Tag Archives: agricultural engineering

349-356 V. Bulgakov, V. Bandura, M. Arak and J. Olt
Intensification of rapeseed drying process through the use of infrared emitters
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Intensification of rapeseed drying process through the use of infrared emitters

V. Bulgakov¹, V. Bandura², M. Arak³ and J. Olt³*

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 15, Heroyiv Oborony street, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The theoretical basis of the agricultural material drying techniques has been formed in the world for two and a half centuries. Nevertheless, despite the multitude of studies well presented in the literature, the industry still lacks universally recognized methods of design calculation for the majority of drying problems. Presumably, this is due to the fact that the dehydration of foodstuffs is one of the most energy-intensive and complicated work processes. In the process of thermal treatment during the drying, the physical state of the water in the treated item changes, the properties of the item itself are altered.
Recently, the drying of foodstuffs by means of infrared (IR) radiation has been gaining ever wider acceptance. At the same time, the technologies for dehydrating foodstuffs and materials are now far ahead of the theory of drying. Not only the classical literature on the drying problems, but even special studies on the subject cannot provide any specific recommendations for the design of installations with the electro-magnetic principle of energy input. Whereas that is exactly the type of installations that are now actively making headway, while offering serious challenges in their modelling. For that reason, experimenting has until now been the only reliable way of their studying. Despite the available extensive scientific literature on the drying, including works on IR units, the practical issues of engineering IR driers have not been tackled. All the existing studies consider solely particular cases. This study discusses the process of drying the fixed bed of rapeseeds with the use of the electromagnetic infrared emitter. The energy intensity of the process and the optimum thickness of the product bed are determined. The aim of the paper is to examine the effect that the operating condition parameters (energy input intensity, temperature, grain bed thickness) have on the drying kinetics and the energy characteristics of the process. The methods of research are based on the thermophysical analysis of the material’s structure. The experimental studies were carried out with the use of monitoring and measuring equipment, up-to-date methods and instruments, including solutions developed by the authors. The analytical treatment was performed with the use of the software packages: MathCAD, Excel. The sample testing and examination took place in the laboratory and the methods were in compliance with the applicable standards. A comprehensive experimental investigation of the effect that the operating parameters (specific load and power) have on the rape seed IR-drying kinetics had been accomplished.

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917–928 K. Soots, T. Leemet, K. Tops and J. Olt
Development of belt sorters smoothly adjustable belt drums
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Development of belt sorters smoothly adjustable belt drums

K. Soots*, T. Leemet, K. Tops and J. Olt

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: kaarel.soots@emu.ee

Abstract:

 Belt sorters are used to sort different type of objects according by their size. Making belt sorter easily and quickly adjustable in desired range has positive influence on it’s functionality and productivity. One solution for that is to use one or more adjustable belt drums. This option allows to change the distance between belts evenly and through this change the mesh size so to speak. Greater benefits will be obtained if belt drum is smoothly adjustable. The aim of this research paper is to compare technical peculiarities of two patented technical solutions for smoothly adjustable drum and identify if the newer has benefits compared with the older one. In this study comparative tests are performed using real prototypes. Both prototypes have key structure that determine the range of their adjustability. Prototype with older technical solution contains CNC milled key structure and prototype with improved solution contains 3D printed key structure. Prototype’s mechanical parameters like belt pulleys backlash relative to the fixing point, backlash between two neighboring belt pulleys and required torque to regulate slot width between belt pulleys are studied. Also, it is considered how both technical solutions influence the sorting quality. During this study different measuring instruments are used included laser scanner. Obtained results are used to develop better and more reliable technical solution for belt sorters that can be used in berry processing lines.

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148-157 V. Nadykto, M. Arak and J. Olt
Theoretical research into the frictional slipping of wheel-type undercarriage taking into account the limitation of their impact on the soil
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Theoretical research into the frictional slipping of wheel-type undercarriage taking into account the limitation of their impact on the soil

V. Nadykto¹, M. Arak² and J. Olt²⋅*

¹Tavria State Agrotechnological University, Khmelnytskoho pr. 18, Melitopol, 72312 Zaporozhye region, Ukraine
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

Abstract:

The frictional slipping of the tractor’s wheels causes great damage to the soil fertility. To ensure the minimal disturbance of its structure, it has been proposed to determine the maximum slippage of driving wheels taking into account the value of their permissible pressure on the soil in the horizontal plane. As a result, it has been established that for the substantial reduction of the soil structural damage during the spring agricultural field operations the maximum permissible frictional sliding δmax of the wheel-type undercarriage of tractors classified into drawbar pull categories 5, 3 and 1.4 (drawbar pull based classification approach is used in Ukraine and some other countries) has to be equal to 15%, 12% and 9% respectively. In the summer/autumn period, the values δmax can be greater and, accordingly, be equal to 20%, 16% and 13%. Wheeled tractors in drawbar pull category 5 equipped with single standard tyres can be used for field operations only in the summer/autumn period. For their operation in spring they must certainly be equipped with twin tyres. The implementation of this design solution is appropriate for all wheeled tractors.

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161-170 K. Soots, V. Maksarov and J. Olt
Continuously adjustable berry sorter
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Continuously adjustable berry sorter

K. Soots¹*, V. Maksarov² and J. Olt¹

¹Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: kaarel.soots@emu.ee
²Department of mechanical engineering National Mineral Resource University,
Vasilevsky island, 21 Line, House 2, 199106 St-Petersburg, Russia

Abstract:

The article has indicated the principle scheme for post-harvest processing of culturalberries according to the possibilities of the developed new berry sorter. The article tackles the constructive features of the post-harvest treatment of berries as well as of the belt sorter that functions on the principle of successive sorting method. The aim of study was to evaluate the technological features of the berry sorter, based on test results, and to determine problematic assemblies in the construction of the device. Continously adjustable gaps between pulleys as new technological solution for belt sorter was tested and initial results are presented in this article with future improvements. Initial results in this article show that novel continuously adjustable berry sorter functioned satisfactorily. The properties of berry fractions produced with novel berry sorter were possible to change with short time. It was also determined that settings to ensure highest berry fraction purity need to be clarify.

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