyme Sibenza DP 100 in the diet on productivity and development of broilers chickens’ internal organs. The experimental part of the work was carried out under the industrial conditions of private limited company ‘LISKoBroiler’ on Ross 308 broiler chickens. When the proteolytic enzyme was added to the birds’ diet without decreasing the nutritional value of crude protein and digestible aminoacids, higher values of the average daily gain were observed among all experimental groups compared to the control group, while reducing feed output per 1 kg of gain. While reducing the nutritional diet value in accordance with the matrix by 2.5% for crude protein and digestible amino acids and with the addition of the Sibenza DP 100 enzyme (500 g t-1), growing broilers was characterized by a slight lag in live weight compared to the control group, but with the most effective consumption feed per 1 kg of gain. The abovementioned system for the proteolytic enzyme use had the most positive effect on the morphological structure of the pancreas of broiler chickens.

Key words:

, , , , ,




1498–1515 L.A. Souza, F.C. Silva, A.C.L. Maria, A.L. Belem, D. Cecchin and M.M. Barros
Response surface for biodiesel production from soybean oil by ethylic route
Abstract |
Full text PDF (494 KB)

Response surface for biodiesel production from soybean oil by ethylic route

L.A. Souza¹, F.C. Silva¹*, A.C.L. Maria¹, A.L. Belem¹, D. Cecchin¹ and M.M. Barros²

¹Federal Fluminense University, Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Department, 156 Rua Passos da Pátria 156, bloco D, sala 235, 24210-240, Niterói, Brasil
²Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Engineering Department, Rodovia BR 465, Km 07, s/n Zona Rural, 23890-000, Seropédica, Brasil
*Correspondence: flaviocastro@id.uff.br

Abstract:

Petroleum has been the most consumed energy source in the world, but it tends to run out due its non-renewable character. Among biofuels, biodiesel has emerged as the main candidate to substitute petroleum diesel. The present study aimed to identify the maximum yield point of biodiesel production by generating a response surface using molar ratio, temperature and agitation time as independent variables, and yield as a dependent variable. From the response surface, it is observed that the increase in temperature and reaction time leads to reduced yield. The configuration that resulted in maximum yield of 93.30% was 12:1 molar ratio, 30 °C temperature and 30-minute reaction time. From the chromatographic analysis it was possible to identify five different fatty acids in the composition of the biodiesels. Total saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) ranged from 41.53% to 42.09% and total unsaturated fatty acids including monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) ranged from 57.92% to 58.48%. According to the results of the physicochemical analyses, the specific mass at 68 °F is in agreement with Brazilian, American and European specifications, ranging from 877.46 kg m-3 to 879.64 kg m-3. The kinematic viscosity at 104 °F ranged from 4.49 mm² s-1 to 4.82 mm² s-1. The acid value obtained did not vary within the limits established by the norms, and values between 0.54 and 2.74 mg KOH g-1 were observed.

Key words:

, , ,




1516–1525 K. Spalvins and D. Blumberga
A simple tool for resource availability optimization: A case study of dairy whey supply for single cell protein and oil production in Latvia
Abstract |
Full text PDF (507 KB)

A simple tool for resource availability optimization: A case study of dairy whey supply for single cell protein and oil production in Latvia

K. Spalvins* and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes street 12/1, LV 1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: kriss.spalvins@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Single cell proteins (SCP) and oils (SCO) are promising alternatives for replacing conventional feed ingredients in animal and aquaculture fish feeds. The production costs of SCP and SCO need to be reduced by using inexpensive substrates (production by-products) suitable for cultivation of protein and oil producing microorganisms. This article reviews the availability of milk processing by-product – whey in Latvia, in 2019. Additionally, a simple production plant location optimization model is proposed, where no prior knowledge of location optimization or experience with dedicated software is required from the user. The case study demonstrated that the model is valid, and it can be used as a simple tool for resource acquisition from multiple sources to single production plant.

Key words:

, , , ,




1526–1536 I. Szot, T. Lipa and A. Yareshchenko
Comparison of growth of maiden trees of cultivars and genotypes of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) in a nursery
Abstract |
Full text PDF (664 KB)

Comparison of growth of maiden trees of cultivars and genotypes of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) in a nursery

I. Szot¹, T. Lipa¹* and A. Yareshchenko²

¹Institute of Horticultural Production, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 28, PL20-612 Lublin, Poland
²Institute of Horticulture NAAS, Sadova 23, Novosilky, UA03027 Kyiv-27, Ukraine
*Correspondence: tomasz.lipa@up.lublin

Abstract:

Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is still not a very popular fruit plant in Poland. Fruit growers have been recently increasingly interested in the cultivation of plants with fruits that can be widely used in processing. Fruits of Cornelian cherry can be eaten raw, and processed in various ways: for tinctures, juices, jams, silage, candied, etc. Both the fruits and preserves are characterised by high pro-health properties due to the content of vitamins, anthocyanins, and loganic acid. Cornus mas adapts well to the climate and soil conditions in Poland. The only limitation of its broader cultivation is lack of good planting material. The experiment investigated the efficiency of budding on two-year-old seedlings (Cornus mas L.) of several cultivars and genotypes of Cornelian cherry. Moreover, the height of plants, stem diameter, average number of shoots, number of leaves on selected shoots, and quality of roots were determined. The cornelian cherry maidens obtained by budding with dormant bud in August on two-year-old seedlings of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) constitutes high quality material suitable for establishing commercial plantations. Maiden trees of particular cultivars and genotypes of cornelian cherry significantly differ in height, diameter, number of branches and leaves, as well as the size of the root system. The diameter of the trunk is a good indicator of the quality of Cornelian cherry maiden, because it is closely positively correlated with the height of plants and the number of shoots.

Key words:

, , ,




1537–1546 R. Uvarov, E. Shalavina, A. Briukhanov and E. Vasilev
Aerobic solid-state fermentation of the solid fraction of pig slurry
Abstract |
Full text PDF (586 KB)

Aerobic solid-state fermentation of the solid fraction of pig slurry

R. Uvarov*, E. Shalavina, A. Briukhanov and E. Vasilev

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM”, 3, Filtrovskoje Shosse p.o. Tiarlevo, RU196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: puo-24@mail.ru

Abstract:

Current expansion in the pig number in Russia and their concentration in separate locations contribute to higher environmental risks. One key risk factor is the slurry produced. To utilize it more efficiently, many pig farms introduce its solid-liquid separation. The study objective was to explore the feasibility of accelerated aerobic solid-state fermentation of the solid fraction of pig slurry in closed installations. The stable thermophilic process under the temperature above +55 °C achieves shorter processing time of 3–4 days. To date, however, there is no representative evidence of such an experience. Four options of fermented mixture composition were tested based on two types of the solid fraction of pig slurry: Type 1 fraction coming from a screw separator and Type 2 fraction coming from a decanter centrifuge. The fermenter operating modes were tested in the authors’ previous studies associated with processing of the solid fraction of cattle manure and bedding poultry manure. The intensity measure of fermentation was the temperature reached by the processed material in the fermenter. Under the investigated operation modes, the stable temperature was observed for nine days in the mesophilic process: 20 °С to 55 °С; in some cases, the transition to the thermophilic process – above 55 °С was recorded. Adding the catalytic components to the processed material accelerated the substrate self-heating and a higher temperature up to 59 °С was reached. This suggests that the considered operating modes of the fermenter were suitable for the fermentation of the specified substrate.

Key words:

, , ,




1547–1555 D.A. Valente, C.F. Souza, R.R. Andrade, I.F.F. Tinôco, F.C. Sousa and G. Rossi
Comparative analysis of performance by cows confined in different typologies of compost barns
Abstract |
Full text PDF (411 KB)

Comparative analysis of performance by cows confined in different typologies of compost barns

D.A. Valente¹*, C.F. Souza¹, R.R. Andrade¹, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, F.C. Sousa¹ and G. Rossi²*

¹University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, CEP: 36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13. IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: desiree.valente@ufv.br; giuseppe.rossi@unifi.it

Abstract:

The compost barn system was designed to be a sustainable alternative housing system for dairy cows. In order to help producers in the region to choose the best type of facility from the point of view of the milk production of the animals, this study compared the productivity of cows confined in an open composting barn with natural ventilation and in a closed composting barn with negative pressure ventilation and evaporative cooling panels. The temperature and relative humidity of the air were monitored, as well as the milk production of the animals housed in the facilities, and THI (Temperature and Humidity Index) were calculated. During the trials, the maximum daily temperatures of the air reached values around 27 °C and the THI remained within the normal range of up to 70. The average productivity remained in the general pattern described in the literature from 23 to 44 kg of milk cow-1 day-1, with lower rates obtained in the closed house. As the variation of the index used to describe the internal environment was not significant, it can be inferred that climatic elements as temperature and air humidity, under the conditions analyzed were not the main factors influencing the productivity rates of dairy cattle. In conclusion, under the analysed conditions the use of a closed barn with negative pressure ventilation is hardly justified as a plant that favoured the productivity of the confined cows.

Key words:

, , ,




1556–1572 A.-H. Viira, J. Ariva, K. Kall, L. Oper, E. Jürgenson, S. Maasikamäe and R. Põldaru
Restricting the eligible maintenance practices of permanent grassland – a realistic way towards more active farming?
Abstract |
Full text PDF (597 KB)

Restricting the eligible maintenance practices of permanent grassland – a realistic way towards more active farming?

A.-H. Viira¹*, J. Ariva¹, K. Kall¹, L. Oper¹, E. Jürgenson², S. Maasikamäe² and R. Põldaru¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1 A, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²University of Life Sciences, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: ants.viira@emu.ee

Abstract:

As a result of agricultural, land and ownership reforms coupled with liberal agricultural policy during the transition, agricultural land use in Estonia became more fragmented. A significant portion of agricultural land users are now considered passive farmers who maintain their agricultural land (often permanent grasslands) in good agricultural and environmental conditions and are therefore eligible for single area and greening payment. The maintenance of permanent grassland is one of the objectives of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), which contributes to the overall climate and biodiversity objectives of the EU. Until 2014, in Estonia, the minimum eligible activity for the maintenance of permanent grassland was to cut the grass and leave it on the ground. In 2015 and 2016, the area on which the cut grass could be left on the ground was restricted in order to increase incentives for more active agricultural land use. This paper analyses the likely effects of such restriction on the use and maintenance of permanent grasslands. The results of the study show that in the case of restrictions on the eligible practices of permanent grassland maintenance, passive land users as well as crop and mixed crop-livestock farms are likely to reduce the area of permanent grasslands (shrinking farms). At the same time, grazing livestock farms (expanding farms) would be willing to expand their permanent grassland area. More than 70% of the permanent grasslands of shrinking farms are located within 1 km and more than 90% within 2 km of expanding farms. However, in some regions it is likely that the maintenance of permanent grasslands is stopped as a result of the restrictions. It is argued that if permanent grasslands are to be maintained, it is necessary to introduce supports for grazing livestock farms, targeted supports for passive land users for their maintenance or more comprehensive land use policy that takes the climate change mitigation requirements into account.

Key words:

, , , ,




1573–1583 B. Wiśniewska-Kadżajan and K. Jankowski
Effects of the interaction between slurry, soil conditioners, and mineral NPK fertilizers on selected nutritional parameters of Festulolium braunii (K. Richt.) A. Camus
Abstract |
Full text PDF (485 KB)

Effects of the interaction between slurry, soil conditioners, and mineral NPK fertilizers on selected nutritional parameters of Festulolium braunii (K. Richt.) A. Camus

B. Wiśniewska-Kadżajan and K. Jankowski

University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce, Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture, B. Prusa 14, PL08-110 Siedlce, Poland
*Correspondence: bwisniewska@uph.edu.pl

Abstract:

The research was aimed at assessing the biomass yield of Festulolium braunii and its content of raw protein and crude ash after application of slurry, both on its own and together with soil conditioners (UGmax and Humus Active), and mineral fertilizers. The studies were conducted on the basis of a two-year field experiment. The interaction between slurry and soil conditioners and between slurry and mineral fertilizers was studied on the Sulino variety of Festulolium braunii, a hybrid between Lolium multiflorum and Festuca pratensis.
Compared with plants treated with liquid manure on its own, slurry applied with soil conditioners and mineral fertilizer did not significantly increase the biomass yield of the grass. However, there was higher protein content in Festulolium braunii, even if statistically insignificant, as a response to slurry supplemented with mineral fertilizer than in plants treated with slurry only. Various forms of treatment did not differentiate crude ash content in plant dry matter in a statistically significant way.

Key words:

, ,




1584–1596 A. Zymaroieva, O. Zhukov, T. Fedonyuk and T. Pinkina
The spatio-temporal trend of rapeseed yields in Ukraine as a marker of agro-economic factors influence
Abstract |
Full text PDF (707 KB)

The spatio-temporal trend of rapeseed yields in Ukraine as a marker of agro-economic factors influence

A. Zymaroieva¹*, O. Zhukov², T. Fedonyuk³ and T. Pinkina⁴

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Stary Blvd, 7, UA10008Z Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²Bogdan Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, Botany and Horticulture Department, Hetmanska steet 20, UA72318 Melitopol, Ukraine
³Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Ecology and Life Safety, Stary Blvd, 7. UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
⁴Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Ecology and Law, Department of Bioresources, Aquaculture and Natural Sciences, Stary Blvd, 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nastya.zymaroeva@gmail.com

Abstract:

The paper demonstrates the applicability of several statistical methods to the analysis and interpretation of the average rapeseed yield data. It proves our hypothesis that the general trend of rapeseed yield variations in Ukraine during 1991–2017 occurred due to agro-economic and agro-technological factors, which are the determinants of the revealed general trend. The temporal trend of rapeseed yield in most administrative districts can be described by a fourth-degree polynomial, namely, its characteristic points enabled us to describe and interpret the dynamics of rapeseed yields. The absolute term of the polynomial shows the initial conditions of the process, and its mapping allows us to identify the areas with the most favorable soil-climatic conditions for the rapeseed cultivation. Indicators of the maximum rate of growth and decrease of yields are the markers of stability of agro-ecosystems to the external influences. Therefore, the mapping of the maximum rate of decline and increase of yields reveal areas in which yields respond rapidly (increasing / falling) to the changes in agro-economic and agro-technological conditions, as well as areas where yields are more stable and change gradually. Thus, the form of the yield trend is determined by the influence of agro-technological and agro-economic factors, whose contribution to the fluctuation in rapeseed yields varies from 53% to 90%.

Key words:

, , , , , ,