Volume 19 (2021)
  Number 2

Full text of the journal: Volume 19 Number 2

Contents


Pages

333-343 A. Alami, A. Alachkar, S. Alasad, M. Alawadhi, D. Zhang,H. Aljaghoub and A. Elkeblawy
Investigating Calotropis Procera natural dye extracts and PDOT:PSS hole transport material for dye-sensitized solar cells
Abstract |

Investigating Calotropis Procera natural dye extracts and PDOT:PSS hole transport material for dye-sensitized solar cells

A. Alami¹²*, A. Alachkar³, S. Alasad¹, M. Alawadhi⁴⁵, D. Zhang¹²,H. Aljaghoub⁶ and A. Elkeblawy⁷

¹University of Sharjah, Department of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, 27272 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
²University of Sharjah, Centre for Advanced Materials Research, 27272 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
³American University of Sharjah, Department of Chemical Engineering, 26666 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
⁴American University of Sharjah, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 26666 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
⁵Dubai Police G.H.Q., Dubai, United Arab Emirates
⁶University of Sharjah, Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, 27272 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
⁷University of Sharjah, Applied Biology Department, 27272 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
*Correspondence: aalalami@sharjah.ac.ae

Abstract:

In this work, natural dye extracts from Calotropis Procera are used as the main dye-sensitizer in solar cells. The Calotropis plant is a non-food item capable of surviving the harsh climate of the United Arab Emirates. Its incorporation into dye-sensitized solar cells is tested by constructing various cells, whose performance was also compared to that of more common chlorophyll-based dye extracts (i.e. spinach) as well as compared against a baseline cell sensitized with a synthetic ruthenium dye. The performance of the Calotropis-based cells was in general better than those with other natural sensitizers, but of course scored lower efficiency results when compared to cells built with synthetic dyes (0.075% compared to 5.11%). The advantage in using a natural sensitizer include facile extraction and preparation, low cost and abundance, since the Calotropis source has no competing applications in terms of food, livestock feed, etc. The figure-of-merit of cell output vs. cost for such cells makes them a good contender for further research and development effort to overcome the obvious drawbacks of stability and service longevity. Adding a hole-transport material to the cells in the form of PEDOT:PSS was also attempted to assess the enhancement it could provide to the cells. This did not yield the desired results and more experiments have to be done to better understand the interaction of each added layer to the original cell design.

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344-356 G. Argenti, S. Parrini, N. Staglianò and R. Bozzi
Evolution of production and forage quality in sown meadows of a mountain area inside Parmesan cheese consortium
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Evolution of production and forage quality in sown meadows of a mountain area inside Parmesan cheese consortium

G. Argenti*, S. Parrini, N. Staglianò and R. Bozzi

University of Florence, School of Agriculture, DAGRI, P.le delle Cascine 18, IT50144 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: giovanni.argenti@unifi.it

Abstract:

Sown meadows, encompassing alfalfa and grass-legume mixtures, are the forage crops on which is based Parmesan cheese production system in the mountain area of the Apennines (central Italy). These grassland types experience, during their development, deep changes in terms of production potentiality, botanical composition and forage quality, thus these meadows have to be periodically renewed to guarantee adequate productive and qualitative performances. To have an accurate assessment of this evolution along time, a survey was performed in different mountain farms inside the Parmesan cheese consortium, analysing alfalfa meadows and grass-legumes mixtures of different ages. Grasslands were monitored during 2019, performing three samplings during growing season. Aboveground biomass production, botanical composition and crude protein content were collected during the survey. Results permitted to evaluate the level of production decrease along years, the evolution of analysed parameters among cutting dates and the dependence of productive and qualitative features on botanical composition and presence of sown species in the swards. Results were useful to hypothesize the composition of future mixtures, to improve management issues and to delineate the possible duration of sown meadows for the area with respect to different purposes in terms of desired productive or qualitative objectives.

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357-368 T. Balabanova and M. Ivanova
Relationship between somatic cell count in goat milk and mature Kashkaval cheese parameters
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Relationship between somatic cell count in goat milk and mature Kashkaval cheese parameters

T. Balabanova and M. Ivanova*

University of Food Technologies, Technological Faculty, Department of Milk and Dairy Products, 26, Maritsa Blvd., BG4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
*Correspondence: mihaela_18bg@abv.bg

Abstract:

It is challenging to ensure Kashkaval cheese consistent quality during the production process which is directly correlated to the somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial presence. This is one of the most popular and widely discussed topic areas in the dairy industry. SCC is used to limit the inflammatory process and to predict the health status of the animal’s mammary glands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of mature Kashkaval cheese was produced from goat milk with different SCC (below 1,200 thous cells mL-1 – group I (low), above 1,750 thous cells mL-1 – group II (high) and up to 1,600 thous cells mL-1 – group III (medium)) and samples were evaluated on the 1st and 60th day of ripening by chemical, microbiological and sensory profile. The results showed a significant relation (P < 0.05) between the levels of SCC and Kashkaval cheese water content during ripening. For all analysed samples, the total lactic acid bacterial count was the highest between the 15th and 45th day of ripening and reached values up to 6.0 log cfu g-1. Pathogenic microorganisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Coagulase-positive staphylococci) and coliforms were not detected. The highest number of psychrotrophic microorganisms was observed in Kashkaval samples with high SCC. The sensory evaluation revealed a higher score for cheese samples with low and medium SCC in comparison to the cheese sample with a high SCC.

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369-384 V. Bulgakov, I. Holovach, V. Adamchuk, S. Ivanovs, V. Melnik, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
Research into geometric parameters of digging shares used for lifting sugar beet roots from soil with assistance of vibration
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Research into geometric parameters of digging shares used for lifting sugar beet roots from soil with assistance of vibration

V. Bulgakov¹, I. Holovach¹, V. Adamchuk², S. Ivanovs³, V. Melnik⁴, Ye. Ihnatiev⁵ and J. Olt⁶*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²National Scientific Centre, Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, 2 Liela Str., LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
⁴Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44 Alchevskih Str., UA 61002 Kharkiv, Ukraine
⁵Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B, Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁶Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE5 1006Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

One of the important conditions in securing the high quality, when performing the work process of vibrational root lifting, is to avoid damaging the roots. It is obvious that the greatest probability of damaging and even breaking the lifted root arises, when the tool interacts with the root body during their first contact and in the time of the root passing in the throat between the operating shares. The aim of the study is to substantiate the rational design length for the working throat of the vibrational root lifter in its interaction with the sugar beet root while lifting the latter from the soil. As a result of the completed research, the minimum permissible tool oscillation frequencies have been determined for the specific values of the lifter’s translational velocity and the working throat rear part length, at which the event of the vibrational lifting tool gripping the root will occur at least one time. For example, when the length of the lifter’s working throat rear part is equal to 0.1 m and the oscillation frequency is equal to ν = 20.3 Hz, the satisfactory quality of the vibrational root lifting process is ensured, when the velocity of the translational motion performed by the vibrational lifter stays within the range of 1.3–2.55 m s–1. In order to ensure the good quality of the vibrational root lifting process at the lifter’s translational velocity equal to V = 2.0 m s–1 and the frequency of its tool’s oscillations equal to ν = 10 Hz, it is necessary that the length of the lifter’s working throat rear part is equal to 0.2 m, at a tool oscillation frequency of 6.7 Hz – 0.3 m. As a result of the completed numerical calculations, the permissible values have been determined for the tool oscillation frequency, which can be recommended for the translational velocities within the range of 1.3–2.2 m s–1,
taking into account the limitation set for the tool oscillation frequency by the pre-condition of the guaranteed gripping of each root by the digging shares.

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385–393 O. Chernikova,, Yu. Mazhayskiy and L. Ampleeva
Enzymatic activity of podzolized chernozem contaminated by pollutants during its detoxification
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Enzymatic activity of podzolized chernozem contaminated by pollutants during its detoxification

O. Chernikova¹,*, Yu. Mazhayskiy¹ and L. Ampleeva²

¹Academy of law management of the federal penal service of Russia, Sennaya street 1, RU390036 Ryazan, Russia
²Ryazan State Agrotechnological University named after P.A. Kostychev, Kostychev
street 1, RU390044 Ryazan, Russia

Abstract:

The soil is an indicator of the general technogenic situation. In terms of the scale of pollution, as well as the impact on biological objects, heavy metals occupy a special place among pollutants. One of the priority pollutants are Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu. In assessing the ecological state of the environment, the study of the soil cover plays an important role. The most informative integral characteristics of the biological activity of the soil is the activity of soil enzymes. In a lysimetric experiment with podzolized chernozem, we studied the change in the biological activity of soil in terms of dehydrogenase, catalase, urease, invertase and phosphatase enzymatic activity under the complex influence of heavy metals under conditions of the use of detoxification agents. The soil at the experimental site had the following characteristics: pHKCl 6.2; humus content – 3.2%, P2O5-229 mg kg-1, K2O-250 mg kg-1 of soil. Organic and mineral fertilizers in various combinations were used as detoxifiers. According to the obtained data, the redox enzyme – dehydrogenase and hydrolytic enzymes urease and phosphatase are the most sensitive to soil pollution. The best decontamination effect is obtained when using a system of organo-mineral fertilizers, what contributes to an increase in the activity of soil urease by 3.38 times, invertase – by 2.47 times, phosphatase – by 1.48 times, dehydrogenase – by 1.46 times, catalase – by 1.60 times. Changes in the activity of these enzymes can be used to diagnose the effectiveness of the use of various fertilizer systems on soil contaminated by heavy metals.

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394–407 M. Havrilyuk, V. Fedorenko, O. Ulianych, I. Kucher, V. Yatsenko, N. Vorobiova and O. Lazariev
Effect of superabsorbent on soil moisture, productivity and some physiological and biochemical characteristics of basil
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Effect of superabsorbent on soil moisture, productivity and some physiological and biochemical characteristics of basil

M. Havrilyuk², V. Fedorenko³, O. Ulianych¹, I. Kucher¹, V. Yatsenko¹*, N. Vorobiova¹ and O. Lazariev¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Vegetable Growing, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and Foreign Languages Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Vasylkivska street, 31/17, UA03022 Kyiv, Ukraine. 3Institute of Plant Protection National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Vasylkivska street, 33, UA03022 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Institute of Plant Protection National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Vasylkivska street, 33, UA03022 Kyiv, Ukraine *Correspondence: slaviksklavin16@gmail.com

Abstract:

The study was carried out in 2019–2020, in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The results on the influence of absorbents in gel and powder forms on the productivity of basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.) are presented. For research were used field, laboratory, statistical and calculation-analytical methods. Absorbent in the form of a gel was used while transplanting: dip the roots of the plant in the solution and then transplant in the field. Absorbent in the form of a powder – 5 kg ha-1, application of the absorbent into the soil layer 20–25 cm-1. Absorbents contributed to a slight decrease of sugar content (-0.86–2.68% in the cultivar of Badioryi, -1.48–2.35% in the cultivar of Rutan), significantly decrease ascorbic acid (-8.6–20.1%) and content of the essential oil (8.0–19.4%) and indirectly increased essential oil yield by increasing fresh weight yield in both varieties. The activity of APX, CAT, SOD, tended to decrease in all variants of the experiment, regardless of the form of the absorbent. APX (-12.8–35.1%), CAT (-10.9–22.0%), SOD (-11.9–17.0%). Higher yields were observed in the version with the introduction of the absorbent in the form of a gel. Thus, the yield of the cultivars of Badioryi and Rutan exceeded the control by 52.67 and 50.05%, in accordance. The productivity of basil is increased with the use of superabsorbent polymers. This practice can be recommended to agricultural producers who grow vegetables, in particular, basil in areas of unstable or insufficient moisture.

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408–422 É Horváth, B. Gombos and A. Széles
Evaluation phenology, yield and quality of maize genotypes in drought stress and non-stress environments
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Evaluation phenology, yield and quality of maize genotypes in drought stress and non-stress environments

É Horváth, B. Gombos and A. Széles*

Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, 138 Böszörményi Str., Hungary
*Correspondence: szelesa@agr.unideb.hu

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to examine the effect of agrometeorological indices (growing degree days, GDD; heliothermal unit, HTU; photothermal unit, PTU; hydrothermal unit, HYTU) on the phenology and yield (GY) of the Sushi (FAO 340) and Fornad (FAO 420) maize hybrids. Furthermore, it was also analysed how the amount of nitrogen and its application time affected the productivity and protein content (GP) of maize under drought stress (DS) and non-stress (NS) conditions. There were seven fertilizer treatments in the scope of the field experiment. Non-fertilized treatment (A0) spring basic treatment with 60 and 120 N ha-1 (A60, A120), and following the basic treatments, 30 kg N ha-1 top-dressing was applied in the V6 (V690, V6150) phenophase and then another 30 kg N ha-1 in the V12 (V12120, V12180) phenophase. Based on the GDD and PTU, length of the vegetation period of maize hybrids can be predicted. Under DS, the largest GY and GP was recorded in the same treatment for Sushi (V6150 kg N ha−1), and at different nutrient levels under NS: GY (A120) and GP (V6150). The highest GY of Fornad hybrid under DS was achieved with the A120 treatment while the highest GP with the V6150; in the case of NS V6150 kg N ha−1 was the most effective for both GY and GP. The + 30 kg ha-1 N fertilizer applied in the V12 phenophase did not improve GY and GP in either hybrid during the two growing seasons. The findings provide useful help for farmers to prepare for future environmental changes and to operate successfully.

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423–433 Kh.H.M. Ibrahim, L, Wang, Q. Wu, Y. Duan, Ch. Ma and S. Zhang
Soil Phosphorus management based on changes in Olsen P and P budget under long- term fertilization experiment in fluvo-aquic soil
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Soil Phosphorus management based on changes in Olsen P and P budget under long- term fertilization experiment in fluvo-aquic soil

Kh.H.M. Ibrahim¹², L, Wang¹, Q. Wu¹, Y. Duan¹, Ch. Ma³ and S. Zhang¹*

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/ National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Beijing, 100081, P.R. China
²Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), Wad Medani 126, Sudan
³The Center of Extending and Service of Agricultural Technique in China, Beijing 100026, China
*Correspondence: zhangshuxiang@caas.cn

Abstract:

Excessive input of phosphorus (P) in agricultural production and its finite resources is becoming a global concern for sustainable P management. In this study, the annual P input and output were calculated in 27 Fluvo-aquic soil sites of wheat and maize agriculture cropping system in Henan province central-east of China during the period from 1998 to 2016, to quantify soil Olsen P (OP) levels and P budget at the experimental sites and calculate the optimum P fertilizer application. The maize and wheat (Triticum aestivum) recorded 14.2 and 13.6 mg kg-1 respectively. The change in soil OP was positively linearly correlated with the P budget (P < 0.01), and an increase of 2.8 mg kg-1 in soil Olsen P for each 100 kg ha-1  of P budget in the 0–20 cm soil layer. Based on ACV of soil OP with P budget and the critical level of soil OP to ACV in the study area for the next five years, the recommended rate model of soil OP for maize and wheat in the study area was determined. The application amount of P fertilizer ought to be in the range of 64–85 kg P ha-1. This information can help to optimize crop yield, reduce the accumulation of P in soil, and reduce the potential risk of water pollution. More research is needed about the main factors influence on P available (OP).

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434-443 J. Iejavs, M. Podnieks and A. Uzuls
Some physical and mechanical properties of wood of Fast-growing tree species eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don)
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Some physical and mechanical properties of wood of Fast-growing tree species eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis) and radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don)

J. Iejavs¹*, M. Podnieks² and A. Uzuls³

¹Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Institute, Dobeles iela 41, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Forest faculty, Department of Wood Processing, Dobeles iela 41, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Kokpārstrāde 98’ Ltd., ‘Dižkoki’, LV2154 Allažu pagasts, Siguldas novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: janis.iejavs@e–koks.lv

Abstract:

Fast-growing imported plantation tree species have become an available wood resource for Europe’s wood industry in the last decades. This sustainable alternative may reduce the gap between the increasing demand for and decreasing supply of the local tree species. The aim of the study was to determine and compare basic physical and mechanical properties of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis) wood from Uruguay and radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) wood from New Zealand as an alternative for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from Latvia, to produce non–structural semi–finished glued laminated timber members for the manufacturing of windows. Such properties as density, swelling, bending strength, bending modulus of elasticity, compression strength and resistance to impact were determined according to ISO 13061 series standards test methods for small clear wood specimens. As the result of this study it was established that there is not significant difference between the majority of radiata pine and Scots pine properties, with the exception of resistance to impact and radial swelling where radiata pine shows significantly higher values. Not surprisingly all the properties of deciduous eucalyptus wood were significantly higher compared to both coniferous tree species. Higher swelling and density properties of eucalyptus compared to radiata pine and Scots pine should be taken into consideration for the design and production of wooden window elements.

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444–457 I. Ivanova, M. Serdyuk, V. Malkina, О. Priss, T. Herasko and Т. Тymoshchuk
Investigation into sugars accumulation in sweet cherry fruits under abiotic factors effects
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Investigation into sugars accumulation in sweet cherry fruits under abiotic factors effects

I. Ivanova¹*, M. Serdyuk¹, V. Malkina, О. Priss¹, T. Herasko¹ and Т. Тymoshchuk²

¹Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18, B. Khmelnytsky Ave, UA72312 Melitopol, Zaporizhzhia region, Ukraine
²Polissya National University, 7, Staryi Blvd, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: irynaivanova2017@gmail.com

Abstract:

The level of sugars content in sweet cherry fruit depends on many factors. However, the decisive influence of weather factors is noted. In view of this, the issue of predicting the sugars content in sweet cherry fruit depending on the share of weather factors is relevant for further improvement of transportation technology, storage and processing.
It has been established that according to sugars content and to the variability of their formation the most perspective from the technological point of view were varieties: Zabuta (12.47%), Dachnytsia (15.60%), Krupnoplidna (14.35%). Low and medium variabilities of the selected varieties according to the investigation years were established ( = 8.6%–13.0%). It has been shown that weather conditions had dominating effects on sugars accumulation for all varieties groups irrespective of the ripening period. According to the results of a two-factors dispersion analysis it is expedient to prognosticate the sugars content in sweet cherry fruits by medium values for a particular group of sorts but not for each pomological sort.
In the course of the work the average and strong correlation dependence between 14 weather factors (Хі, i = 1..14) and the sugars content for sweet cherries of early, medium, and late ripening period (|𝑟𝑌𝑗𝑋𝑖|≥0.55, 𝑖=1..14, 𝑗=1..3) were defined. The ranges of share of weather factors participation that have the maximum influence on sugars fund formation in sweet cherry fruit are established (Δ𝑖 9.50% to 30.99%) .
Based on regression analysis, it is substantiated that the sugars accumulation in sweet cherry fruit, regardless of the ripening period, is most influenced by weather conditions of the blossoming period, the last month of fruit formation and thermal parameters and humidity index at the stage of fruit picking.

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458–471 V. Kaminskyi, L. Kolomiiets, V. Bulgakov and J. Olt
An investigation into the state of agricultural lands under water erosion conditions
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An investigation into the state of agricultural lands under water erosion conditions

V. Kaminskyi¹, L. Kolomiiets¹, V. Bulgakov² and J. Olt³*

¹National Scientific Centre, Institute of Agriculture of NAAS of Ukraine, 2b, Mashinobudivnikiv Str., Chabany vil., Kyiv-Svyatoshin Dist., UA08162 Kyiv Region, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

Protecting agricultural land from erosion continues to be the most important task within the overall issue of the protection and rational use of land resources. That is why it is necessary to comprehensively study patterns of development in the erosion processes, and to assess the specific nature and features of their impact upon soil and vegetation, water resources, and landscapes in various natural conditions. The work is based on the results of many years of experimental research on problems that are related to soil erosion, and on the accumulation of slope sediments in catchments and in the valleys of small rivers, based on the use of landscape geography, soil morphology, and cartography methods of research. The research methodology that is included the collection covers the analysis of cartographic and experimental materials on the geo-ecological situation regarding an formation and manifestation of spatial and temporal erosion processes in the territory, and, the carrying out of research work which cover the soil washout and erosion processes in key areas of agricultural landscapes. The methodology also includes, the process of conducting a determination of the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the intensity of erosion processes, and the cameral processing of results that have been obtained in the field, all of which characterise the erosion and hydrology situation in the basins of small rivers. The paper presents the latest levels of research on the spatial and temporal variability of the features of erosion processes, depending upon their mechanisms of functioning, the complexity of the territory’s geomorphological landscape conditions, and the intensity of anthropogenic load on the catchment areas of small rivers. The management of the migration of biogenic elements in agricultural landscapes can be improved if, on the one hand, the share of cultivated land is reduced and, on the other hand, the area of meadow land and small forest plots is increased, which significantly serve to slow down the flow of erosion products, including biogenic elements, into the hydrosphere. It has been established that, with an increase in the share of arable land, the removal of biogenic elements with runoff increases in direct proportion. Therefore, with up to 50% of the territory being cultivated, nitrogen removal was seven times higher – and phosphorus two times higher – than with the same territory under 20% of cultivation. With 80% cultivation, nitrogen removal increases two times and phosphorus and potassium removal increases four times when compared to 40–50% cultivation of the same territory in the catchments.

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472–483 V. Karpenko, Y. Boiko, R. Prytulіak, A. Datsenko, S. Shutko and T. Novikova
Anatomical changes in the epidermis of winter pea stipules and their area under usage of herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation
Abstract |

Anatomical changes in the epidermis of winter pea stipules and their area under usage of herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation

V. Karpenko¹*, Y. Boiko¹, R. Prytulіak¹, A. Datsenko¹, S. Shutko¹ and T. Novikova²

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protectoin, Deparment of Biology, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Biology and Methodology, Department, Sadova street, 2, UA 20300 Uman, Ukraine
*Correspondence: unuh1844@gmail.com

Abstract:

The use and search for new methods and ways to reduce negative herbicidal effect on crops is a key factor in increasing the level of yield and quality in modern agricultural conditions, including cultivation of crops such as winter peas. One of the factors that reflects the depth of the effect of herbicides on the plant organism may be the anatomical structure of the leaf, thus, the aim of the research was to study the characteristics of epidermis and size of stipules of winter peas with the complex use of stimulator of plant growth and microbial preparation in herbicide cultivation technology.
To determine the optimal combination of preparations and rates of their introduction, a field experiment was established in the Department of Biology of Uman National University of Horticulture (2018–2019), which included options: without herbicide, stimulator of plant growth and pre-sowing seed treatment with microbial preparation (control); treatment of plants with MaxiMox herbicide during the growing season in the rates of 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1 L ha-1 separately and in mixtures with stimulator of plant growth Agriflex Amino in the rate of 1.0 kg ha-1 without and against the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with microbial preparation Optimize Pulse in the rate of 3.28 L t-1 (background). The experiment was repeated 3 times. Treatment of winter pea plants with preparations was carried out in the phase of 3–4 developed tendrils (BBCH 13–14). During the experiment it was found that treatment of winter pea plants with MaxiMox herbicide, especially with increasing level of the preparation to 1.1 L ha-1 led to anatomical and morphological changes in plant stipules and affected the stipule size of winter pea crops. The number of epidermal cells on average decreased by 14–53 pcs (6–22%) at LSD05 9.8 pcs, but their size increased by 28.42–394.52 μm2 (2–35%) at LSD05 71.7 μm2, while the size of the stipulate apparatus of crops increased on average by 2.7–4.6 thousand m2 ha-1 (13–22%) at LSD05 1.3 thousand m2 ha-1. The complex application of the herbicide with stimulator of plant growth, especially against the background of pre-sowing treatment of seeds with the microbial preparation Optimize Pulse in the rate of 3.28 L t-1, caused a decrease in the number of epidermal cells per unit of stipules surface on average by 50–84 pcs (21–35%) at LSD05 9.8 pcs and with an increase in the stipule size by 9–12 thousand m2 ha-1 (44–59%) at LSD05 1.3 thousand m2 ha-1, this may indicate the optimal effect of these mixtures of preparations on metabolic processes in plants against the background of reducing negative impact of the herbicide.

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484–495 L.A. Khamidullina, O.E. Cherepanova, P.D. Tobysheva, E.A. Rybina and A.V. Pestov
Activation effect of β-alanine and chitosan derivative on A. glycyphyllos and A. membranaceus seed germination and seedling growth and development
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Activation effect of β-alanine and chitosan derivative on A. glycyphyllos and A. membranaceus seed germination and seedling growth and development

L.A. Khamidullina¹²*, O.E. Cherepanova³, P.D. Tobysheva², E.A. Rybina² and A.V. Pestov¹²

¹Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis, UB RAS, Sofia Kovalevskaya street 22, RU620137 Ekaterinburg, Russia
²Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Mira street 19, RU620026 Ekaterinburg, Russia
³Botanical Garden UB RAS, 8 Marta street 202a, RU620144 Ekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: lili.khamidullina@gmail.com

Abstract:

Agricultural cultivation of astragalus is fraught with a number of difficulties caused by both certain requirements for climatic conditions and individual characteristics of plants of this genus. In this study, carboxyalkylated derivative of chitosan was first proposed to use for improvement of astragalus propagation. Effects of N-(2-carboxyethyl)chitosan on in vitro A. glycyphyllos and A. membranaceus seed germination and seedling growth and development in comparing with β-alanine and chitosan acetate were detected. Carboxyethylation of chitosan leads to an increase in hydrophilic properties of the molecule, which enhances a penetration of nutrients inside the plant owing to improved solvating effect and bioadhesive activity. Seed germination assay were performed on Murashige-Skoog growth medium with or without tested compounds. N-2-Carboxyethylated derivative of chitosan was found to demonstrate active stimulating effect on the plant growth and development, contrary to the effect of acetate chitosan, but not to cause an activating effect on seed germination, while β-alanine does.

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496–506 I.V. Knyazeva, O.V. Vershinina, V.V. Gudimo, A.A. Grishin and A.S. Dorokhov
The effect of succinic acid on the productivity of Lactuca sativa L. in artificial agroecosystems
Abstract |

The effect of succinic acid on the productivity of Lactuca sativa L. in artificial agroecosystems

I.V. Knyazeva*, O.V. Vershinina, V.V. Gudimo, A.A. Grishin and A.S. Dorokhov

Federal State Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM», Department of Closed Artificial Agroecosystems for Crop Science, 1st Institutskiy proezd, 5, RU109428, Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: knyazewa.inna@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The research of the effect of the biostimulant on the growth and development of plants of the ‘Robin’ lettuce variety was carried out in 2019–2020 in the department of closed artificial agroecosystems for crop production on the basis of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution «Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM», Moscow (VIM, Russia). Succinic acid was used at the stage of inoculation of seed and with constant drip irrigation of plants throughout the growing period. Lettuce plants were grown using a low-volume technology in a climatic chamber produced by VIM (Russia). According to the studies carried out, inoculation of seeds stimulates the development of plants at the initial stages, reducing the period from sowing to germination and increasing the rate of plant growth. As the lettuce plants grew, the leaf surface area increased from 221.0 to 1511.9 cm² with the addition of succinic acid to the hydroponic nutrient solution. The use of succinic acid under controlled growing conditions of ‘Robin’ lettuce plants allowed to increase the performance of the leaf apparatus in relation to the control. It was experimentally established that productivity directly depended on the value of photosynthetic potential and net productivity of photosynthesis, which is confirmed by a strong degree of dependence with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and 0.77, respectively. Seed treatment and adding succinic acid to the hydroponic solution increases the accumulation of dry matter in lettuce plants. With this method of using succinic acid, significant differences in the accumulation of dry mass of plants were established. The share of the effect of the factor of inoculation of seeds with succinic acid was 17.5%, the addition of hydroponics to the nutrient solution was 50.1%. The use of succinic acid increases the accumulation of plant biomass, increases the total leaf surface area, and also contributes to an increase in the parameters of photosynthetic activity of the leaf apparatus of the ‘Robin’ lettuce plants under controlled conditions of the climatic chamber.

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507–519 S. Kodors, G. Lacis, O. Sokolova2,V. Zhukovs, I. Apeinans and T. Bartulsons
Apple scab detection using CNN and Transfer Learning
Abstract |

Apple scab detection using CNN and Transfer Learning

S. Kodors¹*, G. Lacis², O. Sokolova2,V. Zhukovs¹, I. Apeinans¹ and T. Bartulsons²

¹Rezekne Academy of Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Atbrivoshanas Str. 115, LV-4601 Rezekne, Latvia
²Institute of Horticulture, Graudu Str. 1, LV-3701 Ceriņi, Krimūnu pagasts, Dobeles novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: sergejs.kodors@rta.lv

Abstract:

The goal of smart and precise horticulture is to increase yield and product quality by simultaneous reduction of pesticide application, thereby promoting the improvement of food security. The scope of this research is apple scab detection in the early stage of development using mobile phones and artificial intelligence based on convolutional neural network (CNN) applications. The research considers data acquisition and CNN training. Two datasets were collected – with images of scab infected fruits and leaves of an apple tree. However, data acquisition is a time-consuming process and scab appearance has a probability factor. Therefore, transfer learning is an appropriate training methodology. The goal of this research was to select the most suitable dataset for transfer learning for the apple scab detection domain and to evaluate the transfer learning impact comparing it with learning from scratch. The statistical analysis confirmed the positive effect of transfer learning on CNN performance with significance level 0.05.

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520–530 M. Kołodziejczyk
Influence of humic acids, irrigation and fertilization on potato yielding in organic production
Abstract |

Influence of humic acids, irrigation and fertilization on potato yielding in organic production

M. Kołodziejczyk

University of Agriculture in Krakow, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics, Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, Mickiewicza street 21, PL31–120 Krakow, Poland
Correspondence: m.kolodziejczyk@ur.krakow.pl

Abstract:

The study aimed at determining the impact of organic fertilization, humic acids and irrigation on potato yielding in organic production system. Fertilization variants included: Humac Agro; manure; vermicompost; Fertil Bioilsa C-N 40-12.5; manure + Humac Agro; vermicompost + Humac Agro; Fertil Bioilsa C-N 40-12.5 + Humac Agro. Irrigation was carried out using drip lines. The highest tuber yield was determined on treatments fertilized with vermicompost. The combined application of organic fertilizers and humic acids resulted in increased total yield between 6 and 9%, whereas commercial yield from 5 to 10%. Application of fertilization resulted in increased total yield of tubers in individual fertilizer variants from 1.9 to 10.8 t ha-1, and commercial yield from 1.6 to 12.3 t ha-1. Water-use efficiency remained in the range from 35.2 to 113.1 kg mm-1, whereas irrigation water-use efficiency from 9.9 to 166.3 kg mm-1. Humic acids used in the study enhanced fertilizer and water-use efficiency.

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531–539 I. Lignicka, A. Balgalve, K. Ābelniece and A.M. Zīdere-Laizāne
Comparison of the effect of ultraviolet light, ozone and heat treatment on muesli quality
Abstract |

Comparison of the effect of ultraviolet light, ozone and heat treatment on muesli quality

I. Lignicka*, A. Balgalve, K. Ābelniece and A.M. Zīdere-Laizāne

Felici LLC, Rigas gatve 8, LV-2164, Adazi, Adazu novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilva.lignicka@musli.lv

Abstract:

Various muesli processing technologies can be used to lower microbiological parameters. It is necessary to find the best treatment technology to ensure that the product can meet various regulatory limits and to increase the shelf life of the product. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ultraviolet light, ozone treatment and sterilisation on muesli quality. Muesli samples with dried fruits were tested, comparing the change in total plate count, yeast count and mould count. Short-wave ultraviolet (UV-C) light with a wavelength of 254 nm was used for ultraviolet light treatment, and the product was treated for 1, 2, and 5 minutes. As for ozone treatment, the samples were treated with an ozone concentration of 35 ppm for 30 minutes. Heat sterilisation was performed using sterilisation mode 25-30-50 (heating, holding, cooling), 119 °C, 2.2×105 Pa. Ultraviolet light and ozone treatment did not have a significant impact on total plate count, yeast count and mould count. Heat sterilisation had the most significant effect on muesli sample microorganism level, total plate count, yeast count and mould count level were 10 log cfu g-1.

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540–551 M. Lozinskiy, L. Burdenyuk-Tarasevych, M. Grabovskyi, T. Lozinska, V. Sabadyn, I. Sidorova, T. Panchenko, Y. Fedoruk and Y. Kumanska
Evaluation of selected soft winter wheat lines for main ear grain weight
Abstract |
Full text PDF (773 KB)

Evaluation of selected soft winter wheat lines for main ear grain weight

M. Lozinskiy¹, L. Burdenyuk-Tarasevych¹, M. Grabovskyi²*, T. Lozinska³, V. Sabadyn¹, I. Sidorova¹, T. Panchenko², Y. Fedoruk² and Y. Kumanska¹

¹Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Department of Genetics, Breeding and Seed production, Sq. Soborna 8/1, UA09100, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine
²Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Department of Technologies in Plant Growing and Plant Protection, Sq. Soborna 8/1, UA09100, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine
³Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Department of Forestry, Botany and Plant Physiology, Sq. Soborna 8/1, UA09100, Bila Tserkva, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nikgr1977@gmail.com

Abstract:

Studies to assess the breeding samples of soft winter wheat by weight of grain from the main ear and determine the indicators of adaptability were conducted at the Bila Tserkva Research and Selection Station (BTRSS) in 2011–2013. The study revealed significant differences in breeding lines in the range of variability of grain mass from the main ear and identified small, medium and significant coefficients of variation, which indicates their excellent response to environmental conditions. It was due to genotype, year conditions and their interaction. Line 42 KS had significantly higher than the standard grain weight of the main ear (0.14 g) and the lowest value of the coefficient of variation (8.7%). According to the indicators of adaptability (GAC, σ²(GxE)gi, σ²SACi, σSACi, etc.) the lines 42 KS, 24 KS and 44 KS were distinguished. There was a significant correlation between the weight of grain from the ear and the weight of 1,000 grains (0.603–0.674) and the direct influence of the weight of grain from the main ear on the weight of grain from the plant and grain yield (0.805–0.942). Selected lines as a result of research (2015–2020) from these populations of soft winter wheat are competitively tested in the conditions of Bila Tserkva Research and Selection Station, forming high grain yields (7.39–8.12 t ha-1) and will be transferred to 2021 for the State variety test for inclusion in the Register of plant varieties suitable for distribution in Ukraine.

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552–561 A.V. Miftakhutdinov, E.R. Saifulmulyukov and E.A. Nogovitsina
Alleviation of technological stresses by a feed supplement
Abstract |
Full text PDF (712 KB)

Alleviation of technological stresses by a feed supplement

A.V. Miftakhutdinov, E.R. Saifulmulyukov* and E.A. Nogovitsina

South Ural State Agrarian University, 13 Gagarina street, RU457100 Troitsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia
*Correspondence: ernest_saif@mail.ru

Abstract:

Technological stresses affect the productivity of broiler-type chicken and are related directly to poultry farming intensification. Heat stress occurring in conditions of high density keeping, especially at high summer ambient temperatures, is very important. Stress factors influence the metabolic processes in poultry, while reducing the production parameters of operation and, by extension, the efficiency of broiler farming.
The objective of this research was to identify the efficiency of a feed supplement in alleviating technological stresses in poultry industry.
Use of supplement (the preparation contains succinic acid, L-carnitine, betaine, inorganic salts of zinc, manganese, copper and lithium) preserved the production performance of broiler-type chickens in the pre-slaughter period, by reducing the technological load on the poultry body, as it was indicated by an increase in the efficiency of fattening by 16.2 conditional units, meat yield by 1.4%, gross income by 49.2% and a decline in mortality rate by 1.5%. The data on production efficiency indicators of broiler feeding were obtained on a large sample – 6136 heads.

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562–573 M. Mostipan, K. Vasylkovska, O. Andriienko, M. Kovalov and N. Umrykhin
Productivity of winter wheat in the northern Steppe of Ukraine depending on weather conditions in the early spring period
Abstract |
Full text PDF (725 KB)

Productivity of winter wheat in the northern Steppe of Ukraine depending on weather conditions in the early spring period

M. Mostipan¹, K. Vasylkovska¹*, O. Andriienko¹, M. Kovalov¹ and N. Umrykhin²

¹Central Ukrainian National Technical University (CUNTU), Department of General Agriculture, University Avenue, 8, UA25006 Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine
²Institute of Steppe Agriculture, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Street Central, 2, UA 27602 Sozonivka village, Kirovohrad region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: vasilkovskakv@ukr.net

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to develop scientific and methodological bases for adapting the technology of growing winter wheat depending on weather conditions in early spring. Winter wheat was grown at different sowing dates. It is established that the reserves of productive moisture in the soil at the time of renewal of spring vegetation are crucial for the formation of winter wheat harvest. After worse forecrop, the impact of moisture on productivity reaches 49.7–66.4%. The later the renewal of spring vegetation of winter wheat is, the lower the productivity of the crops. The shorter the period from the date of transition of the average daily air temperature above 0 °C to the beginning of active vegetation of plants is, the higher the productivity of winter wheat crops. Therefore, depending on weather conditions of early spring period and the time of renewal of spring vegetation of plants, it is necessary to adjust the technology of growing winter wheat during the spring-summer period.

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574–585 S. Polyanskikh, I. Arinicheva, I. Arinichev and G. Volkova
Autoencoders for semantic segmentation of rice fungal diseases
Abstract |
Full text PDF (937 KB)

Autoencoders for semantic segmentation of rice fungal diseases

S. Polyanskikh¹, I. Arinicheva², I. Arinichev³* and G. Volkova⁴

¹Plarium Inc., 75/1 Uralskaya Str., RU350001 Krasnodar, Russia
²Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, 13 Kalinina Str., RU350044 Krasnodar, Russia
³Kuban State University, 149 Stavropolskaya Str., RU350040 Krasnodar, Russia
⁴All-Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant Protection, 1 VNIIBZR Str., RU350039, Krasnodar, Russia
*Correspondence: iarinichev@gmail.com

Abstract:

In the article, the authors examine the possibility of automatic localization of rice fungal infections using modern methods of computer vision. The authors consider a new approach based on the use of autoencoders – special neural network architectures. This approach makes it possible to detect areas on rice leaves affected by a particular disease. The authors demonstrate that the autoencoder can be trained to remove affected areas from the image. In some cases, this allows one to clearly highlight the affected area by comparing the resulting image with the original one. Therefore, modern architectures of convolutional autoencoders provide quite acceptable visual quality of detection.

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586–594 D. Shafigullin, S. Kask, M. Gins, Е. Pronina, G. Demyanova-Roy and A. Soldatenko
Fatty oil accumulation in vegetable soybean seeds and its thin-layer chromatography
Abstract |
Full text PDF (744 KB)

Fatty oil accumulation in vegetable soybean seeds and its thin-layer chromatography

D. Shafigullin¹, S. Kask²*, M. Gins¹³, Е. Pronina¹, G. Demyanova-Roy⁴ and A. Soldatenko¹

¹Federal Scientific Vegetable Center, Selektsionnaya Stt., 14, VNIISSOK, Odintsovo region, RU143080 Moscow, Russia
²University of Tartu, Pärnu College, Ringi 35, EE80012 Pärnu, Estonia
³Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklaya Str. 6, RU117198 Moscow,
Russia
⁴4Kostroma State Agricultural Academy, Uchebnyy Gorodok, 34, RU156530 Karavayevo, Kostroma Oblast, Russia
*Correspondence: sergey.kask@ut.ee

Abstract:

This paper studies the accumulation of crude oil (triacylglycerides, monoacylglycerides, diacylglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, tocopherols, pigments, sterols, waxes) in soybean vegetable samples. Samples were taken from two groups: grown in an experimental field and in protected ground of the Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing in the Moscow Region. Both groups were observed in the phase of technical ripeness and in the phase of complete biological ripeness (finally ripe seeds). Soxhlet method as arbitration in analysis was used as suitable for the extraction of lipophilic substances. It was determined that the fat content in the technical ripeness phase in most soybean samples averaged 10.5%. In the phase of biological ripeness, the highest accumulation of fatty oil was observed in Hidaka and Nordic (17.6%). The oil content in vegetable forms of soybeans was consistently lower than that of grain varieties: in the phases of technical and biological ripeness by 55.6% and 22.0% (in relative values) respectively. Thus, he accumulation of oil in seeds is determined mainly genetically. The refractive index of vegetable and oil soybean was established equal on average 1.4755. According to this finding the soybean oil can be classified as semi-drying.
Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to study the lipophilic components of soybean fatty oil. It was found experimentally that the best separation of the components is achieved using an eluent system: carbon tetrachloride: chloroform in a 2: 3 ratio. It was found that the main fat-soluble compounds are the following (in order of increasing Rf in the chromatogram): phospholipids, monoacylglycerides, triacylglycerides, tocopherols, fatty acid esters. As a finding of the research vegetable soybean cultivated at 55 °N in both technical and biological ripeness phases significantly accumulate crude oil in the seeds. This crude oil contained ω-6, ω-3, phospholipids, and vitamin E.

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595–600 O. Shchuklina, R. Afanasiev, I. Voronchikhina, I. Klimenkova and A. Komkova
Differentiated application of nitrogen fertilizers based on optical sensor readings
Abstract |
Full text PDF (721 KB)

Differentiated application of nitrogen fertilizers based on optical sensor readings

O. Shchuklina¹*, R. Afanasiev², I. Voronchikhina¹, I. Klimenkova¹ and A. Komkova¹

¹Federal State Budgetary Institution of Sciences Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Distant hybridization, Botanic street 4, RU127276 Moscow, Russia
²All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry named after D.N Pryanishnikov, Pryanishnikova street 31A, RU127434, Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: oashuklina@gmail.com

Abstract:

The article considers the method of variable rate application of top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers in spring barley crops in the system of precise agriculture. The principle of is based on the in-process diagnosis of plants state in key phases of development and the introduction of necessary dose of top dressing in specific field areas. To assess the plants state, a GreenSeeker optical sensor, which measures the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The tailored application of top dressing increases the yield of spring barley grain by 14.2% compared to the application of fertilizers with one calculated rate for the entire plot or field (Skudra, 2017, Hamann, 2020).

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601–611 S. Tanchyk, D. Litvinov, A. Butenko, O. Litvinova, O. Pavlov, A. Babenko, N. Shpyrka, V.Onychko, I. Masyk and T. Onychko
Fixed nitrogen in agriculture and its role in agrocenoses
Abstract |

Fixed nitrogen in agriculture and its role in agrocenoses

S. Tanchyk¹, D. Litvinov¹, A. Butenko²*, O. Litvinova³, O. Pavlov¹, A. Babenko¹, N. Shpyrka¹, V.Onychko⁴, I. Masyk⁵ and T. Onychko⁴

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Agrobiological faculty, Department of Agriculture and herbology, Heroyiv Oborony 12, UA03041 Кyiv, Ukraine
²Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of agricultural technologies and environmental, Plant growing Department, H. Kondratieva 160, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
³National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Agrobiological faculty, Department of Agricultural chemistry and quality of plant products, Heroyiv Oborony 12, UA03041 Кyiv, Ukraine
⁴Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of agricultural technologies and environmental, Department of Selection and seeds named after M.D. Honcharov, H. Kondratieva 160, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
⁵Sumy National Agrarian University, Faculty of agricultural technologies and environmental, Department of Agriculture, soil and agrochemistry, H. Kondratieva 160, UA40021 Sumy, Ukraine
*Correspondence: andb201727@ukr.net

Abstract:

On typical low-humus black soils in short crop rotations with legumes (25–33%) and without them, it was found that depending on the set of crops in crop rotation and application of fertilizer rates, nitrogen yield per crop is from 355 kg ha-1 to 682 kg ha-1. The recommended fertilization system provided nitrogen compensation for crop yields by only 31–76%. Hence, in the plant-fertilizer system nitrogen deficiency varies from 161 to 370 kg ha-1. The greatest nitrogen deficiency in the soil is observed in crop rotation without the use of fertilizers with the following crop rotation: peas-winter wheat-grain maize-spring barley. The main source of nitrogen for plants is soil nitrogen. In crop rotations with legumes, biological nitrogen is supplied from the air, which in quantitative terms per rotation in crop rotations with peas is 109–288 kg ha-1, with soybeans 264–312, and with alfalfa 486 kg ha-1. Biological nitrogen in crop rotations with peas and soybeans is reimbursed from 25 to 62%, in crop rotation without legumes – 9% (non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation), and in crop rotation with alfalfa – 89% of the total nitrogen removal with the crop.

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612–628 G. Tobi, Y.E. Bahloul, S. Oumouss, I. Rahmouni, A. Birouk and O. Benlhabib
Productivity, heritability and stability analysis of a Moroccan sugar beet germplasm
Abstract |

Productivity, heritability and stability analysis of a Moroccan sugar beet germplasm

G. Tobi¹²*, Y.E. Bahloul¹, S. Oumouss¹, I. Rahmouni¹, A. Birouk² and O. Benlhabib²

¹Regional Center of Agricultural Research of Rabat, Research Unit of Plant Improvement Conservation and Development of Phytogenetic Resources, Avenue Mohamed Belarbi Alaoui B.P: 6356 – Instituts, 10101 – Rabat, Morocco
²Research Unit of Applied Biotechnologies in Agriculture, Agrobiodiversity and Local Products, Department of Plant Protection Production and Biotechnology, Hassan II Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Avenue Allal EL FASSI – Madinat Al Irfane – BP 6202 – 10101 Rabat, Morocco
*Correspondence: g.tobi@iav.ac.ma

Abstract:

Progeny testing is the second part of maternal recurrent selection scheme adopted by INRA-Morocco for the national sugar beet breeding programme. The objective of this study is sugar beet germplasm productivity, heritability and stability analysis. The studied material concern 18 half-sib families (HSF) preselected initially for their seed production potential. Trials were conducted using randomised complete blocks designs during, 2013/14, 2014/15, 2015/16, 2017/18 campaigns in two experimental fields of INRA-Morocco; Sidi Allal Tazi (34° 30′ N, 6° 19′ W) and Larache (35° 11’ N, 6° 09’ W). Evaluated parameters concern the vigour, root weight (RW), leaf biomass yield (LBY), and sugar content (Sc). Data analysis by comparative procedures explores different accordance degrees of HSF versus controls. Good vegetative growth was observed, 85.6% closer to the maximal indicated scale level. The RW was significantly influenced by the genotype and reached a maximum of 1.06 kg versus 1.08 kg average recorded by controls. Sugar content recorded mean was 20.97% in HSF versus 21.39% in the controls. Most of HSF revealed mean values close to Z-type variety. Estimated heritability was 0.5 for RW, 0.2 for the LBY, and 0.02 for Sc. Sugar content was influenced by the environment and explained by the AMMI model (73.6%) versus 53.9% and 44.4% for root weight and leaf biomass yield respectively. The AMMI stability values showed F11, F12, F16, and F17 families as the most performing and stable HSF. Results demonstrate the relevance of the maternal recurrent selection scheme of the on-going national breeding programme.

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629–637 K.A. Zhichkin, V.V. Nosov, L.N. Zhichkina, I.A. Ramazanov, I.A. Kotyazhov and I.A. Abdulragimov
The food security concept as the state support basis for agriculture
Abstract |

The food security concept as the state support basis for agriculture

K.A. Zhichkin¹*, V.V. Nosov²⁶, L.N. Zhichkina³, I.A. Ramazanov⁴, I.A. Kotyazhov⁵ and I.A. Abdulragimov²

¹Samara State Agrarian University, Faculty of Economics, Department of Economic Theory and Economics of AIC, 2 Uchebnaja street, RU446552 Kinel, Russia
²K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of technologies and management, Institute of Economics, Management and Law, Department of Accounting and Corporate Finance, 73 Zemlyanoy val, RU109004 Moscow, Russia
³Samara State Agrarian University, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Land Management, Soil Science and Agrochemistry, 2 Uchebnaja street, RU446552 Kinel, Russia
⁴Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Faculty of Economics of Trade and Commodity Science, Basic Department of Trade Policy, 36 Stremyanny lane, RU117997, Moscow Russia
⁵K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of technologies and management, Institute of Economics, Management and Law, Department of Criminal Law Disciplines, 73 Zemlyanoy val, RU109004 Moscow, Russia
⁶Peoples' Friendship University, Agrarian Technological Institute, 6 Miklouho-Maclay Str., RU117198 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: zskirill@mail.ru

Abstract:

The article discusses the problem of the country (territory) food security formation and its relationship with the state support size for agriculture. The work purpose is to determine the features of the food security formation in the Samara region and the relationship with the state support size for agricultural production in the region. Within this study framework, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: – study the features of the food security concept and its application in the Samara region conditions; – the optimal parameters of the region’s self-sufficiency determination in food products; – establishing a link between food security and the optimal amount of state support for the agro-industrial complex. Taking into account only the data on the region self-sufficiency, the region produces a sufficient amount of potatoes and vegetables. Comparing these indicators with rational consumption rates, it can be seen that the residents’ demand for agricultural products is provided mainly by potatoes, the consumption of which is 1.5 times higher than the rational. The subsidies existing system in the Samara region is not optimal from the point of view for ensuring food security, which indicates either the underfunding of the production for both these and other product groups. In 2017–2018 the amount of state support, based on the above calculations, had to be increased by at least 100–500 million rubles.

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638–647 T. Ziegler and T. Teodorov
Airflow resistance of two hop varieties
Abstract |

Airflow resistance of two hop varieties

T. Ziegler* and T. Teodorov

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Department of Postharvest Technology, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE14469 Potsdam, Germany
*Correspondence: tziegler@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

The quality of hops used in brewing is substantially reliant upon the processing step of drying. To ensure effective drying in kiln as well conveyor-belt dryers, homogeneous distribution of air is of particular importance. Uneven air distribution often results in inefficient drying and nonuniform moisture content of the hop cones. The air distribution naturally is governed by the airflow resistances in the individual floors or belts of a dryer. Hence, in order to quantify the airflow resistance of hop cones at different air velocities and bed heights, systematic measurements were carried out. In addition to determining the bulk densities of hops, the investigations included trials with fresh and dried hop samples. Clear differences were observed between hop varieties both in measured pressure drops and in bulk densities. Moreover, in the case of fresh hops, a non-linear increase in pressure drop with bed height was ascertained. Semi-empirical equations were developed to describe pressure drop as a function of air velocity. This work will contribute to the design of dryers with optimum airflow distribution and thus enhance the efficiency of drying as well as the product quality.

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648–658 O.M. Zolotilova, N.V. Nevkrytaya, W.A. Zolotilov, E.D. Ametova, O.B. Scipor and G.D. Kravchenko
Analysis of the Foeniculum vulgare Mill. collection by the complex of features in the conditions of the Crimea foothills
Abstract |
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Analysis of the Foeniculum vulgare Mill. collection by the complex of features in the conditions of the Crimea foothills

O.M. Zolotilova, N.V. Nevkrytaya*, W.A. Zolotilov, E.D. Ametova, O.B. Scipor and G.D. Kravchenko

Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, 150 Kievskaya street, RU295493 Simferopol, Russia
*Correspondence:nevkritaya@mail.ru

Abstract:

Foeniculum vulgare Mill. is a valuable essential oil plant, which raw materials and derived products, and, above all, essential oil, are widely used in the perfume and cosmetics, liquor, paint and varnish industries, in the food industry and medicine. The source material for cultivated plants selection, including F. vulgare, is the collections of the gene pool. The objective of this study was a comparative study of F. vulgare samples collection by the complex of features to clarify the possibility of identifying sources of economically valuable characteristics for creating promising breeding material. The study of the F. vulgare collection supported by the Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, which includes 75 samples rom 28 countries, was conducted in 2017–2019 at an experimental base located in the Crimea Foothills (Krymskaya Roza village, Belogorsky district). The collection samples were analyzed according to morphobiological parameters and productivity indicators. The work was guided by generally accepted methods, including those developed for essential oil plants. Statistical processing of the obtained data was carried out. The wide variability of the collection is shown, according to individual indicators (variation coefficients – from 8.3 to 54.4%). In this way, the mass fraction of essential oil (one of the most important indicators) varies within a wide range in the collection – from 1.09 to 3.86% (of absolutely dry mass) in whole plants and from 4.16 to 8.53% in fruits. The composition of the essential oil depends on the raw material. The anethole content reaches 80% in fruit oil, and the content of fenchone and terpene compounds is increased during the plant processing. The results of the collection analysis are basic, allowing preliminary sampling with high productivity indicators for inclusion in breeding studies.

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