Volume 20 (2022)
  Special Issue I

Full text of the journal:  Volume 20 Special Issue I

Contents


Pages

899-912 M.S. Alrawi, M.A. Mohammed, E.N. Ismail and A.F. Almehemdi
Stimulation and production of some active compounds in the Chia plant with melatonin in vitro
Abstract |
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Stimulation and production of some active compounds in the Chia plant with melatonin in vitro

M.S. Alrawi¹, M.A. Mohammed², E.N. Ismail³ and A.F. Almehemdi⁴*

¹University of Anbar, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, P.O. Box (55431 Baghdad, 55 Ramadi), Iraq
²University of Anbar, College of Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, P.O. Box (55431 Baghdad, 55 Ramadi), Iraq
³University of Alnahrain, Center of Biotechnology Researches, Department of Plant Biotechnology, Baghdad, Iraq
⁴University of Anbar, Center of Desert Studies, Department of conservation Agriculture, Anbar, P.O. Box (55431 Baghdad, 55 Ramadi), Iraq
*Correspondence: ds.dr.ali.fadaam@uoanbar.edu.iq

Abstract:

A laboratory experiment was carried out in the tissue culture laboratories of the College of Agriculture \ University of Anbar \ Iraq from 1/2/ 2021 till 1/7/2021, to multiply and produce some active compounds in Chia in vitro. Nutrition medium (MS) (Murashige and Skoog) was used to propagate chia plants. The culture medium was enriched with benzyl adenine regulator at MS concentrations, 1, 2, and 3 mg L-1with five replicates for each one, respectively, in order in the multiplication phase, to know its effect on some morphological characteristics of Chia plants such as branch length, nodes and leaflets number. Also, brassinolide was laid out of 0, 1 and 2 mg L-1, while NAA added of 0, 1, 2 and 3 mg L-1with five replicates for each one respectively, were added to the culture media at the rooting stage, in order to test its effectiveness in improving the formation of rootlets of Chia plants. In another experiment, the culture medium was enriched with different concentrations of the melatonin PGR 0, 1, 2, and 3 mg L-1, with five replicates for each one, respectively, in order to study the effect of melatonin in the production of active compounds. The results showed that enrichment of the culture medium with benzyl adenine at a concentration of 1 mg L-1 increased the length, branches number and nodules number in plantlets (9.46 cm branch-1, 5.45 branch plantlet-1, and 9.57 nodes shoot-1). The combined effect of Brassinolide 1 mg L-1 and 3 mg L-1 NAA improved both number of rootlets and their length. of 10.5 rootlets plantlet-1 and 5.7 cm, respectively. Also, the addition of  melatonin to the culture medium significantly diversifying active compounds in term of quantity and quality characteristics. The concentration of 1 mg L-1 of melatonin gave the highest number of active compounds (25 compounds), however the etheric compounds and fatty acid derivatives were the highest. The percentage of etheric compounds was 80.0% by adding 3 mg L-1 of melatonin, and the percentage of fatty acid derivatives reached 16.36% of the total area ratio by adding 1 mg L‑1.

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913-937 A. Doughmi, F. Benradi, E. Cherkaoui, M. Khamar1, A. Nounah and A. Zouahri
Fertilizing power evaluation of different mixtures of organic household waste and olive pomace
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Fertilizing power evaluation of different mixtures of organic household waste and olive pomace

A. Doughmi¹*, F. Benradi¹, E. Cherkaoui¹, M. Khamar¹1, A. Nounah¹ and A. Zouahri²

¹Mohammed V University, High School of Technology, Civil Engineering and Environment Laboratory (LGCE), Materials Water and Environment team, MA11060 Sale, Morocco
²INRA, Regional Center for Agricultural Research in Rabat, Research Unit on Environment and Natural Resource Conservation, MA10112 Rabat, Morocco
*Correspondence: ayoub_doughmi@um5.ac.ma

Abstract:

From the perspective of sustainable agriculture established by the Green Morocco Plan, it is interesting to direct research more towards the agronomic valorization of olive pomace, to give birth to a clean olive growing which leads to a viable economy thus respecting a pillar of sustainable development. Several studies have shown the effectiveness of using olive pomace as a soil amendment. Therefore, in this study we want to increase the agricultural performance of olive pomace by composting by mixing it with other waste.

Morocco is considered one of the major olive-producing countries with an annual production of 1.41 million tonnes (MT), part of it is dedicated to olive oil production. Morocco produces approximately 26.8 MT of waste annually, 8.3 MT are household waste, 70% are organic household waste (5.8 MT). The current production of organic household waste in urban areas is estimated at 4.8 million tonnes per year, or an average of 0.76 kg hab-1 day-1, and in rural areas 1 million tonnes per year, or an average of 0.30 kg hab-1 day-1 (SNRVD, 2015). Agri-food industry waste is around 3 million tonnes with 600,000 to 700,000 tonnes of olive oil waste (pomace) (Agricultural Development Agency, 2018). The rejection of this waste without any prior treatment contributes to the environment deterioration. However, a large part of this waste remains recoverable, which would reduce both waste volume to be eliminated and the associated management cost. This; will contribute to reducing the negative impacts on receiving environments and the cost of restoring the environment state, and ensuring a transition towards a circular economy.Our work is part of the context of solid waste management and recovery, in particular organic waste from household and food-processing activities, and is oriented towards the pomace recovery by composting, mixing it with different percentages of organic household waste.

This work consists on composting olive pomace from the three phases system with another structural agent (organic household waste). Comparing the mixtures (6 treatments) with different concentrations in terms of composting process parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter temperature, etc.), organic matter evolution and composts quality, with manual aeration of the compost, in order to increase the agricultural yield of the olive pomace. Residues from the fermentation process can be used in agriculture. All the different mixtures of the different percentages are characterized at the initial state and at the end of the composting process in order to highlight their nutritional values.

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938-950 L.N. Fadilah, B. Lakitan and M. Marlina
Effects of shading on the growth of the purple pakchoy (Brassica rapa var. Chinensis) in the urban ecosystem
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Effects of shading on the growth of the purple pakchoy (Brassica rapa var. Chinensis) in the urban ecosystem

L.N. Fadilah¹, B. Lakitan²³* and M. Marlina²

¹Program of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya, Jalan Padang Selasa No. 524, Bukit Besar, Palembang 30139, South Sumatera, Indonesia
²Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sriwijaya, Jalan Raya Palembang–Prabumulih Km 32, Indralaya, Ogan Ilir 30662, South Sumatera, Indonesia
³Research Center of Sub–optimal Lands, Universitas Sriwijaya, Jalan Padang Selasa No. 524, Bukit Besar, Palembang 30139, South Sumatera, Indonesia
*Correspondence: blakitan60@unsri.ac.id

Abstract:

Open green spaces in urban area can be utilized in many ways. Recently, more of the open spaces have been cultivated for vegetable production, gradually shifted from aesthetical purpose to the need for fresh healthy foods. Urban vegetable farming can be conventionally practiced on a limited backyard. Our research was aimed to assess the effects of shading treatments on growth and yield of purple pakchoi (Brassica rapa var. chinensis). The research was arranged based on the randomized block design with 4 levels of shading treatment. The results showed that shading treatments at 0%, 45%, 55%, and 80% significantly affected morphological growth traits, including plant height, number of leaf, lengths of petiole, length of leaf midrib, width of leaf blade, canopy diameter, and leaf SPAD index, total leaf fresh and dry weights, total fresh and dry roots, and lengths of stem; but did not significantly affect the leaf thickness. In all affected traits, heavier shading inhibited growth, confirming that the purple pakchoi prefers full sunlight. The leaf of purple pakchoi reached its maximum size at less than 14 days counted from the first day of leaf blade was fully unfolded. Purple pakchoi can be harvested at 35 days after transplanting. The accurate leaf area estimation in purple pakchoi can be achieved by using LW as predictor and calculated using the power regression (R² = 0.9806).

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951-964 O. Farssi, M. Mouradi, F. Aziz and H. Berrougui
Role of acid phosphatase and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations to low phosphorus availability
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Role of acid phosphatase and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations to low phosphorus availability

O. Farssi¹²*, M. Mouradi², F. Aziz³ and H. Berrougui¹

¹Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Polydisciplinary Faculty of Beni-Mellal, Polyvalent Unit on R&D, Mghila, PO Box. 592, MA23000 Beni-Mellal, Morocco
²Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Polydisciplinary Faculty of Beni–Mellal, Unit of Biotechnology & Sustainable Development of Natural Resources, Mghila, PO Box. 592, MA23000 Beni-Mellal, Morocco
³Cadi Ayyad University, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, Laboratory of Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change, Bd Prince Moulay Abdellah, MA40000 Marrakech, Morocco
*Correspondence: omarfarssi@gmail.com

Abstract:

This study aims at evaluating the tolerance of four alfalfa (Medicgao sativa L.) populations to low phosphorus (P) in rooting medium. The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions. The seedlings of 15 old days were subjected to P deficiency using Ca3HPO4, insoluble form and P sufficiency using KH2PO4, as soluble form, at a final concentration of 250 μmol P plant−1. week−1. After 60 days P deficit, several agro–physiological and biochemical traits were measured and determined in both conditions. The obtained results indicated that the P–starvation significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the agroeconomic traits evaluated such as plant dry weight and leaf area. The root and shoot P contents were found (P < 0.001) decreased by low–P availability in the rooting medium. This constraint induced significant (P < 0.001) increase in phosphatase acid activity and caused lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to cells, evaluated through malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents. Our results showed also, that low P availability significantly (P < 0.001) increased the enzymatic antioxidant responses reflected by the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase and catalase. The non-enzymatic antioxidant molecule such as proline and total polyphenols were found significantly increased in alfalfa stressed plants. The behavior of alfalfa populations tested was significantly different (P >0.05). The OL population was found to be the least affected and the DEM was most sensitive one, whereas the populations TATA and RICH showed a moderate tolerance. Our study advises that the tolerance of Moroccan alfalfa populations to low P–availability was associated with increased acid phosphate activity and ability to induce enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses leading to cell detoxification from reactive oxygen species (ROS).

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965-976 M.A. Hossain, M.A.A. Mamun, M.M.U. Miah, M.M. Haque, M.M. Rahman, M.A.R. Khan, J.C. Biswas and M.A. Karim
Rice growth and yield characteristics under elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen management
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Rice growth and yield characteristics under elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen management

M.A. Hossain¹, M.A.A. Mamun¹*, M.M.U. Miah², M.M. Haque¹, M.M. Rahman³, M.A.R. Khan¹, J.C. Biswas⁴ and M.A. Karim¹

¹Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, BD-1706 Gazipur, Bangladesh
²Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Forestry and Environment, BD-1706 Gazipur, Bangladesh
³Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, BD-1706 Gazipur, Bangladesh
⁴Krishi Gobeshona Foundation, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, BD-1215 Dhaka, Bangladesh
*Correspondence: aamamun@bsmrau.edu.bd

Abstract:

The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is increasing and the on crop production needs to be investigated. A pot experiment was conducted in open top chambers (OTC) to determine the response of rice to elevated CO2 (eCO2) under varying time of nitrogen (N) application. The results revealed that photosynthesis, root and shoot dry matter production, yield components and nutrient absorption were favored at eCO2 when N applied up to flowering stage (FT) of rice. However, the N application up to FT of rice also significantly improved percent filled grain, reduce spikelet sterility and rice yield increased by 18 to 20% under eCO2. Rice plant absorbed higher amount of Zn, Ca, Mg, and Fe at eCO2 when N was applied up to FT. Amylose was higher but protein percentage was lower at eCO2. These results indicate that to maximize rice yield under eCO2, it is important to supply N up to FT of rice in order to increase grain fertility and reduce spikelet sterility.

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977-998 H.H.A. Ibrahim, A.A.H. El-Khawaga, I.E. Ramadan, H.H.M. Hassan and A. Abdelsalam
Qualitative traits of various Egyptian clover varieties under efficiency of bio-chemical phosphorus fertilization and lithovit regimes
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Qualitative traits of various Egyptian clover varieties under efficiency of bio-chemical phosphorus fertilization and lithovit regimes

H.H.A. Ibrahim¹*, A.A.H. El-Khawaga¹, I.E. Ramadan¹, H.H.M. Hassan² and A. Abdelsalam¹

¹University of Zagazig, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy,
Al Wehda Al Zraaia St, Moawwad, Zagazig 2, Sharkia Governorate, 44519, Egypt
²Forage Crops Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center (ARC), 9 Cairo University Rd, Oula, Giza District, Giza Governorate, Egypt
*Correspondence: hebahany1996@gmail.com

Abstract:

This investigation was performed at the Agriculture Research Station, Faculty of Agric. Zagazig Univ., Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, throughout the winter seasons of 2019/2020 and 2020/2021. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of ten bio-chemical fertilization and lithovit regimes on forage quality of 1st and 3rd cuts of various Egyptian clover varieties (Berseem, Trifolium alexandrinum L.) q.e. Helaly, Gemmeza 1, Sakha 4, Serw 1, Giza 6 and local variety. The ten fertilization regimes were F1, control; F2, chemical phosphorus 15.5 P2O5 kg fad-1; F3, bio-phosphorus fertilizer ‘phosphorein’; F4, 50% of F2 + phosphorein; F5, 25% of F2 + phosphorien; F6, F2 + lithovit; F7, F3 + lithovit; F8, F4 + lithovit; F9, F5 + lihtovit; F10, sole lithovit. Giza 6 Egyptian berseem variety ranked first in forage quality because of its high content of each CP (%), NFE (%), TDN (%), and DP (%) in the 3rd cut. The local berseem variety ranked the least over the six Egyptian clover varieties with the highest ash (%) in the 1st cut. Other varieties were in between. Allusion to the bio-chemical phosphorus fertilization and lithovit regimes, application of any phosphorus fertilization regimes surpassed the control treatment in most nutritive values. Application of F9 fertilization regime (25% chemical P + bio-fertilizer ‘phosphorien’ + nano-fertilizer ‘lithovit’) tended to produce high forage quality with high content of CP (%) in the 1st cut, TDN (%) in both 1st and 3rd cuts as well as DP (%) in the 1st cut.

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999-1013 A.C. Kusumasari, Sutoyo, S. Jauhari, W. Hariyanto, Sarjana, D. Sihombing, W. Handayati and B. Winarto
Growth-yield performances of two chilli varieties under different agronomical components applied and their partial economic analysis
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Growth-yield performances of two chilli varieties under different agronomical components applied and their partial economic analysis

A.C. Kusumasari¹, Sutoyo¹, S. Jauhari¹, W. Hariyanto¹, Sarjana¹, D. Sihombing², W. Handayati² and B. Winarto¹*

¹Central Java Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology, Jl. Soekarno Hatta KM. 26 No.10, Tegalsari, Bergas subdistrict, Semarang Regency, 50552, Jawa Tengah-Indonesia
²East Java Assessment Institute for Agriculture Technology, Jalan Raya Karangploso, KM 4, Kepuharjo, Karangploso Subdistrict, Malang Regency, 65152, Jawa Timur-Indonesia
*Corresponding author: budi.winarto67@yahoo.co.id

Abstract:

The present study had main objective to improve growth-yield performances of two curly red chilli varieties under different agronomical components (ACs) and their partial economic analysis. The research was conducted at Tampirkulon Village, Candimulyo Subdistrict, Magelang Regency, Central Java-Indonesia. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with six combination treatments and four replications. Two curly red chilli varieties tested were Capsicum annum L. ’Kencana’ and ‘OR Twist 42’. Three different ACs investigated were (1) Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute (IVegRI) ACs, (2) farmer ACs, and (3) low-agro input and environmental-friendly (Lai-ef) ACs. Results of the study reveal that growth-yield of chilli were significantly improved due to utilization of healthy seedlings, ‘OR Twist 42’ variety and IVegRI ACs. The seedlings increased number of flowers and fruit plant-1 up to 24.9% and 14.2%; 23.6% and 19.5% induced by ‘OR Twist 42’; and 54.5% and 25.5% stimulated by IVegRI ACs. Combination of ‘OR Twist 42’ and IVegRI ACs was the optimal combination treatment in improving growth-yield performances of the curly red chilli with as high as 279.2 fruits per plant, 1,111.4 g chilli productivity fruit plant-1, 167 kg chilli productivity plant-1 with 40.6, 39.9, and 33.3% improvement compared to farmer ACs. The combination had Return Cost (R/C) ratio with as high as 2.04. Lai-ef ACs was another interesting result with 1.90 R/C ratio due to low agro-input cost compared to the farmer ACs with as low as 1.64. These results clearly contributed to a better understanding the effect of utilizing healthy seedlings, high adaptive-productive variety and optimal ACs individually or in combination on improving growth-yield of chilli.

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1014-1025 M.A.A. Mamun, M.A. Mannan and M.A. Karim
Location specific field performance of aman rice cultivars in tidal flood prone ecosystem of Bangladesh
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Location specific field performance of aman rice cultivars in tidal flood prone ecosystem of Bangladesh

M.A.A. Mamun*, M.A. Mannan* and M.A. Karim

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, BD1706 Gazipur, Bangladesh
*Correspondence: aamamun@bsmrau.edu.bd; mannanagr@bsmrau.edu.bd

Abstract:

Cultivation of modern high yielding rice varieties are ecologically limited in a tidal flood (TF) prone area of Bangladesh. Therefore, rice growers are cultivating local rice cultivars that resist tidal water pressure and survive under waterlogged condition in a tidal ecosystem. A farmers’ participatory field experiment was conducted at Wazirpur, Bakergonj and Babugonj upazila of Barisal and Nalchity upazila under Jhalokati districts of Bangladesh to identify location specifies some aman rice cultivars that resist TF and give higher grain yield. There were fifty-sixty local rice cultivars along with five modern rice varieties were included in this trial. The experimental sites were extensively TF prone and 10 to 80 cm of flood water entered into the crop field during active tillering to flowering stage of rice. Data on plant height, yield and yield components were recorded. The results revealed that local rice cultivars performed better than modern one in the experimental sites. Taller plant, production of more panicles per unit area, higher number of grains panicle-1 and heavier grains were the most important traits associated with plant adaptation of aman rice cultivars in tidal areas. Collectively, this study suggested that Dudmona1 and Khoiyamota1 at Wazirpur (2.98 to 3.10 t ha-1); Dishari1 and Sadamota2 at Bakergonj (2.92 to 2.98 t ha-1); Shorna at Babugonj (3.56 t ha-1); Moulata2, Achin and Sadamota2 at Nalchity (2.96 to 2.98 t ha-1) were most promising rice cultivar in terms of adaptation and grain yield.

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1026-1043 C. Muangmee, N. Kassakorn, N. Meekaewkunchorn, B. Khalid and M. Urbański
Evaluating the drivers of environmental sustainability practices – mango farm managers’ perspective
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Evaluating the drivers of environmental sustainability practices – mango farm managers’ perspective

C. Muangmee¹, N. Kassakorn¹, N. Meekaewkunchorn¹, B. Khalid²* and M. Urbański³*

¹Bansomdejchaopraya Rajabhat University, Faculty of Management Science, 1061 Soi Issaraphap 15, Hiranruchi, Thonburi, Bangkok TH10600, Thailand
²KMITL Business School, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, 1 Soi Chalongkrung 1, Ladkrabang, Ladkrabang, Bangkok TH10520, Thailand
³Road and Bridge Research Institute, ul. Instytutowa 1, PL03-302 Warszawa, Poland
*Correspondence: khalidb9998@gmail.com; murbanski@ibdim.edu.pl

Abstract:

This study evaluated the drivers of environmental sustainability practices using mango farm managers in Thailand. The purpose was to ascertain farmers’ ability to conserve natural resources and protect the ecosystem. This was necessitated to raise environmental awareness, promote sustainable human development, and increase economic growth and quality of life. The study adopted a quantitative survey design with primary data collected from mango farm managers in four provinces in Thailand. Data were collected from a total of 383 respondents. The data was analyzed using CFA and SEM techniques employing SPSS v26 and AMOS v26. The findings showed that Organizational Culture and Employee Training significantly and positively influence Environmental Sustainability Practices in managing mango as a natural resource. Organizational Culture was also found to positively mediate the effect of information system adoption. The study concluded that management and employees in mango farms should be trained about the importance of environmental sustainability and encouraged to cultivate a culture grounded in the sustainability practices of mango as a natural resource. They should be taught how advancing and adopting sustainable practices by subsistence and commercial mango farmers in Thailand can enhance sustainable development, economic growth, and regional cooperation by checking materials and methods.

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1044-1059 A. Noor, I. Lubis, M. Ghulamahdi, R.D. Ningsih, K. Anwar, M.A. Chozin and D. Wirnas
The response by selected rice genotypes to organic ameliorants in tidal swampland which is affected by Fe toxicity
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The response by selected rice genotypes to organic ameliorants in tidal swampland which is affected by Fe toxicity

A. Noor¹*, I. Lubis², M. Ghulamahdi³, R.D. Ningsih¹, K. Anwar⁴, M.A. Chozin³ and D. Wirnas⁵

¹Research Center for Food Crops  Research Organization for Food and Agriculture –National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Banjarbaru ID70714, South Kalimantan, Indonesia
²Crop Production Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Dramaga, ID16680Bogor, Indonesia
³Crop Ecophysiology Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Dramaga, ID16680 Bogor, Indonesia
⁴Swampland Agricultural Research Institute, Banjarbaru ID70712 South Kalimantan, Indonesia
⁵Plant Breeding Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University, Kampus IPB Dramaga, ID16680 Bogor, Indonesia
*Correspondence: aidinoor@yahoo.com

Abstract:

Ferrous Fe toxicity in rice has been reported to be one of several major limitations in terms of wetland rice production. Previous studies have reported a decrease in paddy rice yields of between 12–100% due to this problem. A study was conducted in order to determine the growth and yield factors for selected rice genotypes as a response to the presence of organic ameliorants, and their interaction in controlling ferrous Fe toxicity levels in rice which is grown in tidal swampland. Experiments formed part of this study, with these being conducted in tidal swampland around Danda Jaya village and Belandean village in Barito Kuala Regency, South Kalimantan. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design to test the organic ameliorant treatments (the control was fresh Salvinia sp, with the compost being formed of Salvinia sp, plus rice straw, and cow manure as the main plots, and sub-plots being formed of rice genotypes (TOX-4136, Inpara-1, Inpara-2, Inpara-4, and IR-64). Results from the experiments revealed the fact that organic ameliorants could reduce ferrous Fe toxicity levels, as well as Fe content in plant tissues, while plant height and the number of tillers also decreased. Rice genotypes which are medium tolerant or fully tolerant to ferrous Fe toxicity when organic amelioration treatments are added can serve to decrease ferrous Fe toxicity and increase the number of filled grains and yield. Applications of fresh Salvinia and Salvinia compost were as effective as an application of rice straw and cow manures when it came to successfully increasing the yield of rice grown in tidal swampland. Ferrous iron toxicity in rice which has been produced in tidal swampland can be overcome by using tolerant genotypes (Inpara-1 and Inpara-4), or organic ameliorants (Salvinia sp).

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1060-1071 E. Pires, G.P. Domiciano, R.L. Portz4, E.A. Lima, J.L. Belot and C. Furlanetto
Selection of resistant upland cotton genotypes challenged with aggressive isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 3
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Selection of resistant upland cotton genotypes challenged with aggressive isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 3

E. Pires¹, G.P. Domiciano², R.L. Portz⁴4, E.A. Lima³, J.L. Belot⁵ and C. Furlanetto³*

¹Centro Universitário Fundação Assis Gurgacz, Avenida Ministro Cirne Lima, 2565, Jardim Coopagro, 85.903-590, Toledo, Paraná, Brasil
²Centro Nacional de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Parque Estação Biológica, PqEB, Av. W5 Norte, Brasília, Distrito Federal, 70770-917, Brasil
³Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, 70.910-900, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil
⁴Universidade Federal do Paraná, R. Pioneiro 2153, Jardim Dallas, 85950-000, Palotina, Paraná, Brasil
⁵Instituto Matogrossense do Algodão, Departamento de Fitopatologia, Estrada Br 070, S/N Zona Rural, 78.850-000, Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso, Brasil
*Correspondence: cfurla@hotmail.com

Abstract:

This study aimed to select populations of M. incognita race 3 for screening cotton genotypes as part of a breeding program for the development of resistant cotton cultivars. Five isolates of M. incognita race 3, collected in Western Paraná, Brazil, were tested for virulence and aggressiveness against the cotton cultivars FM966 (susceptible), IAC 24 (resistant), CD 409, and FMT 701 (moderately resistants) under greenhouse conditions, and following a factorial design with five replicates. Thirty-one cotton genotypes were screened against the three most aggressive isolates of M. incognita race 3 tested before and kept under greenhouse conditions following a factorial design with five replicates. Experiments run under greenhouse conditions had single cotton plants inoculated with 5,000 eggs/J2 of M. incognita and were assessed at 120 days after inoculation considering the variables gall index, egg mass index, total eggs, and reproduction factor. The same genotypes tested under greenhouse conditions were also grown in a field infested with M. incognita race 3 in a randomized block design with 10 replicates. In the field, the M. incognita population was monitored by the quantification of J2 forms in soil samples collected before sowing, 60 days after sowing (DAS), and 120 DAS. A gall index score was used to evaluate the roots of cotton genotypes at 120 DAS. The isolate from Umuarama was the most aggressive, followed by Moreira Sales and Iporã. The genotypes CD 05-419, CD 05-945,
CD 05-1087, and CD 05-1170 showed resistance against M. incognita race 3 under greenhouse and field conditions.

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1072-1089 G. Prasad, H. Mamane and M.V. Ramesh
Geogenic and anthropogenic contamination of groundwater in a fragile eco-friendly region of southern Kerala, India
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Geogenic and anthropogenic contamination of groundwater in a fragile eco-friendly region of southern Kerala, India

G. Prasad¹*, H. Mamane² and M.V. Ramesh³

¹Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri, India
²School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel
³Center for Wireless Networks and Applications (WNA), Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri, India
*Correspondence: geena@am.amrita.edu

Abstract:

In environmentally fragile regions that rely solely on groundwater resources, the hazards to the environment and human health are amplified by geogenic and anthropogenic pollution through the supply and use of groundwater for drinking and irrigation use. Groundwater from borewells in the study area was evaluated through hydrogeochemical analysis of 17 parameters in 2018 and 2019 across three seasons: pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon. The study area, Kainakary, a fragile eco-friendly area in South India, was specifically chosen, as agriculture is the predominant anthropogenic activity in the region and other anthropogenic activities with known negative effects are negligible compared to other parts of India. Despite diligent attention paid to sustainable practices in Kainakary, iron, fluoride, and ammonia components in groundwater exceeded the permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization and Indian drinking water standards. Significant need for water resources due to below sea level farming practices of rice cultivation and potable water requirements result in over-extraction of groundwater, an inevitable cause of geogenic pollution. Anthropogenic pollution of groundwater sources was evidenced by the presence of coliform bacteria in samples. Determining the origins of major geogenic and anthropogenic pollutants, as well as understanding irrigation use patterns, play a key role in mitigating the overuse of groundwater sources. This study contributes to evolving strategies for reducing geogenic and anthropogenic pollution and for groundwater management in ecologically fragile areas toward achieving Sustainable Development Goal 12, which focuses on responsible consumption and production.

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1090-1103 A.M. Purnawanto and Y.R. Ahadiyat
Maize Growth and Yield characteristics with application of mushroom waste substrate vermicompost in Ultisol
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Maize Growth and Yield characteristics with application of mushroom waste substrate vermicompost in Ultisol

A.M. Purnawanto¹* and Y.R. Ahadiyat²

¹Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Faculty of Agriculture and Fisheries, Jl. KH. Ahmad Dahlan, Kembaran, Banyumas, 53182 Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
²Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Faculty of Agriculture, Laboratory of Agroecology, Jl. Dr. Soeparno No.63, Purwokerto Utara, Banyumas, 53122 Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
*Correspondence: agoesmp@gmail.com

Abstract:

Improve maize production can be done by expanding the planting area in Ultisol. The main problems with planting maize in Ultisol are high soil acidity (pH < 4.5), high Al saturation (> 65%), and low P availability (± 1.7 ppm). The objective of this study was to know the effect of the application of mushroom waste substrate vermicompost on the characteristics of maize growth and yield. in Ultisol. Randomized Complete Block Design with the treatments of vermicompost at a dose of 0 t ha-1, 15 t ha-1, 30 t ha-1, and 45 t ha-1 with six replications was tested. The observed variables were Ultisol’s chemical and biological properties, maize growth, and yield. The soil characteristics of the pH, C-organic, P-available, and phosphate solubilizing microbes, and maize growth and yield characters viz. the number of leaves, shoot dry weight, flower emergence, leaf chlorophyll content, the efficiency of P use, the protein content of seeds, number and weight of maize seeds improved with the application of 45 t ha-1 of vermicompost. From the results it could be concluded that applying the vermicompost would enable farmers increase yield of maize in Ultisol soil.

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1104-1116 A.N. Puspito, S. Nabilah, D.M.A. Imam Buqori, S. Hartatik, Kyung-Min Kim and M. Ubaidillah
Genetic diversity analysis of Indonesian rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L.) with simple sequence repeat markers
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Genetic diversity analysis of Indonesian rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L.) with simple sequence repeat markers

A.N. Puspito¹, S. Nabilah¹, D.M.A. Imam Buqori², S. Hartatik², Kyung-Min Kim³ and M. Ubaidillah⁴*

¹University of Jember, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Jember, ID6812 East Java, Indonesia
²University of Jember, Faculty of Agriculture, Study Program of Agronomy, Jember, ID6812 East Java, Indonesia
³Kyungpook National University, College of Agriculture and Life Science, School of Applied BioSciences, Division of Plant Biosciences, Daegu, South Korea
⁴University of Jember, Faculty of Agriculture, Study Program of Agrotechnology, Jember, ID6812 East Java, Indonesia
*Correspondence: moh.ubaidillah.pasca@unej.ac.id

Abstract:

The characterization of germplasm provides information on the regional rice genetic diversity and variety kinship classification. This study aimed to provide information on the agro-morphological traits and genetic diversity of fifty local rice varieties from Java and Borneo Island in Indonesia. The variability of thirteen agronomic traits showed the differentiation among t
he accessions, while the phenotypic traits were grouped into six clusters. The genotyping characterization was conducted using SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) markers (22 microsatellites), and continued with genetic diversity and Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) analysis. The agro-morphological clustering based on Ward’s Hierarchical constructed six sub-clusters. The PC1 and PC2 had 86.3% of the total percentage. The UPGMA method was used to construct
six different groupings, as the correlation between each group and its collecting source was significant. Furthermore, the UPGMA dendrogram clustered the 50 accessions into six main clusters, while the PIC showed a polymorphism value range of 0.41–0.74. RM162 located on chromosome 5, which was considered as the best marker for fifty-one genotypes. At the same time, the lowest PIC value of 0.41 was observed in RM431 located in chromosome 1. This classification can be helpful as a detailed information for plant breeders to characterize and select the germplasm, while conducting backcrosses between rice accessions.

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1117–1133 K. Rajashree, K.V. Prema, G. Rajath and S. Angad
Prediction of fruit rot disease incidence in Arecanut based on weather parameters
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Prediction of fruit rot disease incidence in Arecanut based on weather parameters

K. Rajashree¹*, K.V. Prema², G. Rajath³ and S. Angad¹

¹Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal Institute of Technology, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Madhav Nagar, Manipal, IN576104 Karnataka India
²Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal Institute of Technology, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, BSF Campus, Yelahanka, Bangalore, IN560064 Karnataka, India
³PES University, PES Institute of Technology, Department of Electronics and Communication, Dwaraka Nagar, Banashankari, Bangalore, IN560085 Karnataka, India
*Correspondence: raji.krish@manipal.edu

Abstract:

The occurrence of pests and diseases in arecanut crops has always been an important factor affecting the total production of arecanut. Arecanut is always dependent on environmental factors during its growth. Thus monitoring and early prediction of the occurrence of the disease would be very helpful for prevention and therefore more crop production. Here, we propose artificial intelligence-based deep learning models for fruit rot disease prediction. Historical data on fruit rot incidence in representative areas of arecanut production in Udupi along with historical weather data are the parameters used to develop region-specific models for the Udupi district. The fruit rot disease incidence score value is predicted using recurrent neural network variants (i.e., Vanilla LSTM, Vanilla GRU, stacked LSTM, and Bidirectional LSTM) for the first time. The predictive performance of the proposed models is evaluated by mean square error (MSE) along with the 5-fold cross-validation technique. Further, compared to other deep learning and machine learning models, the Vanilla LSTM model gives 1.5 MSE, while the Vanilla GRU model gives 1.3 MSE making it the best prediction model for arecanut fruit rot disease.

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1134-1150 Y. Sapsuha, E. Suprijatna, S. Kismiati and S. Sugiharto
Possibility of using nutmeg flesh (Myristica fragrans houtt) extract in broiler diet to improve intestinal morphology, bacterial population, blood profile and antioxidant status of broilers under high-density condition
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Possibility of using nutmeg flesh (Myristica fragrans houtt) extract in broiler diet to improve intestinal morphology, bacterial population, blood profile and antioxidant status of broilers under high-density condition

Y. Sapsuha¹, E. Suprijatna², S. Kismiati² and S. Sugiharto²*

¹Universitas Khairun, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia
²Universitas Diponegoro, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Science, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia
*Correspondence: sgh_undip@yahoo.co.id

Abstract:

This study investigated the impact of nutmeg flesh extract on intestinal morphology, bacterial population, blood profile and antioxidant status of broiler chickens stocked at high density pens. After 15 days of rearing, 370 Lohmann broiler chicks (unsexed) were assigned to five treatment groups based on a completely randomized design, including T0 (chicks were raised at a density of 10 birds m-2 and received no nutmeg flesh extract), T1 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds m-2 and received no nutmeg flesh extract), T2 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds m-2 and received 0.5 mL kg-1 nutmeg flesh extract), T3 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds m-2 and received 1.0 mL kg-1 nutmeg flesh extract), and T4 (chicks were raised at a density of 16 birds m-2 and received 1.5 mL kg-1 nutmeg flesh extract). Sampling was conducted on day 35 of age. The results showed that the administration of nutmeg flesh extract (regardless of its levels) to broilers diets at high density (16 birds m-2) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the performance, villi height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, decreased pH in the ileum and cecum, increased lactic acid bacteria and decreased coliform bacteria in the ileum and cecum, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the blood profile of broiler chickens. The findings demonstrated that nutmeg flesh extract improved performance, intestinal bacterial population and morphology and antioxidative status of broilers raised under high density condition.

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1151-1162 R.O. Spriazhka, V.L. Zhemoida, O.S. Makarchuk, Y.M. Dmytrenko and V.V. Bahatchenko
Selection value of initial material according to the main biochemical parameters of grain in new maize hybrids creation
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Selection value of initial material according to the main biochemical parameters of grain in new maize hybrids creation

R.O. Spriazhka¹*, V.L. Zhemoida¹, O.S. Makarchuk¹, Y.M. Dmytrenko¹ and V.V. Bahatchenko²

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Agrobiological Faculty, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Seed Production them Prof. M. O. Zelensky, Heroiv Oborony Street, 13, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Agrofirma Kolos, Vatutina Street, 18a, UA09051 Pustovarivka, Skvyrskyi district, Kyiv region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: roman.spriazhka@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Increasing demand for corn grain with improved quality indicators provides grounds for creating new breeding samples that can meet the requirements of society. To achieve this goal, the breeding program included inbred lines VK13, VK69, AE801, and AE392 – sources of mutations in the gene for endosperm structure waxy and ae, respectively. The article presents experimental data on the study of corn hybrids created by crossing with these sources of gene mutations and is characterized by a high content of protein, starch, and oil in the grain, as well as yield. According to the results of laboratory and field research, hybrid combinations with high protein content in grain were identified – 13.07%; starch – 72.6%; oils – 5.83%. In field conditions, the highest yield was 9.37 t ha-1. Further research will determine the nature of the inheritance of these traits, and suggest ways of breeding work to improve grain quality.

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1163-1174 S. Talukder, M.A.A. Mamun, M.S. Hossain, M.A.R. Khan, M.M. Rahman, M.R. Talukder, M.M. Haque and J.C. Biswas
Duration of low temperature changes physiological and biochemical attributes of rice seedling
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Duration of low temperature changes physiological and biochemical attributes of rice seedling

S. Talukder¹, M.A.A. Mamun²*, M.S. Hossain², M.A.R. Khan², M.M. Rahman³, M.R. Talukder¹, M.M. Haque¹ and J.C. Biswas⁴

¹Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Environmental Science, BD1706 Gazipur, Bangladesh
²Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, BD1706 Gazipur, Bangladesh
³Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, BD1706 Gazipur, Bangladesh
⁴Krishi Gobeshona Foundation, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, BD1215 Dhaka, Bangladesh
*Correspondence: aamamun@bsmrau.edu.bd

Abstract:

The low temperature (LT) is detrimental to growth of rice seedling during boro season in Bangladesh. An experiment was conducted in growth chamber during June to October, 2021 using BRRI dhan29 as planting material. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of variable duration of LT on growth, physiological and biochemical traits of rice seedling and to determine the age of seedling that can tolerate cold effect. In this experiment 5, 10, 15 and 20 days old seedling (DOS) were exposed to 6 °C for 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. Seedlings were also grown under room temperature (25 °C, RT) which consider as control treatment. Seedlings were grown in plastic trays filled with mixture of soil and cowdung. The experiment was conducted following completely randomized design with 3 replications. Data on shoot length and weight, root length and weight, chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoids, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contain were determined after 5 days of temperature sock. The results revealed that the LT was injurious to younger rice seedling when they were exposed to LT for 1 to 2 days. The shoot and root length as well as their dry weight were reduced under low temperature. Further, the Chl and carotenoid content of younger rice seedlings degraded within 2 days of LT exposure. On the contrary, the proline and MDA content of rice seedlings increased to reduce the harmful effect of under LT. It could be concluded that the rice seedlings could tolerate the detrimental effect of LT when they attain at least 15 days.

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1175-1186 E. Widiasri, R.R. Maulani, D. Nofitasari, K. Lambangsari, R. Manurung and M.Y. Abduh
Enrichment of growing media using biochar, compost, and nanosilica for the cultivation of Oryza sativa L.
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Enrichment of growing media using biochar, compost, and nanosilica for the cultivation of Oryza sativa L.

E. Widiasri¹, R.R. Maulani¹, D. Nofitasari¹, K. Lambangsari¹, R. Manurung¹ and M.Y. Abduh¹²*

¹School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, ID40132 Bandung, Indonesia
²University Center of Excellence for Nutraceuticals, Bioscience and Biotechnology Research Center, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, ID40132 Bandung, Indonesia
*Correspondence: yusuf@sith.itb.ac.id

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of growing media composition on the growth and productivity of Oryza sativa var. Inpago 7 cultivated in polybags at Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia, for 126 days. A randomized block design was applied with nine combinations of growing media. Each treatment consisted of five polybags and was replicated three times. Plant height, number of leaves, and tillers were measured at 15, 30, and 45 days after transplanting to observe the growth parameters. While, for estimation of productivity were recorded the weight of dry grain harvest (DGH), the weight of dry milled grain (DMG), and the weight of 100 grains (g) were recorded for each treatment for estimation of productivity. The results showed that the highest number of panicles (24 panicles per plant), the weight of dry harvested grain (21.74 g per plant), and weight of dry milled grain (17.83 g per plant) were obtained when cultivated with a growing medium containing soil, biochar, synthetic fertilizer, urea and sprayed with nano-silica. The growing media composition did not influence the weight of 100 grains because it is more influenced by genetic characteristics. An appropriate combination of soil, biochar, synthetic fertilizer, urea, and sprayed with nano-silica is recommended as a growing media for cultivating O. sativa L. var. Inpago 7.

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