Volume 19 (2021)
  Number 1

Full text of the journal: Volume 19 Number 1

Contents


Pages

5–12 A. Arne and A. Ilgaza
The effect of synbiotic inulin and enterococcus bacteria on digestive health and weight gain in calves
Abstract |
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The effect of synbiotic inulin and enterococcus bacteria on digestive health and weight gain in calves

A. Arne* and A. Ilgaza

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, K. Helmaņa street 8, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: arne.astra@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of study was to investigate the effect of a synbiotic containing Enterococcus bacteria and 3 different concentrations of inulin on the performance and health status of calves. Forty randomly selected healthy male Holstein crossbreed calves 23 (+/- 5) days old and weighing 50 kg (+/- 5 kg) were randomly allocated to 4 groups: control group (CoG n = 10) fed only whole milk, and 3 synbiotic supplemented groups: 1) SynG6 n = 10, 2) SynG12 n = 10, 3) SynG24 n = 10, in which calves received various amounts of prebiotic inulin (artichoke powder 6 g, 12 g, and 24 g) with 0.25 g of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium (2×109 CFU g-1). At the end of this study all three synbiotic group weight gains were significantly greater than the control group (p < 0.01). SynG12 (12 g artichoke powder) group’s weight gain was significantly greater than control and the 6 g and 24 g synbiotic groups (p < 0.05). The average cold carcass weight results were similar to the live weight results: SynG12 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than SynG6 and SynG24. Supplementing feedings with this combination of the synbiotic containing 6 g of inulin (produce in Latvia) mixed with Enterococcus (Protexin, UK) bacteria (SynG12) was most effective in achieving the greatest daily weight gain and cold carcass weight.

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13-27 Y. Bani Khalaf, A. Aldahadha, N. Samarah, O. Migdadi and I. Musallam
Effect of zero tillage and different weeding methods on grain yield of durum wheat in semi-arid regions
Abstract |

Effect of zero tillage and different weeding methods on grain yield of durum wheat in semi-arid regions

Y. Bani Khalaf¹, A. Aldahadha¹*, N. Samarah², O. Migdadi¹ and I. Musallam¹

¹Field Crops Directorate, National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), P.O. Box 19831, Baqa’, Jordan
²Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O. Box 3030, 22110 Irbid, Jordan.
*Correspondence: abdallah.aldahadha@narc.gov.jo

Abstract:

The high grain yield of wheat is limited by the dominance of weeds, particularly wild oat. Therefore, to improve wheat yield under these conditions, a field experiment was carried out in Maru Agricultural Research Station, Jordan during 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 to investigate yield response of two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.) to different tillage and weeding treatments. The experimental design used was a split-split arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Two-tillage treatments (conventional vs. zero tillage) were applied to the main plot, two wheat varieties to sub-plot, and five weeding methods (hand weeding, broadleaf + narrow leaf herbicide, broadleaf herbicide, narrow leaf herbicide, and controls) as a sub-sub-plot. The variety ‘Umqais’ had higher plant height, biological, grain, and straw yield than the variety ‘Sham’. Hand weeding slightly increased grain yield compared with mixed herbicides (the 2,4-D plus Antelope Clodinatop- propagyl). Furthermore, mixed herbicides presented a higher grain yield than using either single herbicide. The interaction between tillage systems and weeding methods was significant in both years. The highest (P < 0.05) straw yield (5,990 kg ha-1) was obtained by hand weeding under conventional tillage in the first season while the highest grain yield (2,005 kg ha-1) was obtained by hand weeding under zero tillage in the second season. Under all weed control treatments, the variety ‘Umqais’ had higher biological, grain, and straw yields than the variety ‘Sham’ in the second season indicating that variety ‘Umqais’ performed better under dry conditions. Our results confirmed the superior of zero tillage for increasing the grain yield of the variety ‘Umqais’, and for increasing the biological and straw yields of the variety ‘Sham’ under semi-arid rainfed conditions of Jordan.

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28–41 V. Bulgakov, O. Adamchuk, S. Pascuzzi, F. Santoro and J. Olt
Experimental research into uniformity in spreading mineral fertilizers with fertilizer spreader disc with tilted axis
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Experimental research into uniformity in spreading mineral fertilizers with fertilizer spreader disc with tilted axis

V. Bulgakov¹, O. Adamchuk², S. Pascuzzi³, F. Santoro³ and J. Olt⁴*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
³University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Via Amendola, 165/A, IT 70125 Bari, Italy
⁴Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Improving the efficiency in the work process of mineral fertilizer dressing is a topical problem in today’s agricultural industry. The authors have developed a design of the fertilizer spreading tool with a tilted axis and carried out field experiment investigations on it. It has been established by the results of the investigations that the non-uniformity in the spreading of mineral fertilizers along the line of their departure from the fertilizer spreading tool with a tilted axis is most strongly affected by the disc rotation frequency. The obtained results provide for selecting the optimum parameters and modes of operation for the tool under consideration in the situation, when it is installed in fertilizer placing machines. Also, it has been established that increasing the spreading disc rotation frequency in such a tool from 600 to 800 rpm results in the growth of the effective range of mineral fertilizer spreading along the placing line at a level of 10.5 m. Increasing the disc’s angle of inclination to the horizontal plane to 20º results in the rise of the effective fertilizer spreading range at a level of the 48th tray (24 m) inclusive as well as the increase of the distance between the tool and the tray that contains the maximum share of the spread fertilizers (5.1%) to 24 trays (12 m). At a constant rotation frequency of the disc in the tilted-axis fertilizer spreading tool, in all its kinematic modes of operation, an increase in the angle of its disc’s inclination to the horizontal plane results in the rise of the indices representing the distribution of the mineral fertilizers over the trays along the line of their placing. The width of the mineral fertilizer spreading can be controlled by adjusting the rotation frequency of the disc in the tilted-axis fertilizer spreading tool, when it is set at an angle to the horizontal plane, similar to how it is done in state-of-the-art fertilizer placing machines with horizontally positioned discs in their centrifugal spreading tools. The rotation frequency of the disc in the tilted-axis fertilizer spreading tool has the most significant effect on the coefficient of variation incidental to the distribution of the mineral fertilizers along the line of their placing.

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42–56 Y. Chenene, D. Blavet, M. Belalmi, G. Kaci, M. Teffahi and S.M. Ounane
Variation of chickpea nodulation in a Mediterranean agroecosystem: relationship with soil characteristics and thresholds for significant contribution to plant growth
Abstract |

Variation of chickpea nodulation in a Mediterranean agroecosystem: relationship with soil characteristics and thresholds for significant contribution to plant growth

Y. Chenene¹*, D. Blavet², M. Belalmi¹, G. Kaci¹³, M. Teffahi¹ and S.M. Ounane¹

¹High National School of Agronomy, Plant Production Department, Laboratory for Vegetal Production, El Harrach, Algiers, Algeria
²Research Institute for Development-IRD, UMR Eco&Sols, Functional Ecology and Biogeochemistry of Soils and Agro-Ecosystems, INRA-IRD-CIRAD-SupAgro, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France
³University M’Hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, Department of Agronomic Sciences, Avenue de l’indépendance, Boumerdes, Algeria
*Correspondence: cheneneyacine@gmail.com

Abstract:

This study was designed to investigate the influence of some environmental constraints on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth and nodulation in a reference agroecosystem. This multi-local field experiment, realized in the agroecosystem of Chlef in northern Algeria, involved 24 sites where the local well-adapted genotype Ain temouchent is grown. Determination of soil properties allowed the identification of three clusters of sites. Plant biomass (SDW) varied significantly among sites from 6.7 to 39.4 g SDW plant-1 and was highly correlated with nodule biomass (NDW). The slope of the regression function between NDW and SDW, defined as the efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis (EURS) inside clusters ranged from 67 to 200 g SDW g-1 NDW. Analysis of the EURS highlighted the existence of a low nodulation threshold of 0.1 g NDW plant-1 below which the contribution of nodulation to the host plant growth was not significant and a high threshold above which the nodule biomass increase was not linked with an increase in shoot biomass. Thus, the significant regression of shoot growth as a function of nodulation ranged from 0.10 to 0.35 g NDW plant-1 (R2 = 0.54, P < 0.001). Moreover, nodule biomass was positively correlated with soil Olsen-P, more particularly in cluster A (R2 = 0.50, P < 0.05) and B (R2 = 0.61, P < 0.01). This approach proved to be a rapid and efficient way to identify the major factors affecting nodulation in order to develop strategies to optimize nodule contribution to chickpea growth and yield.

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57–73 C.G. Comar, M. dos S. Queiroz, M.M. de Andrade, J.R. Trettel and H.M. Magalhães
Copper modulates the biochemical and enzymatic activity and growth of tomato cultivars grown in vitro
Abstract |

Copper modulates the biochemical and enzymatic activity and growth of tomato cultivars grown in vitro

C.G. Comar¹, M. dos S. Queiroz², M.M. de Andrade², J.R. Trettel¹ and H.M. Magalhães¹*

¹Paranaense University – UNIPAR, Graduate Program in Biotechnology Applied to Agriculture, 87502-210, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil
²Paranaense University – UNIPAR, Agronomy, 87502-210, Umuarama, Paraná, Brazil
*Correspondence: helidamara@prof.unipar.br

Abstract:

Copper (Cu) is a micronutrient that is neglected for tomato growth. This study sought to identify the effects of exposure to Cu on the growth and biochemical activity of two tomato cultivars. Tomato seeds of ‘Carolina’ and ‘Cereja’ cultivars were disinfected and inoculated in MS medium plus copper sulfate concentrations (CuSO4) (default MS, 25, 50, and 100 μm) and had their growth monitored for 30 days. It was estimated that the growth and biomass accumulation of tomato plants ‘Carolina’ and ‘Cereja’, both from the aerial part and the roots, were benefited by 25 e 50 μm of CuSO4. However, it was observed that these concentrations were inefficient in controlling hyperhydricity and leaf deformation. There was a reduction of these phenomena in the treatment with 100 μm, in both cultivars. Tomato of ‘Carolina’ cultivar subjected to 100 μm showed an increase in anthocyanins and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the root system. There was a reduction of catalase (CAT) activity in shoots exposed to Cu. ‘Cereja’ tomatoes subjected to 100 μm showed an increase in CAT and SOD activity in shoots and roots, respectively. It was concluded that the ‘Carolina’ and ‘Cereja’ tomatoes have their growth impaired when exposed to 100 μm CuSO4. Concentrations higher than 50 μm of CuSO4 cause an increase in the antioxidant activity in the shoot of tomato plants from the ‘Carolina’ cultivar. Concentrations higher than 50 μm CuSO4 increase SOD activity in the root system of tomato plants from the ‘Cereja’ cultivar.

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74-82 I.S. Draz, A.K. Darwish, M.S. Abou-Elseoud, A.A. Elassal and D.A. Komeil
Molecular discovery of new allele associated with loose smut resistance gene Ut-X in spring wheat
Abstract |
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Molecular discovery of new allele associated with loose smut resistance gene Ut-X in spring wheat

I.S. Draz¹*, A.K. Darwish², M.S. Abou-Elseoud², A.A. Elassal² and D.A. Komeil²

¹Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Plant Pathology Research, Department of Wheat Disease Research, Eg12619 Giza, Egypt
²University of Alexandria, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Pathology, El-Shatby, EG21545 Alexandria, Egypt
*Correspondence: dr.ibrahim_draz@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Genes of resistance to loose smut incited by the fungus Ustilago tritici (Pers.) Rostr. are still unknown in the Egyptian spring wheat. Loose smut incidence (LSI) was assessed in ten wheat cultivars through a two-year field trial during 2018–2020. All of the tested cultivars exhibited various percentages of susceptibility (> 10–70% LSI) to the disease except cultivar Misr-3 which exhibited resistance. The most susceptible cultivars were Sakha-93 (60%), Giza-168 (42.1%), and Misr-2 (34.28%). However, the resistant cultivar Misr-3 recorded the least LSI amounting to 5%. The wheat cultivars were screened by the SCAR marker (Xcrc4.2) to identify the presence/absence of loose smut resistance gene Ut-X. Molecular data revealed that the SCAR marker (Xcrc4.2) generated two alleles in cultivars with PCR fragments size of 800-bp and ≃ 200-bp. The favorable allele 800-bp was generated only in the resistant Egyptian cultivar ‘Misr-3’ and the resistant check cultivar ‘Biggar’, indicating the presence of the gene. Meanwhile, another allele ≃ 200-bp was generated in seven Egyptian cultivars, Giza-168, Giza-171, Misr2, Sakha-93, Gemmeiza-12, N-95, and Shandweel-1, indicating the absence of the resistant gene. This is the first study to report resistance genes to loose smut in Egyptian spring wheat, by detecting Ut-X in cultivar Misr-3. In addition, the study documented the first report of another allele ≃ 200-bp associated with SCAR marker (Xcrc4.2). Findings also revealed that the race-specific resistance gene Ut-X confers effective resistance to local U. tritici races, including race T10 which could be widely incorporated in breeding programs to control the disease.

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83-91 E.S. Gandrabur and A.B. Vereschagina
Features of bird-cherry that inhibits the breeding of the population Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)
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Features of bird-cherry that inhibits the breeding of the population Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae)

E.S. Gandrabur* and A.B. Vereschagina

All-Russian Research Institute for Plant Protection, Podbelskogo highway, 3, RU196608 St. Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia
*Correspondence:helenagandrabur@gmail.com

Abstract:

Long-term studies (2012–2018) of the formation of the Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) heteroecious population (number of remigrants, oviparae and eggs in autumn, number of perished eggs, fundatrices larvae, timing of flight of emigrants in spring) on the two samples of primary host Padus avium Mill. and P. avium x P. virginiana (L.) characterized by various morpho-physiological features have been carried out. By the methods of mathematical statistics, it has been proved that this formation occurs under the significant influence of the year conditions (A), host plant characteristics (B) and these factors interaction (AB). The most visible was their highly significant impact on the number of wintering aphid eggs (A = 200.42; B = 142.6; AB = 25.612). Plant characteristics such as significantly larger leaf area from the middle part of the shoot on P. avium x P. virginiana, than on P. avium (t = 8.37; р0.01 = 2.85) was important for attracting remigrants and the prone buds on P. avium x P. virginiana – for oviposition and survival of eggs. Correlation between the period of leaf fall and number of aphid eggs on both bird-cherry samples is presented. The effect of weather conditions on R. padi and primary hosts relationships is discussed. Correlation (r = 0.76; p = 0.0048) between average temperature of October and eggs number on P. avium is given. R. fundatrices.

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92-99 E.E. Golia, A. Angelaki, K.D. Giannoulis, E. Skoufogianni, D. Bartzialis, Ch. Cavalaris and S. Vleioras
Evaluation of soil properties, irrigation and solid waste application levels on Cu and Zn uptake by industrial hemp
Abstract |
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Evaluation of soil properties, irrigation and solid waste application levels on Cu and Zn uptake by industrial hemp

E.E. Golia¹*, A. Angelaki¹, K.D. Giannoulis¹, E. Skoufogianni¹, D. Bartzialis¹, Ch. Cavalaris¹ and S. Vleioras²

¹University of Thessaly, School of Agriculture Crop Production and Agricultural Environment, Fytokou Street, N. Ionia, GR38 446 Magnesia, Greece
²Regional Centre of Quality Control and Plant Protection of Magnesia, Laboratory of Quality Control, Torousia & Nikolaidi, Pedion Areos, GR38334, Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: egol@uth.gr

Abstract:

Α three-year experiment was performed to study the alteration of copper and zinc levels in industrial hemp grown in different soils using elevated sewage slurry solid waste applications. Two soil samples, an acidic and an alkaline one, with different soil properties, such as percentage of CaCO3 and cation exchange capacity values, were used. Three treatments of waste solid with provided elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn were combined with two irrigation levels. The application of high doses of the solid residue as well as high irrigation level lead to an increase of the mobility of metals in hemp leaves in acidic soil in contrast to alkaline. On the contrary, in alkaline soil along with a reduced irrigation level, there is a decrease in the mobility of Cu and therefore its accumulation in the roots or stems was observed. Concluding, hemp seem to be a promising plant remediator, after the application of the proper irrigation level and taking into account the physico-chemical soil properties of moderately contaminated (with copper and zinc) soils.

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100-107 M.Yu. Karpukhin and A.V. Abramchuk
Introduced assessment of agrestic legumes in the middle Urals
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Introduced assessment of agrestic legumes in the middle Urals

M.Yu. Karpukhin* and A.V. Abramchuk

Ural State Agrarian University, Karla Libknekhta Str., 42, 620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia *Correspondence: mkarpukhin@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Currently, in fodder production industry, there is an acute problem of finding legumes that are well adapted to the natural and climatic conditions of the Middle Urals, possessing great longevity, as well as high fodder values. In the Middle Urals, as well as in the Russian Federation, as a whole, legumes valuable for forage from wild vicia and peavine species are still not used in culture. Both of these genuses are of great practical interest for their introduction into culture. They significantly differ from legumes traditionally used in fodder production in a number of parameters: long longevity (7–10 years in natural phytocenoses), resistance to a complex of natural and climatic conditions (rather high winter hardiness), early regrowth in spring. The purpose of the experiment is to reveal the characteristics of the growth and development of perennial wild legumes under conditions of introduction. The tasks of the study included the determination of the height and average daily growth dynamics, the timing of the passage of phenological phases, and the productivity of aboveground biomass.
Research methods. The study on the introduction of agrestic legumes was carried out in the ‘Uralets’ educational and experimental farm (2005–2012), located in the Beloyarsky district of the Sverdlovsk region on the educational and experimental field of the crop production and breeding department. The experimental design includes 3 options: 1 opt. – Vicia sylvatica L. (forest vicia – control); 2 opt. – Lathyrus pisiformis L. (pea-shaped peavine); 3 opt. – Lathyrus pratensis L. (meadow peavine). The use of grass stand is single-cut, mowing carried out in the phase of mass flowering of the plants studied. To identify the floristic composition dynamics, a complete geobotanical description of vegetation was carried out. The following botanical composition was distinguished: introduced (cenose-forming) species: Vicia sylvatica L., Lathyrus pisiformis L., Lathyrus pratensis L.; non-seeded species – this group includes all wild-growing species (grasses and forbs) that have invaded the vegetation cover.
Results. During the study it was established that the earliest regrowth is characteristic of pea-shaped peavine, it significantly outpaced other types of legumes in its development. The different phyto-cenotic stability of the cenose-forming species in the grass stand was discovered, the highest observed in the meadow peavine.
The productivity of aboveground biomass in meadow peavine (by year of study) was significantly higher than in other studied species; on average for 2006–2012 it amounted to 15.3 t ha-1, which is 1.9 t ha-1 higher than forest vicia and 4.6 t ha-1 more than pea-shaped peavine. Scientific novelty. For the first time, in the conditions of the Middle Urals, the growth and development features of wild perennial species from the family Fabaceae: Vicia sylvatica L., Lathyrus pisiformis L., Lathyrus pratensis L., were studied.

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108–125 N.A. Kashirina, N.A. Bagrikova, S.N. Zhaldak, V.S. Pashtetsky and E.N. Drobotova
Morphological and morphometric characteristics of Cornelian Сherry (Cornus mas L.) in natural conditions of the Crimean Peninsula
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Morphological and morphometric characteristics of Cornelian Сherry (Cornus mas L.) in natural conditions of the Crimean Peninsula

N.A. Kashirina¹*, N.A. Bagrikova², S.N. Zhaldak³, V.S. Pashtetsky¹ and E.N. Drobotova¹

¹Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, 150 Kievskaya Str., RU295493 Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation
²Nikita Botanical Gardens – National Scientific Center of RAS, 52 Nikitsky spusk, Nikita Vil., RU298648, Yalta, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation
³V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, 4 Prospekt Vernadskogo, RU295007 Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation
*Correspondence: natalia.kashirina.96@mail.ru

Abstract:

Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is a valuable fruit and ornamental plant in the Cornaceae family. This is a promising frost- and drought-resistant crop, undemanding to growing conditions. Fruits and leaves of plants are rich with biologically active substances which allows them to be used in pharmaceutical, food, liquor, and other industries. In the natural non-cultivated communities on the Crimean Peninsula the species is represented by a wide variety of forms that are promising for study from the point of view of botanical and breeding research. There is practically no information in the scientific literature about the characteristics of cornelian cherry for the most common places of its growth on the Crimean Peninsula, regarding the morpho-biological features and patterns of development of cornelian cherry plants, which determines the relevance of research. The purpose of this work was to study the intraspecific variability of cornelian cherry plants within natural coenopopulations under varying ecological conditions in the foothill, mountain, and South Coast of the Crimea in order to identify the most promising forms for further breeding research. The results of a three-year study (2017 to 2019) revealed differences in the life form of plants, in the timing of fruit maturation, in the shape and color of the leaf and fruit, and in their metric parameters. Promising forms of plants with the largest fruits (an average weight from 1.65 g to 1.81 g) and a low percentage of endocarp – from 10% to15% (Form 1 – CP I, CP II, CP V, Form 2 a – CP IV) can be recommended for further breeding research.

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126-135 V. Kuvachоv, V. Bulgakov, V. Adamchuk, V. Kaminskiy, V. Melnik and J. Olt
Experimental research into new harrowing unit based on gantry agricultural implement carrier
Abstract |

Experimental research into new harrowing unit based on gantry agricultural implement carrier

V. Kuvachоv¹, V. Bulgakov², V. Adamchuk³, V. Kaminskiy⁴, V. Melnik⁵ and J. Olt⁶*

¹Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Avenue, UA72310 Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³National Scientific Centre, Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakha stl, Vasylkivsky Dist., UA08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁴National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine, 2b, Mashinobudivnikiv Str., Chabany vil., Kyiv-Svyatoshin Dist., UA08162 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁵Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44, Alchevskih Str., Kharkiv, UA 61002, Ukraine
⁶Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

From the point of view of energy saving, research into agricultural gantry units equipped with new implements specially adapted for operation in such systems and capable of efficiently functioning in controlled traffic (permanent lane) and wide span (gantry) systems is an important and topical issue in soil tillage science. The range of wide span systems includes harrowing units for fallow land tillage. This paper describes the experimental determination of the operating characteristics of the harrowing unit, in which a gantry implement carrier propels harrows for fallow land tillage, for the purpose of establishing the compliance of their parameters with the fundamental principles of the effective implementation of the controlled traffic and wide span soil management. The experimental investigations were done using strain-gauge and control-and-measuring equipment with analogue-to-digital conversion of the signals received from the sensing elements. An agricultural wide span unit with a track width of 3.5 m and harrows for fallow land tillage were investigated. The results show the harrowing unit is well adapted to operation in controlled traffic and wide span soil tillage systems and delivers high quality performance of the harrowing process. The latter effect is also due to the fact that the gantry travels on the compacted tracks which have a few surface irregularities compared to cultivated soil. The coefficient of variation of the draught force applied to the hook of the gantry during harrowing operations did not exceed 10%. This is evidence of the high stability (low variability) of the harrowing process, which has a positive effect on the motion stability of the harrowing unit based on the gantry tractor.

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136-146 I. Lignicka, A. Balgalve and A.M. Zīdere-Laizāne
Zinc content in different muesli samples
Abstract |
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Zinc content in different muesli samples

I. Lignicka*, A. Balgalve and A.M. Zīdere-Laizāne

Felici LLC, Rigas gatve 8, LV-2164 Adazi, Adazu novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilva.lignicka@musli.lv

Abstract:

There is no specialized zinc storage system in the body, therefore there must be a daily intake of zinc to achieve a steady state. Long-term zinc deficiency due to inappropriate nutrition may result in immunological or autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to develop muesli with naturally high zinc content. Zinc is found in various plant-based foods as grain flakes and seeds which often are one of the raw materials for muesli. Muesli is one of the grain-based food trends nowadays as people`s life habits are changing due to fast-paced life, still, it is important to obtain all nutrients. According to zinc content in raw materials five different muesli samples were prepared, from all samples, muesli with the highest zinc content with 3.80 mg 100 mg-1 was chosen for further analysis. Zinc bioavailability is assessed through the determination of absorbability. The kinetic in vitro intestinal digestion suggests how much zinc is released during digestion and could be absorbed in the small intestine. The results show that during digestion approximately 22% of zinc was absorbed in the small intestine. Such characteristics of in vitro digestion test shows that by one meal (50 g of muesli) it is possible to replenish our body zinc level by 0.42 mg. To check additional nutrient content in selected muesli samples different mineral and vitamin analyses were done. Mineral and vitamin content in the muesli sample was calculated according to their content in raw materials. Per portion, muesli is source of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B6 and vitamin E.

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147–170 Z. Magyar, P. Pepó and E. Gyimes
Comprehensive study on wheat flour quality attributes as influence by different agrotechnical factors
Abstract |

Comprehensive study on wheat flour quality attributes as influence by different agrotechnical factors

Z. Magyar¹*, P. Pepó¹ and E. Gyimes²

¹University of Debrecen, Kerpely Kálmán Doctoral School, Böszörményi street 138, HU4032 Debrecen, Hungary
²University of Szeged, Faculty of Engineering, Mars square 7, HU6724, Szeged Hungary
*Corresponding author. magyarzoltan93@gmail.com

Abstract:

The present polyfactorial long-term experiment was conducted to determine the role of different agrotechnical factors, like fertilization, forecrop, year and cultivar on the quality and yield attributes of a classical and a modern winter wheat genotypes. The research gives a complex view of the alteration of the most quality parameters (32) that are rarely done together in a single experiment (n = 96). All the studied factors had a significant effect on some tested properties. First growing season with fair water supply was beneficial for yield (+21.7%) however, the 2nd one with mild weather in spring and average annual precipitation was favourable for quality parameters (HFN: +3%, GI: +19%, GS: -51%, DDT: +22.4%, ST: +24.6%, DS: -14%, PDR: +37.6%, PD: +6%, PMR: +51.5%, PE: +52.7%, W: +25.8%, LV: +16.3%, HI: +13.3%). The optimal fertilizer demand of the different parameters varied to realize the potential of the varieties (N90P68K80 for Y, VWA, PWA, PMR, PE, LV, Mavg, KW and HI; meanwhile N150P113K133 for CP, WGC, ZI, VQN, ST, W and P/L). In the case of suboptimal nutrient supply, the effect of fore crops was significant (Y, CP, DGC, ZI, FE, VQN, DDT, ST, DS, PDR, PMR, PE, Mavg and all alveographic values). Comparing the varieties, GK Öthalom had better fertilizer response attribute (NUECP) and quality parameters, till then Mv Ispán possessed significantly better natural nutrient utilizing property (+22.9%), NUEY and yield (+31.7% in 2019). Summarizing the results, there is a need to put great emphasis on the selection of adapted cultivar and variety-specific agrotechnology practices, also these data contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between the quality parameters.

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171-184 G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov
Use of soil enzyme activity in assessing the effect of No-Till in the South of Russia
Abstract |

Use of soil enzyme activity in assessing the effect of No-Till in the South of Russia

G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova*, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology by D.I. Ivanovsky’s, Department of Ecology and Nature Management, av. Stachki 194/1, RU344090 Rostov on Done, Russia
*Correspondence: loko261008@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The activity of 11 enzymes (catalase, dehydrogenases, peroxydases, polyphenoloxidases, ascorbateoxidase, ferrireductase, β-fructofuranosidase, amylase, urease, phosphatase and protease) was assessed under conditions of steppe zone in the south of Russia when using different tillages. Winter wheat and sunflower are main crops in these soils. Moreover, chickpea, coriander, lint, barley, corn and some other crop are cultivated here in the crop rotation duration 6 years. Enzyme activity was compared in soils of 15 fields with long-term no-till (NT) versus to 15 fields with conventional tillage (CT). The researches were held along the whole Haplic Chernozem Loamic at a depth of 0–65 cm. Special attention was paid to top soil (0–10 cm), which is directly subject to the mechanical effect. The carbon cycle enzyme (β-fructofuranosidase) activity was the most sensitive indication for NT use. In top soil the enzyme activity was greater by 16–35% at NT versus to СТ. Activity of this enzyme reduces by 28–293% when soil depth increasing in both the tillages. Enzymes of different classes had different behaviours in soils depending on season, crops and tillage thanks to biochemical nature. Hydrolases and oxidoreductases were assessed by the indices characterizing soil condition and health. For this purpose geometric mean by hydrolase activity (GMEhd) and geometric mean by oxidoreductase (GMEox), as well as integral index of biological soil condition (IIBC) were used. Index GMEox in soil under sunflower reduced by 16% in summer versus to spring. Thereby, hydrolase index GMEhd reduced by 60%. At NT activity of oxidoreductase was lower by 10 and 13%, and activity of hydrolase was increased by 12 and 14% versus to СТ. Soil IIBS values at NT increased by 18–35% at average within three years (2016–2018). The use of NT technology contributes to an increase in the activity of hydrolases and soil quality due to the conservation of moisture in the soil.

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185–198 L.Yu. Novikova, N.A. Chalaya, M.N. Sitnikov, L.M. Gorlova, S.D. Kiru and E.V. Rogozina
Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia
Abstract |

Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia

L.Yu. Novikova¹*, N.A. Chalaya¹, M.N. Sitnikov¹, L.M. Gorlova¹, S.D. Kiru² and E.V. Rogozina¹

¹N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), 42, 44, Bolshaya Morskaya Str., RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Building A, 2, Peterburgskoe shosse, Pushkin, RU196601 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: l.novikova@vir.nw.ru

Abstract:

Under climate changes, it is particularly important to search for characteristics of varieties that are steady in contrasting weather conditions. The aim of the present research was to study the relationship between the growth of tubers and haulms in early potato varieties in the Northwestern Russia. Fourteen early potato varieties were studied in the field experiments conducted in 2017–2019 in the vicinities of St. Petersburg. The results of three intermediate digs on the 45th, 60th and 75th day from the planting date were analyzed. The correlation analysis, ANOVA, and regression were used. The average haulm and tubers weight significantly differed in the years of the study, while the number of tubers per plant and the haulm to tubers weight ratio did not differ. The relative growth rate of tubers weight from day 45 to 60 and from 60 to 75 did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2019, the years contrasting in terms of weather conditions. On the average, the tubers weight increased 2.6–2.8 times from day 45 to 60, and 1.4 times from day 60 to 75. It has been established that the early prediction of productivity in early potato varieties can be based on the haulm weight on the 60th day after planting; its coefficient of correlation with productivity was 0.72–0.79. Every 100 grams of the haulm weight on day 60 ensures a 100–200 g increment in the tubers weight by the time of harvest on day 80. The obtained results can be used in the development of a morphometric indicator-based automated system for monitoring the growth of potato plants.

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199–209 L. Pavliuk, K. Udovychenko, I. Riaba and M. Bublyk
Detection of sour and sweet cherry viruses in Ukraine
Abstract |
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Detection of sour and sweet cherry viruses in Ukraine

L. Pavliuk*, K. Udovychenko, I. Riaba and M. Bublyk

National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Horticulture, Sadova Str., 23, UA03027 Novosilky, Kyiv region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: pavliukl.92@ukr.net

Abstract:

One of the main obstacles on the way to successful cultivation of orchards and planting material of sour and sweet cherry is infection with viral pathogens. They can adversely affect yields, reduce plant resistance to abiotic factors and cause losses in the nursery. Therefore, it is important to determine the spread of viruses in plantations and the selection of virus-free plants for the establishment of nuclear stock collections. In order to study phytovirological state of the orchards, tests for the presence of five viral pathogens were performed: Tomato black ring nepovirus (TBRV), Cherry leaf roll nepovirus (CLRV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Petunia asteroid mosaic tombusvirus (PеAMV), Plum pox virus (PPV). The level of infection with these pathogens reaches 19.2% for sour cherry, 5.8% – for sweet cherry, and 7.4% – for rootstocks. PPV prevailed in sour cherry material – 7%, in sweet cherry material – ACLSV (3.6%), while the rootstock samples were most infected by PeAMV – 5.6%. Until now, this virus has not been reported in Ukraine. TBRV and ACLSV viruses have been known in other crops so far, while not yet been detected in sour and sweet cherry. It was determined that PPV isolates (Mahaleb 1, Mahaleb 2) which were detected in sour cherry, belong to strain D.

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210-223 T. Penev, D. Dimov, I. Marinov and T. Angelova
Study of influence of heat stress on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows
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Study of influence of heat stress on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows

T. Penev¹*, D. Dimov¹, I. Marinov² and T. Angelova³

¹Trakia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
²Trakia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
³Institute of Agriculture, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
*Correspondence: tonchopenev@abv.bg

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to study the effect of heat stress (HS) on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The study included 22 cows on different parities. In the building where the cows were housed, the temperature-humidity index (THI) was reported at 10:00 and 15:00 h, at the same time the rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) were reported for each of the examined cows. The daily rumen activity was taken from the SCR system by Allflex. The average THI values in May were 71, in June – 75, in July – 74, and in August – 77, from which it follows that in the summer months the cows were in conditions of mild to moderate heat stress throughout the day. The average daily milk yield of the cows increased from May to June and reached 41.44 kg day-1, then decreased in July and August to 37.2 and 32.48 kg day-1, respectively. With an increase in the THI values, an increase in the RR and RT was registered, as in THI above 79 the RR was 56.54 per min, and the RT was 39.33 °C. With increasing the THI values, the rumination of the cows decreased from 563 per day at THI < 72 to 542.5 at THI > 79. In cows with high daily milk yield, a higher RT was registered, and in cows with more than 50 kg per day, the RT was 39.09 °С. A more intense rumination was found in cows with higher daily milk yield. In cows with an average daily milk yield of 33.26 kg, an average of 450 ruminations per day were reported, and in those with an average milk yield of up to 42.89 kg – 650 ruminations per day. From the research conducted it was found that the studied physiological traits – rectal temperature, respiration rate and rumination are influenced by HS and the intensity of this effect depend on the daily milk yield of cows and THI levels.

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224-231 E.P. Shanina and G.A. Likhodeyevsky
Evaluation of interspecific potato breeding material with a complex of genes of immunity to Potato virus Y using molecular markers
Abstract |
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Evaluation of interspecific potato breeding material with a complex of genes of immunity to Potato virus Y using molecular markers

E.P. Shanina* and G.A. Likhodeyevsky

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Ural Federal Agrarian Research Center Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences», 112A Belinskogo Str., RU620142 Yekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: shanina08@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The article presents the results of research on potato culture, the presence of Ryadg, Rysto, and Rychc genes in complex interspecific potato hybrids, and based on the use of the DNA markers for selection of resistant forms to Potato virus Y (PVY). These genes are derived from different genetic sources of the species Solanum andigenum, S. stoloniferum and S. chacoense, respectively. The selected potato forms with a complex of agronomic characters are recommended for inclusion in the selection process, for creation of new varieties, as well as as a valuable source material for interspecific hybridization.

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232–249 L.M. Shevchuk, I.V. Grynyk, L.M. Levchuk, O.M. Yareshcenko, Ya.Yu. Tereshcenko and S.M. Babenko
Biochemical contents of highbush blueberry fruits grown in the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine
Abstract |

Biochemical contents of highbush blueberry fruits grown in the Western Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

L.M. Shevchuk*, I.V. Grynyk, L.M. Levchuk, O.M. Yareshcenko, Ya.Yu. Tereshcenko and S.M. Babenko

National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Horticulture, Sadova Str., 23, UA03027 Novosilky, Kyiv region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: zberig@ukr.net

Abstract:

The study of the physical and consumption qualitative indices of the highbush blueberries (the cultivars ‘Reca’, ‘Elizabeth’ and ‘Bluegold’) in the Western Lisosteppe of Ukraine has shown that the biggest fruit mass was accumulated by the berries of two last mentioned vs (1.54–1.50 g respectively). ‘Bluegold’ has this indicator as the least variable (V = 10.6%). The accumulation of fruit mass of all studied cultivars was facilitated by a moderately humid period of their development in 2018 with a hydrothermal coefficient of 1.1–1.2. The favorable year for the intensive synthesis of the dry matter and soluble solids was 2017 when the precipitation amount did not exceed 44 mm. The biggest number of the mentioned substances during the research period was accumulated by fruits of ‘Reca’ – 17.48 and 13.24%, respectively. It was established that the dry matter content had high level of stability (V = 8.2%), and middle was for soluble solids (V = 19.5%). The amount of monosaccharides from which glucose and fructose were investigated in fruits varied from 6.11 (‘Bluegold’) to 7.85 (‘Reca’), it was slightly lower in ‘Elizabeth’ berries – 7.78%. ‘Bluegold’ fruits were characterized by high stability (B = 9.6%) of the biggest content of titrated acids among the studied cultivars (2.42%). The dry weather with low number of precipitation in 2017 (hydrothermal coefficient 0.3–0.4) was favourable for the accumulation of both the mentioned acids and vitamin C in fruits of highbush blueberries in the period of their formation and growth. The amount of ascorbic acid in fruits in the specified year varied from 20.00 mg 100 g-1 WM (‘Reca’) to 27.00 mg 100 g-1 WM (‘Elizabeth’) with an intermediate value of 22.50 mg 100 g-1 WM (‘Bluegold’). The latest of the mentioned varieties had the most constant index (V = 7.0%). The content of polyphenolic substances was slightly dependent on weather conditions during the period of fruit growth, the coefficients of variation were 6.2% (‘Reca’), 7.0% (‘Elizabeth’) and 5.8% (‘Bluegold’). The fruits of the last mentioned cultivars were characterized with the biggest anthocyanins and chalcones content (68 and 13 mg 100 g-1 WM, respectively). The substantial indirect dependence of the content of the nutritive substances and anthocyanins on the berry mass was revealed in the ‘Reca’ fruits.

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250-264 D.C. Silveira, M. Pelissoni, C.R. Buzatto, S.M. Scheffer-Basso, L.A. Ebone, J.M. Machado and N.C. Lângaro
Anatomical traits and structural components of peduncle associated with lodging in Avena sativa L.
Abstract |

Anatomical traits and structural components of peduncle associated with lodging in Avena sativa L.

D.C. Silveira¹*, M. Pelissoni², C.R. Buzatto³, S.M. Scheffer-Basso², L.A. Ebone², J.M. Machado⁴ and N.C. Lângaro²

¹Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Faculty of Agronomy, Departament of Forage Plant and Agrometeorology, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 7712 Bairro Agronomia, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre RS, Brazil
²University of Passo Fundo, Faculty of Agronomy, Agronomy Post-Graduate Program, BR 285, Bairro São José, CEP 99052-900 Passo Fundo, Brazil
³University of Passo Fundo, Institute of Biological Sciences, Environmental Sciences Post-Graduate Program, BR 285, Bairro São José, CEP 99052-900 Passo Fundo, Brazil
⁴University of Cruz Alta, Faculty of Medicine veterinary, Center for Health and Agrarian Sciences, Rod. Jacob Della Méa, km 5.6, ZIP98005-972 Cruz Alta, Brazil
*Correspondence: diogenessilveira@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Lodging dramatically reduces the yield of cereals and increases the difficulty of mechanical harvesting. Because it is a complex phenomenon, new cultivars with genetic resistance to lodging is a sustainable alternative in agricultural production systems. This resistance is associated with a combination of factors, such as stem thickness and stiffness, being closely linked to anatomical traits and structural carbohydrates present in the stem. In the present study we compared, under field conditions, eight contrasting oat cultivars in terms of lodging resistance. Our aim in this study was to investigate the association of anatomical traits and structural components of the peduncle with resistance to lodging, aiming to assist in the plant selection process. In addition, a second objective was to understand the genetic dissimilarity among oat cultivars according to the characters studied. Some characteristics for potential indirect selection were studied in this work and if correlated with lodging can be used to identify superior genotypes. From the anatomical point of view, the correlation obtained between the internal vascular bundle and the lodging resistance factor allowed us to confirm that this trait can be used in indirect selection to lodging resistance. The structural components of peduncle, in the two ways explored in the present study, comparison of mean and correlation, did not demonstrate the potential to be used exclusively as plant selection characters traits for lodging resistance. There is noticeable variability in oat cultivars for most stem traits.

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265–275 S. Skuja, V. Antāne and I. Lūsis
Effects of retained fetal membranes treatments and dry period length on the subsequent lactation in cows – milk yield and somatic cell count
Abstract |
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Effects of retained fetal membranes treatments and dry period length on the subsequent lactation in cows – milk yield and somatic cell count

S. Skuja*, V. Antāne and I. Lūsis

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kr. Helmaņa 8, LV3004 Jelgava, Latvia *Correspondence: santa.skuja0@gmail.com

Abstract:

Different treatment strategies in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) may affect subsequent lactation in various ways. Also, excessively short or long dry periods (DP) can decrease milk yield (MY), increase the risk of poor udder health, and increase the risk of RFM. This study aimed to evaluate how different treatment strategies of RFM affect subsequent lactation in cows, i.e., MY and udder health determined on the somatic cell count (SCC) bases in milk, expressed as somatic cell score (SCS). A secondary but equally important objective was to analyse the dry period length (DPL) effect on the subsequent lactation in cows. The cows from two herds were divided into three groups: group 1–healthy control; group 2–cows with RFM, removed manually and treated with intrauterine (IU) antibiotics (AB); group 3–cows with RFM, not removed, but treated IU with AB. The DP of cows was divided post factum into shortened (up to 46 days), traditional (47 to 70 days), or prolonged (over 70 days). Statistical analyses were performed using linear multiple regression and multivariate analyses. Differences were statistically significant when P <0.05. The effect of different RFM treatment strategies on MY and SCS was evaluated. There were no statistically significant effects of RFM treatments on the MY in the subsequent lactation. However, there was a tendency (P = 0.07) for SCS in standard lactation to be higher in cows in group 2. The highest economic losses, calculated from the decrease in MY, were detected in the same group. Significantly lower MY was observed in cows with a shortened DPL during the first 30 days PP (P <0.05). The DPL did not affect the SCS.

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276–299 M. Sulg, A. Konist and O. Järvik
Characterization of different wood species as potential feedstocks for gasification
Abstract |
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Characterization of different wood species as potential feedstocks for gasification

M. Sulg*, A. Konist and O. Järvik

Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, UU19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*Correspondence: mari.sulg@taltech.ee

Abstract:

This paper provides an extended overview of the chemical characteristics of 19 different wood species originating from Estonia. The variation of chemical composition in wood and bark was investigated using a variety of analytical techniques including WD-XRF, ICP-MS, and elemental analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to observe clustering in the sample set. It revealed a clear data clustering in terms of the wood and bark samples. Wood characteristics exhibit quite narrow ranges, on the other hand the composition of wood bark samples is significantly different and more distributed. The correlations and associations among 27 chemical parameters, including 16 ash-forming elements, were studied. Several significant positive correlations between Cr-Ni-Fe, Ca-Sr, Al-Na-Si-Ti, K-Mg-P, Fe-Zn-Cr-Ni-Cu, Ash-Ca, N-S-P and O-volatile matter were found. Most of the metallic components are negatively correlated with volatile matter, C, H, O and heating value and are positively related to each other, or no significant correlation was identified. Results are compared to literature data and technical quality standards for biomass. Biomass feedstocks availability and composition for gasification process was discussed. Wood samples had higher volatiles content than in bark which is an indication that higher conversion rate and lower gasification temperature can be used. Spruce, pine and black alder barks have higher fixed carbon content than other common species that may increase biochar yield. Commonly available woods like Scots pine, Norway spruce, aspen, birch, black alder and grey alder may considered as suitable feedstocks for gasification because of their low N, S, Cl, and ash content together with high volatile matter, however, relatively high total heavy metals content were found from birch and grey alder barks compared to other hardwoods.

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300–326 Ya.H. Tsytsiura
Matrix quality variability of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) and features of its formation in technologically different construction of its agrophytocenosis
Abstract |

Matrix quality variability of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) and features of its formation in technologically different construction of its agrophytocenosis

Ya.H. Tsytsiura

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry, Sunny street, 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Correspondence:yaroslavtsytsyura@ukr.net

Abstract:

Overview of the formation of matrix variability of oilseed radish seeds at two levels: within a single pod and within the generative part of the plant, given the presence of vertical layering in the placement of fruit elements. The peculiarities of formation of variation component of morphological parameters of seeds from different zones of inflorescence were estimated, basing on their electrical scanning for oilseed radish agrophytoconosises of different technological construction and sowing rate against the background of four options of mineral nutrition (without fertilizer to the level 90 kg ha-1 with an equal interval of 30 kg ha-1 of the primary material). The results of the value of matrix variability in morphological and weight characteristics were grounded on the basis of the analysis of the structure of selected seed fractions and their intra-group variation. The main features of formation of morphometric variability of seeds from different zones of inflorescence depending on different technological construction were formulated.

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