Volume 19 (2021)
  Special Issue II

Full text of the journal: Volume 19 Special Issue II

Contents


Pages

981–993 I. Biuksane
The role of producer organizations in development of the Latvian fruit and vegetables sector and the EU
Abstract |
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The role of producer organizations in development of the Latvian fruit and vegetables sector and the EU

I. Biuksane*

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Rezekne Academy of Technologies, Struktoru Str. 14, LV–1039 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: inese.biuksane@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Cooperation works as a tool for stable and sustainable economic development, facilitating human well-being and development of economy. It reflects cohesion of the sector and interest in facilitation of the common development of the sector. At the EU level, an increasing attention is paid to cooperation and its role in promotion of competitiveness of the fruit and vegetables sector. The aim of the research is to evaluate the contribution of producer organizations to the development of the fruit and vegetable sector and achievement of the objectives of the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy. Based on the national and international planning documents, available statistical data and the results of conducted questionnaires, a general overview of the activities of fruit and vegetable producer organizations in Latvia and their achieved results in reaching the objectives of the EU’s common organization of the market in agricultural products was provided. Several proposals were developed to strengthen the activities of fruit and vegetable producer organizations, to facilitate the competitiveness of the sector, as well as to implement the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. The results obtained during the research can help the institutions involved in the establishment and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU to better develop and improve the policy in the sector.

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994–1007 V. Bulgakov, V. Bonchik, I. Holovach, I. Fedosiy, V. Volskiy, V. Melnik, Ye. Ihnatiev and J. Olt
Justification of parameters for novel rotary potato harvesting machine
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Justification of parameters for novel rotary potato harvesting machine

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Bonchik², I. Holovach¹, I. Fedosiy¹, V. Volskiy³, V. Melnik⁴, Ye. Ihnatiev⁵ and J. Olt⁶*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., Kyiv, UA 03041, Ukraine
²State Agrarian and Engineering University in Podilia, 13 Shevchenko Str., Kamenets-Podilsky, UA 32300, Ukraine
³National Scientific Centre, “Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Electrification”, 11 Vokzalna Str., Glevakcha 1, Vasylkiv District, UA 08631, Kyiv Region, Ukraine
⁴Kharkiv Petro Vasylenko National Technical University of Agriculture, 44 Alchevskih Str., Kharkiv, UA 61002, Ukraine
⁵Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University, 18B Khmelnytsky Ave, UA 72310, Melitopol, Zaporozhye Region, Ukraine
⁶Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The authors have set an aim in relation to the development of a novel rotary potato harvesting machine design and the substantiation of rational design and process parameters for the clod crushing tools in the machine in order to improve its separation capacity. A novel design solution has been suggested for the process of crushing the two adjacent potato rows with the vanes of the vertical rotor and the expediency of using the methods of crushing clods in the two adjacent potato rows in advance has been justified. Also, the more rational placement of the clod crushing tools in the potato harvesting machine has been suggested. Following the completed research, the geometrical parameters of the vertical rotor have been substantiated, in particular, its diameter dр = 0.65–1.0 m and height hzag = 0.27 m. Additionally, the process parameters have been substantiated for some other tools crushing the clods, in particular, the angle of inclination of the share’s working face, which has to be equal to 10°, the elevator belt width bel = 1.05 m, the linear velocity of the belt Vp = 1.95 m s–1, the belt agitation amplitude Аst = 18 mm. If the soil moisture content is equal to W = 18.4%, the soil separation rate rises insignificantly, when the rotor diameter increases within the range of 0.65–1.0 m, moreover, at Vm = 1.0 m s–1 it varies within the range of 85.3–87.2%, at Vm = 1.5 m s–1 – within the range of 87.0–92.7%, at Vm = 2.0 m s–1 – within the range of 86.0–89.1%. The best performance is achieved at a rotor rotation frequency of nр = 100 min–1 and a translational velocity of Vm = 1.5 m s–1, in which case the soil separation rate S is equal to 93.5%. The tuber damage rate Pb decreases from 4.2% to 1.5%, as the rotor diameter dр increases from 0.65 m to 1.0 m, the translational velocity of the machine Vm – from 0.8 to 2.2 m s–1 at the rotor rotation frequency = 50–100 min–1.

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1008–1014 J.B. Cunha, D. Cecchin, P.I.S. Amaral, F.C. Silva, A.R.G. Azevedo, I.L. Salcedo C.M. Hüther, F.A. Sousa and D.F. Carmo
Ecological footprint of beef consumption in the state of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil
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Ecological footprint of beef consumption in the state of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil

J.B. Cunha¹, D. Cecchin¹*, P.I.S. Amaral², F.C. Silva¹, A.R.G. Azevedo³, I.L. Salcedo¹ C.M. Hüther¹, F.A. Sousa⁴ and D.F. Carmo¹

¹Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Street Passo da Pátria, n.156, Boa Viagem, Niterói-RJ, Brazil
²José do Rosário Vellano University (UNIFENAS), Department of Veterinary Medicine, Rodovia Mg-179 km 0, s/n - Bairro Trevo, BR 37130-000 Alfenas-MG, Brazil
³North Fluminense State University (UENF), Civil Engineering Department, Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
⁴SEMAG/Aracruz, Av. Morobá, n.20, BR 29192-733 Bairro Morobá-ES, Brazil
*Correspondence: daianececchin@id.uff.br

Abstract:

The beef production chain can cause considerable impacts on the environment depending on how it is carried out. The need to discuss the impact of the consumption of this food in a country whose production base is mainly agricultural and livestock is relevant in view of the environmental degradation and scarcity of resources. In this work, the ecological footprint of beef consumption was evaluated using the state of Rio de Janeiro as a case study. Data were collected such as population, productive capacity, annual consumption, cattle weight, grazing equivalence factor. Calculations of livestock density, consumption per capita, productivity, number of oxen, area per capita, and total area required were also carried out. The value found for Total Ecological Footprint was 1,117,995.22 gha and for Ecological Footprint per capita was 0.065 gha. It was found that the ecological footprint per capita is higher than the area destined for each inhabitant of the State which is 0.019 ha. It can be inferred that the consumption of beef as it is currently carried out harms the ecosystem in which production is inserted.

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1015–1022 S. Eglite, A. Ilgaza and M. Butka
Reduction of ammonia emissions by applying probiotics on litter in a commercial breeding poultry house
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Reduction of ammonia emissions by applying probiotics on litter in a commercial breeding poultry house

S. Eglite¹*, A. Ilgaza¹ and M. Butka²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, K.Helmaņa Street 8, LV-3004, Jelgava, Latvia
²WPSA Latvia branch, A/S Balticovo - administrative building, LV-3913, Iecavas district, Latvia
*Correspondence: sabiine.eglite@gmail.com

Abstract:

Agricultural sectors account for a part of total ammonia emissions, including poultry. This is especially true in breeding poultry houses, where birds live on litter for several months. The purpose of the research was to reduce ammonia emission and to improve birds living environment. The study was performed in two breeding poultry houses: the test house (ProLG) and the control house (ConLG). The study starts when young breeding birds (Ross 308) are housed at 19 weeks of age until the birds are eradicated at 60 weeks of age. At the test house the probiotic mixture in a powder form was manually spread 10 g per m2 before the birds were placed, and it was spread manually once a week on litter and over manure pits throughout the lifetime 5 g per m2 of probiotic mixture. The amount of ammonia in ProLG and ConLG houses was measured in the fifth week after the start of the study and afterwards every four weeks at the same 6 points each time and the condition of the litter was assessed on a 5-point scale. As the age of the poultry increases, the number of measurements also increases. Electricity consumption was calculated every month for the test housing and for the control housing. The trial is still ongoing, initial results showed that amount of ammonia has decreased compared to the control house, indicating that the probiotics can be used efficiently to reduce ammonia in the manure of the birds and improving the microclimate in poultry houses, but subsequent results did not give the expected results – the efficacy of probiotics had not been yet approved.

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1023–1038 M. Gaworski, P.F. Borowski and M. Zajkowska
Attitudes of a group of young Polish consumers towards selected features of dairy products
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Attitudes of a group of young Polish consumers towards selected features of dairy products

M. Gaworski*, P.F. Borowski and M. Zajkowska

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Production Engineering, Nowoursynowska 166, PL02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.edu.pl

Abstract:

Consumer opinion surveys include key elements of improving the food market and assessing consumers’ approaches to current issues related to access to high-quality food. In the survey, which aimed to find out the opinions of young Polish consumers about dairy products, the focus was on issues related to the assessment of selected features of dairy products and their packaging, evaluation of regional products and innovations in dairy production. The methodology for assessing the significance of the features of dairy products and their packaging was based on the proposed feature significance index (FSI). In the carried out research, young respondents pointed to the importance of taste and quality of dairy products, and indicated the small role of packaging, determining the choice of products concerned. The ease of product identification based on packaging has gained the greatest importance among the assessed packaging features. Over two-thirds of respondents indicated that they did not pay attention to the biodegradability of dairy product packaging. When asked about regional dairy products, respondents paid most attention to their value resulting from natural methods of production without preservatives, and least to freshness. In the opinion of young consumers, access to regional products increases the certainty of using raw materials from a given region and facilitates the development of local agricultural business. A small percentage of young respondents showed knowledge of the idea of dairy production ‘from grass to glass’, which would indicate insufficient interest in innovative solutions in the dairy sector.

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1039–1051 A. Karlsons, S. Tomsone, M. Lazdāne and A. Osvalde
Effect of fertilization on growth of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)
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Effect of fertilization on growth of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.)

A. Karlsons¹*, S. Tomsone², M. Lazdāne³ and A. Osvalde¹

¹Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Laboratory of Plant Mineral Nutrition, O. Vaciesa street 4, Riga, LV-1004, Latvia
²Plant Biology Laboratory, Botanical Garden, University of Latvia, Kandavas 2, LV–1083 Riga, Latvia
³Arboretum Laboratory, Botanical Garden, University of Latvia, Kandavas 2, LV–1083 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: andis.karlsons@lu.lv

Abstract:

Today, most of the global berry crop of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. is obtained from wild berries. In recent years, however, their cultivation has become slightly more widespread, especially as demand has increased. As the commercial production of lingonberries is a completely new fruit-growing sector in Latvia, research on mineral nutrition, development of the crop production system and proper fertilizer management is critically important. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of different fertilizer rates on the nutrient status of lingonberry plant tissues and plant growth performance. Field experiments with the lingonberry variety ‘Runo Bielawskie’ were carried out during the 2019 and 2020 cropping season. Experimental plantations were established on an excavated peat bog in Latvia. Lingonberry plants received 4 different levels of complex and foliar fertilizers. Leaf analyses and soil (peat) testing were used as diagnostics tools to reveal nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B), soil pH and EC status. In general, plant growth characteristics were significantly affected by different levels of fertilizer. The results showed that the highest fertilizer rates resulted in a larger shrub diameter, the highest total number of rhizomes and shoots of a mother plant.

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1052–1059 A. Leola, J. Priekulis, J. Česna and M. Gaworski
Trend of cow herd size in Baltic states
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Trend of cow herd size in Baltic states

A. Leola¹, J. Priekulis², J. Česna³ and M. Gaworski⁴*

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE 51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, J. Cakstes bulv. 5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Vytautas Magnus University Agriculture Academy, Institute of Energy and Biotechnology Engineering, Studentų Str. 15, LT 53362 Academy, Kaunas district, Lithuania
⁴Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Nowoursynowska Str. 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: marek_gaworski@sggw.edu.pl

Abstract:

The article analyses trend of cow herd size from 2000 to 2019 in four Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. It has been stated that during this period of time the average size of cow herds has increased 3–4 times, except in Estonia, where it has increased 8 times. Nevertheless, the number of cows in the herds is different in individual countries. In the herds with up to 5 cows in Estonia there are about 2% of cows, but in the other Baltic states it is 10–18% of the total number of cows. In turn, in the herds with 50 or more cows, what corresponds to implementation of modern milk production technologies and machinery, in Latvia and Lithuania there are about 50% of cows, in Poland 30%, but in Estonia 90% of the total number of cows in the country. It has influenced the specific labour intensity of the people working in milk production. In Estonia, this indicator in 2019 was about 100 man-h per cow per year, but in the other Baltic states it was 300–350 man-h calculating per cow per year. Still, with robotization and automation of all basic work operations the specific labour intensity in milk production can be decreased to 30–50 man-h calculating per cow per year. Therefore, there are still great development possibilities in all Baltic countries.

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1060–1074 J. McNamara, M. Fox, J. Kinsella and D.O’Connor
Promoting Farmer occupational safety and health (OSH) services through Extension
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Promoting Farmer occupational safety and health (OSH) services through Extension

J. McNamara¹²*, M. Fox¹², J. Kinsella² and D.O’Connor²

¹Teagasc-Agriculture and Food Development Authority, Head Office, Oak Park, R93 XE12 Carlow, Ireland
²School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin 4, D04 V1W8, Ireland
*Correspondence: john.g.mcnamara@teagasc.ie

Abstract:

Strategies for improving OSH in European agriculture are urgently required given the high level of reported injuries and ill health in the sector. The agriculture sector in Europe is enormous in scale and diverse in production systems. A dispersed labour force is deployed in the sector, predominantly using family labour, which is self-employed. Accordingly, a large proportion of the agricultural workforce is outside the scope of EU directives on occupational safety and health (OSH).The aim of this paper is to examine the role and engagement of the discipline of agricultural extension in promoting OSH in agriculture and consider methodologies that this discipline can use most effectively to gain OSH adoption. The paper compares regulatory and extension approaches to consider their respective roles in promoting OSH in agriculture. EU developments related to extension and OSH are then outlined. Regarding extension engagement, findings of a survey among extension and OSH professionals throughout Europe found that OSH is considered an important topic and worthwhile for inclusion in extension but it indicates that currently the level of extension programming is limited. Irish data on OSH extension methodologies indicates that advisors consider that a range of extension approaches are available to motivate farmers on OSH adoption with TV victim testimonials, on-farm social learning discussion groups and on-farm demonstrations having the highest preferences. Data presented indicates that Irish farmers expressed good satisfaction ratings with OSH extension relevance to their farms. Overall, the study advocates giving more consideration of the role of extension in promoting agricultural OSH.

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1075–1086 K. Naglis-Liepa, L. Proškina, L. Paula and D. Kaufmane
Modelling the multiplier effect of a local food system
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Modelling the multiplier effect of a local food system

K. Naglis-Liepa¹*, L. Proškina¹, L. Paula² and D. Kaufmane²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Economics and Regional development, 18 Svetes street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, Institute of Social and Human Sciences, 18 Svetes street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: ef08389@llu.lv

Abstract:

Revitalisation of rural communities, benefits for local farmers and environment are expected outcomes of local food initiatives which are emerging as an opposition to the adverse social and economic effects of globalization. Local food networks diversify the rural economy, promote greater economic independence and local potential, improve the area’s image and reduce GHG emissions. The purchase of local food increases incomes of both the community and local producers, as well as increases employment and related multiplier effects at the local level, for example, increased value of new production, import substitution, increased incomes, and created additional jobs. Revitalisation of rural communities, benefits for local farmers and environment are expected outcomes of local food initiatives which are emerging as an opposition to the adverse social and economic effects of globalization It has been revealed that much of current research on local and regional food networks lacks a strong theoretical grounding and quantitative rigor; however, community development practitioners and planners need objective and research-based information for food system design and implementation in order to produce community or regional wellbeing. The aim of the paper is to develop the concept of an integrated assessment model of local food systems based on the analysis of the literature, which would provide a basis for empirical analysis. The analysis model contains dimensions of sustainable development, allowing us to assess not only direct effects (income, reduced greenhouse gas emissions etc.) but also indirect ones (economic, social and environmental resilience of local communities).

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1087–1098 J.A. Osorio S, V. González, P.F.P. Ferraz, G.A.S. Ferraz and F.A. Damasceno
Thermal comfort assessment in a typological non-isolated maternity pig sheds with different types of farrowing systems
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Thermal comfort assessment in a typological non-isolated maternity pig sheds with different types of farrowing systems

J.A. Osorio S¹*, V. González², P.F.P. Ferraz³, G.A.S. Ferraz³ and F.A. Damasceno⁴

¹Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola y de
Alimentos, Medellín campus, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Carrera 65 #59A-110, Postal code 050034 Medellín, Colombia
²Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Departamento de producción Animal, Medellín campus, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Genética Molecular (BIOGEM), Carrera 65 #59A-110, Postal code 050034 Medellín, Colombia
³Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Department of Agricultural Engineering, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Department of Engineering, Lavras, Câmpus Universitário, Caixa Postal 3037, CEP 37200-000 • Lavras/MG
*Correspondence: aosorio@unal.edu.co

Abstract:

Swine facilities in tropical climates, especially the maternity, have worked with typological systems that have been little studied to determine the influence of the type of farrowing on microenvironmental conditions and its effect on both the sows and the piglets’ physiological parameters. Therefore, the aim of the research was evaluate the thermal environment (Temperature Humidity Index – THI and Radiant Thermal Load – RTL) and its influence on some physiological parameters (respiratory frequency – RF and rectal temperature – TRectal) in the sows and piglets in two different types of farrowing systems (Traditional and Slatted), in a typological swine facility located in tropical climates in Colombia. The findings showed that in the two systems, both for sows and piglets, the type of farrowing system did not generate significant differences in the physiological responses RF and TRectal. Also, the RTL did not show significant differences in the two types of farrowing system at the piglets and the sows’ level, without exceeding the maximum allowed levels. Temperature-Humidity Index was above the threshold during all experimental time, being slightly higher at the piglets’ level with Slatted systems. These results show that the type of floor has little impact on the conditions of animal thermal comfort at the sows and piglets’ level. However, variables like low-temperature, low radiant energy exchange, and high humidity, which were found mainly at the piglets’ level, could have the highest incidence for not achieving a suitable microenvironment. This means that almost all Colombian pig farming facilities require a redesign of their farrowing system to guarantee better thermal conditions for both piglets and sows.

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1099–1111 N. Patel, L. Zihare, and D. Blumberga
Evaluation of bioresources validation
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Evaluation of bioresources validation

N. Patel*, L. Zihare, and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Environmental Science, Department of Environmental Protection and Heat Systems, Azenes street 12-K1, LV1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: nidhiben-arvindbhai.patel@rtu.lv

Abstract:

A major worldwide problem is the degradation of energy sources and the wide amount of waste products from industries, households, or from any other human activities. But what if both problems can be solved by one solution? Extensive data show that validation of bioresources increases the production of the value-added product. The assessment is based on a scenario approach. A vast literature review was performed, to investigate the alternative application pathways for various types of non-primary bioresources. Multicriteria analysis is considered as the current gold standard technique for bioresources valorisation and is proved for two cases. Firstly, we present tests that evaluate the performance of different pre-treatment methods in order to extract fibre from Hogweed biomass. Secondly, we assess the resilience of our approach using Multi-criteria analysis for brewers’ spent grain to find out the best value-added product. The results demonstrate the adequacy of the method for Hogweed biomass and brewers’ spent grain valorisation.

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1112–1123 L. Proskina and S. Cerina
Economic assessment of use of pulses in diets for captive red deer
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Economic assessment of use of pulses in diets for captive red deer

L. Proskina¹* and S. Cerina²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Economics and Social Development, 18 Svetes Street, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, 2 Zinatnes street, Priekuli, Priekulu parish, LV-4130 Priekulu district, Latvia
*Correspondence:liga.proskina@llu.lv

Abstract:

The quality of compound feeds used in livestock diets could be enhanced by means of domestically produced pulses. Nevertheless, there are available few research studies that would allow us to identify the economic efficiency of livestock diets with pulses and the digestibility of protein by livestock for deer farming. Accordingly, the present research aims to identify the economic efficiency of diets supplemented with domestically produced pulses – faba beans, peas and lupine beans – for captive deer. The research conducted a feeding experiment on captive deer (Cervus elaphus) kept in fenced areas to identify the economic efficiency of diets supplemented with three legume species: peas (variety ‘Vitra’), faba beans (variety ‘Fuego’) and narrow-leaved lupin seeds (variety ‘Boregine’). Deer productivity was assessed by live weight, live weight gain, feed intake and protein efficiency ratio during the experimental period, as well as feed cost per live weight gain unit. The research found that feeding deer diets containing peas, faba beans and lupine beans as protein-rich feedstuffs was economically advantageous – at the same cost of feed, deer productivity increased and per-unit production costs decreased. Live weight gains during the experimental period were 1.02% higher in group 2 (pea diet), 1.78% higher in group 3 (faba bean diet) and 2.91% higher in group 4 (lupine diet) than in the control group. During the experimental period, the highest protein efficiency ratio was found in group 4 fed a diet containing lupine beans – a unit of protein fed (1 kg) yielded the highest weight gain or 0.43 kg. Feed costs per kg of live weight gain were the lowest in group 4 (2.32 EUR kg-1), 2.48 EUR kg-1 in group 3 and 2.70 EUR kg-1 in group 2, which was 20.56%, 14.81% and 7.39%, respectively, lower than those in the control group.

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1124–1135 L. Prysiazhniuk, O. Topchii, Z. Kyienko, S. Tkachyk and S. Melnyk
The ecological adaptation of new spring canola varieties in different environmental conditions
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The ecological adaptation of new spring canola varieties in different environmental conditions

L. Prysiazhniuk*, O. Topchii, Z. Kyienko, S. Tkachyk and S. Melnyk

Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination, Henerala Rodimtseva 15, RU 0341 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: prysiazhniuk_l@ukr.net

Abstract:

The study of phenotypic plasticity and stability, according to which the potential of new spring canola varieties adaptability for agroecological technology of spring canola growing in the strategy of intensification of plant production is actual. The new canola varieties, which were included in the State register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine was studied. Field studies were carried out in 2018–2019 on the testing sites of the Ukrainian Institute for Plant Variety Examination in Forest and Forest Steppe zones of Ukraine. The phenotypic plasticity and stability analysis for yield, 1,000 seeds weight, protein and oil content were carried out according to the Eberhart and Russell approach. As results of this study, it was determined that for yield Cleopatra and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as stable. CEBRA CL and Lavina varieties are characterized stability of 1,000 seeds weight during studied years. According to the Wricke’s ecovalence deviation and standard deviation Lavina, Lakritz and CEBRA CL varieties consider as intensive type varieties for yield; for 1,000 seeds weight – Cleopatra and SAOKER CL varieties. According to standard deviation for protein and oil content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as highly adapted. Cleopatra, Lavina and Lakritz are stable for protein content. For oil content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are considered as stable. For protein content CEBRA CL and SAOKER CL varieties are intensive. Thus, spring canola varieties, which are intensive for studied characteristics, respond positively to an improvement of growing conditions.

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1136–1141 D. Ruska and D. Jonkus
Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk productivity traits in early lactation dairy cows
Abstract |

Effect of dietary crude protein concentration on milk productivity traits in early lactation dairy cows

D. Ruska* and D. Jonkus

Latvia University of Life sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela Street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: diana.ruska@llu.lv

Abstract:

The evaluation and control of nitrogen balance at the farm and its relation to milk productivity traits are becoming essential in dairy farming. Increasing in milk productivity farmers tend to increase protein content in feed. The research complied into three (A, B, C) dairy cow groups (8 cows in each group) with LB and HM breed’s cows in the early lactation period divided into three phases (I, II, III) from 10 till 30 lactation days and lasting to 90 lactation days. Each group cows were feeders with total mixed ration (TMR) with different CP content (approx. 17.0%; 16.0%; 15.0% accordingly). The amount of feed consumed by each cow were recorded and feed samples collected during the study. Feed samples were analysed for CP and other feed quality descriptive traits. Milk yield ( kg d-1) and milk samples were collected at day 21 of each phase for analysis. Milk samples were analysed for fat (%), total protein (%), casein (%), and urea content (mg dL-1). The statistical analyses were conducted using ANOVA and descriptive parameters. To evaluate the feed CP conversion efficiency estimated part of that in the yield of milk protein for each cow and on average for the study group in each study phase. The conversion efficiencies of feed CP in milk were ranged from 28.5% to 40.7% in study phase I, and from 33.0% to 39.9% in phase II, and the differences were statistically significant. In phase III, the range from 30.4% to 36.3% were not statistically significant.
The objective of this study was to evaluation of feed protein conversion efficiency for dairy cows in the early lactation phase and define the optimal crude protein (CP) content in the feed.

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1142–1149 T. Saller, D. Herak, C. Mizera and A. Kabutey
Linear compression behaviour of oil palm empty fruit bunches
Abstract |
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Linear compression behaviour of oil palm empty fruit bunches

T. Saller, D. Herak*, C. Mizera and A. Kabutey

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamycka 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: herak@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The study describes the mechanical behaviour of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) as a promising product for pyrolysis production. The EFB samples mixture of moisture content 6.3 ± 0.3 (% d.b.) were grouped into different fraction sizes of 10, 20, 40 and 100 mm. The initial pressing height of each fraction size was measured at 60 mm and compressed at a maximum force of 4,500 N and speed of 10 mm min-1 to obtain the force-deformation dependencies using the universal compression machine and pressing vessel of diameter 60 mm with a plunger. Deformation, deformation energy, volume energy and strain were calculated. While deformation decreased with fraction sizes, deformation energy increased. The deformation energies at fraction sizes from 10 mm to 100 mm indicated energy savings of approximately 23%. The optimal fraction size in relation to energy efficiency was observed at 10 mm. The tangent model accurately described the mechanical behaviour of the EFB samples mixture. The results provide useful information for the design of optimal technology for processing EFB for energy purposes.

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1150–1158 E. Shalavina, A. Briukhanov and R. Uvarov
Effective application of mass balance method: case of organic fertiliser produced from pig slurry
Abstract |
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Effective application of mass balance method: case of organic fertiliser produced from pig slurry

E. Shalavina*, A. Briukhanov and R. Uvarov

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM”, branch in Saint Petersburg, Department of Agroecological Engineering, Filtrovskoje shosse, 3, p.o. Tiarlevo, RU196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: shalavinaev@mail.ru

Abstract:

The study aimed to verify the applicability of the mass balance method in calculating quantity and quality of an organic fertiliser produced from unseparated pig slurry in a pig-fattening complex in the Leningrad Region. The amount of manure at ex-animal level and its nutrient content, required for further calculations of ex-housing manure and resulting organic fertiliser at ex-storage, were calculated by applied diets and feed DM digestibility. Calculated values were compared with the norms from relevant Russian regulatory documents. The regulatory values of manure nitrogen were 22% smaller than the calculated ones. On the contrary, the standard values of manure phosphorus and potassium exceeded the calculated ones by 72% and 73%, respectively. The nutrient content of the organic fertiliser was calculated by the farm data on pig housing and slurry processing systems. The values calculated by the mass balance method were compared with those from the analysis reports issued by the certified laboratory. The difference did not exceed 20%: 11.2% for N, 13.3% for P, and 18.7% for K. This way, the mass balance method can be effectively used for calculating the characteristics of pig slurry-based organic fertiliser. On the contrary, the data from the current regulatory manure management documents showed the low reliability in the part of the physicochemical properties of fattening pig manure. These documents do not take into account the changes in the fattening pig diets with modern special concentrated feeds, which have a major effect on the manure nutrient content.

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1159–1166 S. Simonini, G. Rossi, V. Becciolini, S. Camiciottoli, L. Conti, P.F.P. Ferraz, G.A.S. Ferraz and M. Barbari
Building performance analysis of a dairy factory in South Iraq: appraisal of a local bio-based envelope
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Building performance analysis of a dairy factory in South Iraq: appraisal of a local bio-based envelope

S. Simonini¹, G. Rossi¹*, V. Becciolini¹, S. Camiciottoli¹, L. Conti¹, P.F.P. Ferraz², G.A.S. Ferraz² and M. Barbari¹

¹University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, 13 Via San Bonaventura, IT 50145 Firenze, Italy
²2Federal University of Lavras, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037 - CEP 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*Correspondence: giuseppe.rossi@unifi.it

Abstract:

Buildings have a relevant impact on the environment, and building materials cause environmental impacts during all life cycle stages: production, utilization, management and demolition. The global request for more efficient buildings with less environmental impacts has grown during the last years. Among various technologies, thermal insulation has proven to be helpful in reducing emissions by increasing energy conservation. This paper intends to show how the Building Performance Analysis (BPA) supports the decision-making process in many areas where common insulation materials are not available and there is a general reluctance to use local natural materials. A building located in the city of Al Chubaish in Dhi Qar Province in Iraq is examined as a case study. The construction is designed for processing buffalo milk. It was built in the first decade of the century, during the Iraqi conflict, using only the materials available at that time, most of which, concrete bricks, mortar and plaster. Currently, this dairy factory is a very inefficient structure in terms of energy saving. But because its elementary form, it is a perfect example to investigate how a simple exterior wall insulation can improve building performance in extreme environmental conditions. Accordingly, two different models have been created. One is the replica of the real building without any upgrading. The second instead presents a thermal insulation realized with reed bio-based material locally available. Through advanced simulation engines and building performance analysis data integrated into Autodesk Revit, each model has been tested to identify significant improvements in terms of energy savings in this particular stressed background.

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1167–1178 G.P. Slesarev, T.V. Glukhareva, K.C. Duru, V.A. Shevyrin, P.N. Lyubyakina and E.G. Kovaleva
Comparative study of extraction of soy molasses isoflavones and in vivo bioconversion of daidzein into S-equol in rats models
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Comparative study of extraction of soy molasses isoflavones and in vivo bioconversion of daidzein into S-equol in rats models

G.P. Slesarev*, T.V. Glukhareva, K.C. Duru, V.A. Shevyrin, P.N. Lyubyakina and E.G. Kovaleva

Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg, Russia *Correspondence: grigory.slesarev@urfu.ru

Abstract:

We compared different extraction methods for isolation of isoflavones from soybean molasses. Since conventional extraction methods are time-consuming, expensive and unsustainable, we have compared them with the NADES extraction method, which does not have these disadvantages. Fermentation-assisted technique and extraction with Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) were compared to the conventional extraction methods. Based on the results obtained, we selected the optimal technique for isoflavones isolation. Isoflavones were identified by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS), whereas their quantities were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vivo metabolism of daidzein to S-equol was performed in rats with quantification of a yield of S-equol as a result of daidzein in vivo conversion in rats’ intestines.

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1179–1187 E. Timofeev and A. Erk
Perspectives for biogas generation from manure on the farms in the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation
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Perspectives for biogas generation from manure on the farms in the Leningrad Region of the Russian Federation

E. Timofeev* and A. Erk

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution ‘Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM’, branch in Saint Petersburg, Filtrovskoje shosse, 3 p.o. Tiarlevo, RU 196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: timofeev_ev84@mail.ru

Abstract:

The interest in biogas in the Leningrad Region is consistently growing. Biogas can replace fossil fuels in different applications and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The study aimed to demonstrate the perspectives for its generation from livestock waste and further farm application. The farm energy audits identified the pattern of fuel and energy consumption. Computational and statistical methods were applied to estimate the biogas generation. First, the study considered a cattle farm with 1,800 head and manure output of 43,300 t year-1. According to calculations, the farm can fully meet its own needs for electricity or motor fuel by converting the manure into biogas. Meanwhile, the fuel use of biogas can reduce pollutant emissions by almost 30% against conventional fuel. Secondly, the study estimated the biogas production potential from the farm organic waste in the whole Leningrad Region with the total cattle stock of 165,000 head, pig stock of 184,000 head, and poultry stock of 29,180,000 head, producing about 8 million t year-1 of animal/poultry manure. According to calculations, the livestock waste processing will yield up to 500 million m3 of biogas. This is enough to fully cover the energy inputs of the farms in this region. However, the payback period for biogas plants is above eight years. The positive aspects of biogas application are introducing biogas in the farm energy balance as an energy resource; reducing the hazardous emissions owing to the improved processing of organic farm waste; obtaining high-quality fertilisers to consequently increase crop yields.

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1188–1194 A. Valge, A. Sukhoparov and E. Papushin
Strategic planning of grass forage production in North-West Russia
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Strategic planning of grass forage production in North-West Russia

A. Valge, A. Sukhoparov and E. Papushin*

Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, branch in Saint Petersburg, Filtrovskoje Shosse 3, p.o. Tiarlevo, RU196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: papushinea@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Energy and nutritional value of harvested forage rely heavily on grass vegetative phase and harvesting time. The study aimed to identify rational forage harvesting options in terms of harvesting time. The data for modelling were taken from the literature based on the results of many years’ research. The mathematical models of variation of grass mass and quality depending on days after emergence were created. The possible options of two-step harvesting of forage grass (cocksfoot, Dactylis glomerata) were considered using mathematical methods of nonlinear programming: (1) obtaining maximum hay mass with maximum feed units from specified area of 400 ha and maximum forage yield at full flowering of 15.0 t ha-1; and (2) identifying the harvesting timing and area to obtain the required amount of hay (2,500 t) with a target nutrient content (1,200 feed units). Problem 1 solution was harvesting 1 scheduled for the 45th day after emergence at full earing on 170 ha; harvesting 2 scheduled for the 69th day after emergence at full flowering on 230 ha. In this case, 2,066.5 t of hay with 947 feed units would be obtained. Problem 2 solution was harvesting 1 scheduled for the 43th day after emergence at middle earing on 250 ha; harvesting 2 scheduled for the 65th day after emergence at early flowering on 156 ha. The created models can be effectively applied for forage harvesting in any grassland area required and in any regions.

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1195–1204 B. Yameogo, R.R. Andrade, C.G.S. Teles Júnior, G.S. Laud, V. Becciolini, L. Leso, G. Rossi and M. Barbari
Analysis of environmental conditions and management in a compost-bedded pack barn with tunnel ventilation
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Analysis of environmental conditions and management in a compost-bedded pack barn with tunnel ventilation

B. Yameogo¹, R.R. Andrade², C.G.S. Teles Júnior³, G.S. Laud⁴, V. Becciolini¹, L. Leso¹, G. Rossi¹ and M. Barbari¹*

¹University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
²Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Av. Perimetral, Terra Firme, BR 66077830, Belém, Pará, Brazil
⁴Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Animal Science, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The housing system based on compost-bedded pack for dairy cows is spreading rapidly in Brazil. Completely open buildings without curtains and simple roofs are usually provided. However, in the last years some new completely closed barns have been realized. This study aims to analyse one of these closed barns, located in the State of Minas Gerais. The two main sides of the facility are provided with polyethylene curtains of blue colour and five deflectors. The barn is equipped with an evaporative adiabatic cooling system, associated with the tunnel-style ventilation, realized with exhaust fans, continuously operating 24 hours a day. 85 lactating Holstein cows were housed in the barn during the trials carried out in the winter season 2019. Microclimatic data were collected continuously. Air speed, illuminance and bedding temperature were measured during the farm visits. Pack moisture was calculated. The results state the importance of bedding management and climatic conditions inside the barn. It emerges that the cows housed in this kind of closed barn, with forced ventilation, are in good thermal conditions, which are fairly constant. The average illumination of the barn can be considered acceptable (55.06 lx), even if some areas of the barn present values below the minimum ones reported in literature. The bedding temperature varies between a maximum of 36.33 °C and a minimum of 25.44 °C with an average of 31.26 °C. The values of bedding moisture are between a maximum of 64.36% and a minimum of 60.81% with an average of 62.48%.

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1205–1215 B. Yameogo, R.R. Andrade, C.G.S. Teles Júnior, G.S. Laud, V. Becciolini, L. Leso, G. Rossi and M. Barbari
Behavioural patterns of cows housed in two different typologies of compost-bedded pack barns
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Behavioural patterns of cows housed in two different typologies of compost-bedded pack barns

B. Yameogo¹, R.R. Andrade², C.G.S. Teles Júnior³, G.S. Laud⁴, V. Becciolini¹, L. Leso¹, G. Rossi¹ and M. Barbari¹*

¹University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
²Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³Federal Rural University of the Amazon, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Av. Perimetral, Terra Firme, BR 66077830, Belém, Pará, Brazil
⁴Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Animal Science, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The compost-bedded pack barn (CBP) is an innovative housing technique which has the improvement of animal welfare as main objective. A comparative study of the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows housed in two different compost-bedded pack barns located in the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil) was carried out during the winter season. One barn (CBP A) is closed and applies a wind tunnel ventilation (negative pressure). A second barn (CBP B) is open with natural ventilation, without curtains on the sides, and has fans placed in the resting area. Infrared video cameras were installed in the two barns to allow continuous and simultaneous monitoring of cows’ behaviour. Air temperature and relative humidity inside the barns were monitored continuously and Temperature-Humidity Index was consequently calculated. The results show that the cows housed in the closed barn, with forced ventilation (CBP A), were in good thermal conditions, which were fairly constant, while in the open barn (CBP B) the internal microclimatic conditions were more subject to outside climatic conditions. A close relationship was found between the trend of air temperature and relative humidity inside the facilities and the behaviour of the cows. The number of cows at rest, in CBP B, decreased as the THI value rose. In CBP A, the behaviour of the cows in relation to THI was much more constant.

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1216–1222 L. Zarina, L. Zarina, D. Piliksere and S. Cerina
Gross margin comparison of cultivation of different legume species in the organic farming system
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Gross margin comparison of cultivation of different legume species in the organic farming system

L. Zarina¹*, L. Zarina², D. Piliksere¹ and S. Cerina¹

¹Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Zinatnes street 2, LV 4126 Priekuli, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela street 2, LV 2001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: livija.zarina@arei.lv

Abstract:

In order to identify the most suitable varieties for organic farming, the Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics in 2018 started study four legume species. The independent variables of the study were the legume genotypes: faba bean (Vicia faba L., cv. ‘Isabell’, ‘Lielplatone’, ‘Laura’, ‘Boxer’), field pea (Pisum sativum L, cv. ‘Astronaute’, ‘Bruno’, ‘Rebekka’, ‘Zaiga’), narrow lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L., cv. ‘Sonet’, ‘Probor’, ‘Derliai’, ‘Haags Blau’), and soya (Glycine max L., cv. ‘Annucha’, ‘Sculptor’, ‘Augusta’). The soil types of the experimental organic field were sod–podzolic, sandy loam, and loamy sand. At the start of the study the organic substance concentration was 15–18 mg kg-1, pHKCl was 5.3–5.98, the concentration of plant – available phosphorus (P205) was 133.2–182.9 mg kg-1, and the concentration of potassium (K2O) – 69.2–109.7 mg kg-1. Green manure (buckwheat) was a pre-crop, incorporated in autumn. For the comparison of economic indicators, the gross coverage calculation was used, which based on the difference obtained by subtracting variable costs from the valuation of gross output. All variable costs and revenues were included in the gross margin calculation without value added tax. The study indicated large differences in yields between genotypes. From the economic point of view, the most suitable cultivars for cultivation according to the organic farming method were: field beans – ‘Isabell’ and ‘Lielplatone’ with average gross cover (GC), 505.40 and 504.60 EUR, respectively, field peas – ‘Bruno’ (GC 379.60 EUR), narrow-leaved lupin – ‘Derliai’ (GC 647.70 EUR), soybeans – ‘Sculptor’ (GC 204.40 EUR). Among the legume species studied, lupine showed the highest economic performance, among the genotypes – cultivar ‘Derliai’ (α = 0.05).

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