Tag Archives: agriculture.

xxx V.Yu. Chernova and B.A. Kheyfets
China food security assessment
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China food security assessment

V.Yu. Chernova¹²* and B.A. Kheyfets³⁴

¹People’s Friendships University of Russia, Moscow, Russia, Faculty of Economics, Department of International Economic Relations, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya Str., RU117198 Moscow, Russia
²2State University of Management, Institute of Marketing, 99 Ryazanskiy Prospect, RU109542 Moscow, Russia
³Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32 Nakhimovskiy Prospect, RU117218 Moscow, Russia
⁴Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, 49 Leningradsky Prospekt, RU125993 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: veronika.urievna@mail.ru

Abstract:

Ensuring food security is a strategic goal of any state, especially in the face of population growth. A review of the academic literature showed the presence of problems in ensuring a high level of food security in China: the rigidity of demand for food, limited land resources, structural contradictions between supply and demand. This study proposes an approach to assessing the level of food security, based on the calculation of an integral index consisting of four units of indicators: the sub-index of provision of crop products, the sub-index of productivity, the sub-index of provision of livestock products, and the sub-index of food import dependence. The results show that, in general, the level of food security in China has increased over the period under review, but there are problems in self-sufficiency in crop and dairy products, as well as in an increase in food import dependence. A forecast of the dynamics of the integral index of the food security level and its sub-indices was constructed, which showed that a decrease in the integral index might occur due to a decrease in self-sufficiency in livestock products and import dependence, while the availability of crop products and yields will increase. The study showed that the measures taken by the Chinese government led to some positive changes, but it is necessary to take a comprehensive approach to this problem, to solve which it is necessary to use the potential of all sectors of the food industry.

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595–600 O. Shchuklina, R. Afanasiev, I. Voronchikhina, I. Klimenkova and A. Komkova
Differentiated application of nitrogen fertilizers based on optical sensor readings
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Differentiated application of nitrogen fertilizers based on optical sensor readings

O. Shchuklina¹*, R. Afanasiev², I. Voronchikhina¹, I. Klimenkova¹ and A. Komkova¹

¹Federal State Budgetary Institution of Sciences Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Distant hybridization, Botanic street 4, RU127276 Moscow, Russia
²All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry named after D.N Pryanishnikov, Pryanishnikova street 31A, RU127434, Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: oashuklina@gmail.com

Abstract:

The article considers the method of variable rate application of top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers in spring barley crops in the system of precise agriculture. The principle of is based on the in-process diagnosis of plants state in key phases of development and the introduction of necessary dose of top dressing in specific field areas. To assess the plants state, a GreenSeeker optical sensor, which measures the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index). The tailored application of top dressing increases the yield of spring barley grain by 14.2% compared to the application of fertilizers with one calculated rate for the entire plot or field (Skudra, 2017, Hamann, 2020).

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687–697 K. Bumbiere, A. Gancone, J. Pubule and D. Blumberga
Carbon balance of biogas production from maize in Latvian conditions
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Carbon balance of biogas production from maize in Latvian conditions

K. Bumbiere, A. Gancone, J. Pubule* and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Faculty of Electrical and Environmental Engineering, Azenes 12-K1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: jelena.pubule@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Production of biogas using bioresources of agricultural origin plays an important role in Europe’s energy transition to sustainability. However, many substrates have been denounced in the last years as a result of differences of opinion on its impact on the environment, while finding new resources for renewable energy is a global issue. The aim of the study is to use a carbon balance method to evaluate the real impact on the atmosphere by carrying out a carbon balance to objectively quantify naturally or anthropogenically added or removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This study uses Latvian data to determine the environmental impact of biogas production depending on the choice of substrate, in this case from specially grown maize silage. GHG emissions from specially grown maize use and cultivation (including the use of diesel fuel, crop residue and nitrogen fertilizer incorporation, photosynthesis), biogas production leaks, as well as digestate emissions (including digestate emissions and also saved nitrogen emissions by the use of digestate) are taken into account when compiling the carbon balance of maize. The results showed that biogas production from specially grown maize can save 1.86 kgCO2eq emissions per 1 m3 of produced biogas.

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1060–1074 J. McNamara, M. Fox, J. Kinsella and D.O’Connor
Promoting Farmer occupational safety and health (OSH) services through Extension
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Promoting Farmer occupational safety and health (OSH) services through Extension

J. McNamara¹²*, M. Fox¹², J. Kinsella² and D.O’Connor²

¹Teagasc-Agriculture and Food Development Authority, Head Office, Oak Park, R93 XE12 Carlow, Ireland
²School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin 4, D04 V1W8, Ireland
*Correspondence: john.g.mcnamara@teagasc.ie

Abstract:

Strategies for improving OSH in European agriculture are urgently required given the high level of reported injuries and ill health in the sector. The agriculture sector in Europe is enormous in scale and diverse in production systems. A dispersed labour force is deployed in the sector, predominantly using family labour, which is self-employed. Accordingly, a large proportion of the agricultural workforce is outside the scope of EU directives on occupational safety and health (OSH).The aim of this paper is to examine the role and engagement of the discipline of agricultural extension in promoting OSH in agriculture and consider methodologies that this discipline can use most effectively to gain OSH adoption. The paper compares regulatory and extension approaches to consider their respective roles in promoting OSH in agriculture. EU developments related to extension and OSH are then outlined. Regarding extension engagement, findings of a survey among extension and OSH professionals throughout Europe found that OSH is considered an important topic and worthwhile for inclusion in extension but it indicates that currently the level of extension programming is limited. Irish data on OSH extension methodologies indicates that advisors consider that a range of extension approaches are available to motivate farmers on OSH adoption with TV victim testimonials, on-farm social learning discussion groups and on-farm demonstrations having the highest preferences. Data presented indicates that Irish farmers expressed good satisfaction ratings with OSH extension relevance to their farms. Overall, the study advocates giving more consideration of the role of extension in promoting agricultural OSH.

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507–519 S. Kodors, G. Lacis, O. Sokolova2,V. Zhukovs, I. Apeinans and T. Bartulsons
Apple scab detection using CNN and Transfer Learning
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Apple scab detection using CNN and Transfer Learning

S. Kodors¹*, G. Lacis², O. Sokolova2,V. Zhukovs¹, I. Apeinans¹ and T. Bartulsons²

¹Rezekne Academy of Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Atbrivoshanas Str. 115, LV-4601 Rezekne, Latvia
²Institute of Horticulture, Graudu Str. 1, LV-3701 Ceriņi, Krimūnu pagasts, Dobeles novads, Latvia
*Correspondence: sergejs.kodors@rta.lv

Abstract:

The goal of smart and precise horticulture is to increase yield and product quality by simultaneous reduction of pesticide application, thereby promoting the improvement of food security. The scope of this research is apple scab detection in the early stage of development using mobile phones and artificial intelligence based on convolutional neural network (CNN) applications. The research considers data acquisition and CNN training. Two datasets were collected – with images of scab infected fruits and leaves of an apple tree. However, data acquisition is a time-consuming process and scab appearance has a probability factor. Therefore, transfer learning is an appropriate training methodology. The goal of this research was to select the most suitable dataset for transfer learning for the apple scab detection domain and to evaluate the transfer learning impact comparing it with learning from scratch. The statistical analysis confirmed the positive effect of transfer learning on CNN performance with significance level 0.05.

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2156-2165 S.V. Nikitin, К.S. Shatokhin, V.I. Zaporozhets, N.N. Кochnev, D.S. Bashur, A.V. Khodakovа and V.I. Ermolaev
‘GENETIC LOAD’ and changes in the chronology of early mortality in mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS
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‘GENETIC LOAD’ and changes in the chronology of early mortality in mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS

S.V. Nikitin¹, К.S. Shatokhin²*, V.I. Zaporozhets¹, N.N. Кochnev², D.S. Bashur¹, A.V. Khodakovа² and V.I. Ermolaev¹

¹Institute of Cytology and Genetics of Siberian Department of Russian Academy of Sciences, RU630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
²Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, RU630039 Novosibirsk, Russia
*Correspondence: true_genetic@mail.ru

Abstract:

This paper describes the study of the common factors of mortality of suckling piglets. It is assumed that this parameter is influenced by recessive lethal factors of the genetic load in population. An immediate subject of study was the chronological analysis of mortality in piglets from the breeding group of mini-pigs of ICG SB RAS (Institute of Cytology and Genetics Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences) for the period from 2013 through 2019. The results revealed increased number of dead piglets in the early postnatal period (first five days after farrowing) over this time period. This observation was confirmed by a statistically significant correlation coefficient between the year of birth and the number of animals that died during the first five days of life. Mortality in the period from the 6th day to weaning, on the contrary, decreased to probable accidental death which was non-related to genetic causes. Observed redistribution of mortality may be associated with increased general homozygosity in population and, in part, with the optimization of the excessive for mini-pigs multiple fertility. It is possible that the consequence of the second cause is an increase in mortality and a decrease in multiple pregnancy. It is assumed that in the breeding group of mini-pigs of the ICG SB RAS, there is the process of eliminating excessive lethal ‘genetic load’ and optimizing homozygosity to a level ensuring maximum survival of piglets on the 6th day after birth. Results of regression analysis showed that the mortality of piglets in 2018 reached its maximum level and in future a decrease to the optimum level which is typical for domestic pigs is possible. In general, results of this study suggest that newborn piglets are represented by two types. The first type includes animals whose viability potential determined by recessive lethal ‘genetic load’ is zero – they cannot live outside mother’s body. The second type is represented by animals with a genetic viability potential equal to one –they can die only from accidental death.

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543–553 D.S. Sattarov, S.Kh. Vyshegurov and R.R. Galeev
Monitoring the species diversity of medicinal plants typical for the south slope of Hissar Ridge / Tajikistan /
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Monitoring the species diversity of medicinal plants typical for the south slope of Hissar Ridge / Tajikistan /

D.S. Sattarov¹*, S.Kh. Vyshegurov² and R.R. Galeev²

¹Tajik Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Republican Center for Genetic
Resources, Rudaki Avenue, 21/1, TJ734000 Dushanbe, Tajikistan
²Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Novosibirsk State Agrarian University”, Street Dobrolyubova, 160, RU630039 Novosibirsk, Russia

Abstract:

This paper is a summary of literature reviews concerning the diversity of medicinal plants and the results of our many years studies. It includes scientific and practical justifications of the importance of monitoring species diversity of the studied object. Results of monitoring the species composition of wild medicinal plants in some areas of the southern slope of the Gissar Range are specified. As a result of studying 11 gorges (Gazhne, Safedchashma, Gusgarf, Shamal, Obi-Zugora, Gulobod, Yos, Yavroz, Semiganch, Odzhuk, Magov), 174 species of medicinal plants were found that belong to different botanical taxa. This number of plants includes representatives of 106 genera belonging to 46 families, among which representatives of the aster family predominate: Asteraceae (36 species), Rosaceae (19 species), Lamiaceae (16 species), etc. Compared with the number of known plants growing within the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, the number of species found was 11.6%. In relation to the number of plants that are recognized as medicinal in the world, species diversity of the southern slopes of Gissar Range is less than one percent. However, the number of species is comparable to locations with similar climatic conditions.

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1969–1983 E. Merisalu J. Leppälä, M. Jakob and R.H. Rautiainen
Variation in Eurostat and national statistics of accidents in agriculture
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Variation in Eurostat and national statistics of accidents in agriculture

E. Merisalu¹* J. Leppälä², M. Jakob³ and R.H. Rautiainen²⁴

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56/1, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
²Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Latokartanonkaari 9, FI-00790 Helsinki
³Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE14469 Potsdam, Germany
⁴University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, US68198-4388, USA
*Correspondence: eda.merisalu@emu.ee

Abstract:

Agriculture is known as a hazardous industry worldwide, although there are great challenges in enumerating the size of the workforce and numbers of accidents at work. The aim of the study was to characterize variation in agricultural accident statistics in European countries and opportunities to improve collection and reporting of accident data in agriculture on the national and European levels. This study explored the incidence of fatal (FA) and non-fatal work accidents (NFA) in agriculture (excluding forestry and fishing) in selected European countries, using Eurostat and national sources in 2013. Eurostat reported highest NFA rates (per 100,000 workers) in Finland (5331) and lowest in Greece (5). The highest FA rate was reported in Malta (51), while zero fatalities were reported in Estonia, Greece, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Sweden and Iceland. Eurostat and national statistics differed in many cases. Some variations were observed in European and national statistics. Germany reported 89 fatalities (rate 2.3/100,000) in Eurostat and 160 (rate 16.3/100,000) in national sources. Poland, with a similar land area and five times more farms and workers as Germany, reported only 4 fatalities in agriculture in Eurostat. The Estonian Labour Inspectorate (2013) registered 785 NFAs per 100,000 agricultural workers, while the rate in Eurostat was more than twice as high (1914/100,000). Finland and Sweden with similar agricultural structures had a ten-fold difference in NFA rates in Eurostat; Finland 5,331 and Sweden 554 per 100,000 workers. These examples illustrate the large variation in agricultural accident statistics due to: a) farm structure, b) use of reference populations, c) under-reporting, d) different inclusion/exclusion criteria and e) interpretation by users. Some inconsistencies are structural due to lacking social insurance schemes for farmers, family labour and undocumented workers. Some inconsistencies could be addressed by better implementation of ESAW harmonizing rules. Alternative methods, such as standardized surveys, could be considered to augment Eurostat statistics.

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1617–1629 A. Enn and E. Merisalu
Dynamics of work accidents incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agricultural sector and sub-sectors in 2008–2017
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Dynamics of work accidents incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agricultural sector and sub-sectors in 2008–2017

A. Enn* and E. Merisalu

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: anni.enn@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

The risk of dying in a work-related accident is greatest for those employed in agricultural sector. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of work accidents (WA) incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Method: The database of accidents in agriculture (2008–2017) was obtained from the Estonian Labour Inspectorate (ELI). Work accidents statistics is based on official reports of employers. Results: In total 1,683 non-fatal work accidents (NFA) was registered in the past decade, from which 1,235 (79.3%) were minor and 448 (20.7%) severe. In total 13 fatal work accidents (FA) have occurred, which accounts 0.8% of all the WAs (n = 1,696). Although the trends of minor and severe WA cases showed steady increase, the number of FA has remained low. A major part WAs (74%) was registered in farming and horticulture, with prevalence of minor accidents. A severe WA is likely to occur in forestry or very likely in fishery. The proportion of injured male and female was 51.8% and 48.2%, accordingly. In the farming and horticulture sector there were more accidents among women – of all the minor accidents (n = 1,235) 52.1% occurred to women. Of all the severe WAs (n = 448) 61.2% and all the fatal work accidents happened to male workers. About 2/3 of severe WAs caused sick leave 31–90 days and more. Conclusion: The number of WAs in Estonian agricultural sector show steady increase in the past decade. A major part of accidents is minor and mostly occurred in farming and horticulture, and more often with females. Severe and FAs more often occurred in forestry and fishery. Mostly the severe WAs cause long sick leave – a month or more. When to increase work accidents severity level by one step (from minor to severe), the sick leave is increasing significantly.

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1953–1959 J. McNamara, P. Griffin, J. Phelan, W.E. Field and J. Kinsella
Farm health and safety adoption through engineering and behaviour change
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Farm health and safety adoption through engineering and behaviour change

J. McNamara¹²*, P. Griffin³, J. Phelan², W.E. Field⁴ and J. Kinsella²

¹Teagasc- Agriculture and Food Development Authority, E32YW08 Kildalton, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland
²School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Dublin 4, Ireland
³Health and Safety Authority, Metropolitan Building, D01 K0Y8 Dublin 1, Ireland
⁴University, Agricultural & Biological Engineering Department, IN 47907-2093 West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.
*Correspondence: john.g.mcnamara@teagasc.ie

Abstract:

The agriculture sector is one of the most hazardous occupations worldwide. The EU farming population is predominantly self-employed, who are largely outside the scope of EU occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation. Utilising effective communications approaches to transmit clear messages is a possible way of motivating farmer OSH adoption. The Public Health Model (PHM) of accident causation conceptualises an accident as occurring due to multiple interacting physical and human factors while the Social-Ecologic Framework enhances the PHM by defining various levels of the social environment which are influential on persons’ OSH actions. A knowledge gap exists in how farmers conceptualise accident causation. The aim of this study is to report findings of a Score Card exercise conducted among Irish farmers (n = 1,151) to reveal knowledge on farmers’ conceptualisation of accident causation where farmers ranked in order of importance up to five causes of farm accidents. First ranked items related to ‘machinery/ vehicles’, ‘organisational’ and ‘livestock’ as accident causation factors (92%). Overall rankings for up to five ranked causes identified six causes: ‘machinery/ vehicles’, ‘organisational’, ‘livestock’, ‘slurry related’, ‘trips, falls, buildings-related’ and ‘electrical’ (96.5%). The study data indicated that farmers’ perceptions of accident causes were inaccurate when compared with objective fatal farm accident data. The study concluded that communicating accurate and contemporary OSH messages to farmers has potential to assist with farm accident prevention. Based on the multiple and interacting risk factors arising in agriculture it is suggested that more elaborate study of farm accident prevention is warranted.

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