Tag Archives: agriculture.

xxx A. Enn and E. Merisalu
Dynamics of work accidents incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agricultural sector and sub-sectors in 2008–2017
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Dynamics of work accidents incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agricultural sector and sub-sectors in 2008–2017

A. Enn* and E. Merisalu

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: anni.enn@student.emu.ee

Abstract:

The risk of dying in a work-related accident is greatest for those employed in agricultural sector. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of work accidents (WA) incidence by severity, gender and lost workdays in Estonian agriculture in 2008–2017. Method: The database of accidents in agriculture (2008–2017) was obtained from the Estonian Labour Inspectorate (ELI). Work accidents statistics is based on official reports of employers. Results: In total 1,683 non-fatal work accidents (NFA) was registered in the past decade, from which 1,235 (79.3%) were minor and 448 (20.7%) severe. In total 13 fatal work accidents (FA) have occurred, which accounts 0.8% of all the WAs (n = 1,696). Although the trends of minor and severe WA cases showed steady increase, the number of FA has remained low. A major part WAs (74%) was registered in farming and horticulture, with prevalence of minor accidents. A severe WA is likely to occur in forestry or very likely in fishery. The proportion of injured male and female was 51.8% and 48.2%, accordingly. In the farming and horticulture sector there were more accidents among women – of all the minor accidents (n = 1,235) 52.1% occurred to women. Of all the severe WAs (n = 448) 61.2% and all the fatal work accidents happened to male workers. About 2/3 of severe WAs caused sick leave 31–90 days and more. Conclusion: The number of WAs in Estonian agricultural sector show steady increase in the past decade. A major part of accidents is minor and mostly occurred in farming and horticulture, and more often with females. Severe and FAs more often occurred in forestry and fishery. Mostly the severe WAs cause long sick leave – a month or more. When to increase work accidents severity level by one step (from minor to severe), the sick leave is increasing significantly.

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xxx J. McNamara, P. Griffin, J. Phelan, W.E. Field and J. Kinsella
Farm health and safety adoption through engineering and behaviour change
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Farm health and safety adoption through engineering and behaviour change

J. McNamara¹²*, P. Griffin³, J. Phelan², W.E. Field⁴ and J. Kinsella²

¹Teagasc- Agriculture and Food Development Authority, E32YW08 Kildalton, Co. Kilkenny, Ireland
²School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, D04 V1W8 Dublin 4, Ireland
³Health and Safety Authority, Metropolitan Building, D01 K0Y8 Dublin 1, Ireland
⁴University, Agricultural & Biological Engineering Department, IN 47907-2093 West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.
*Correspondence: john.g.mcnamara@teagasc.ie

Abstract:

The agriculture sector is one of the most hazardous occupations worldwide. The EU farming population is predominantly self-employed, who are largely outside the scope of EU occupational safety and health (OSH) legislation. Utilising effective communications approaches to transmit clear messages is a possible way of motivating farmer OSH adoption. The Public Health Model (PHM) of accident causation conceptualises an accident as occurring due to multiple interacting physical and human factors while the Social-Ecologic Framework enhances the PHM by defining various levels of the social environment which are influential on persons’ OSH actions. A knowledge gap exists in how farmers conceptualise accident causation. The aim of this study is to report findings of a Score Card exercise conducted among Irish farmers (n = 1,151) to reveal knowledge on farmers’ conceptualisation of accident causation where farmers ranked in order of importance up to five causes of farm accidents. First ranked items related to ‘machinery/ vehicles’, ‘organisational’ and ‘livestock’ as accident causation factors (92%). Overall rankings for up to five ranked causes identified six causes: ‘machinery/ vehicles’, ‘organisational’, ‘livestock’, ‘slurry related’, ‘trips, falls, buildings-related’ and ‘electrical’ (96.5%). The study data indicated that farmers’ perceptions of accident causes were inaccurate when compared with objective fatal farm accident data. The study concluded that communicating accurate and contemporary OSH messages to farmers has potential to assist with farm accident prevention. Based on the multiple and interacting risk factors arising in agriculture it is suggested that more elaborate study of farm accident prevention is warranted.

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xxx P. Matějka, J. Kadeřábek and V. Shapoval
Measurement Robotic Arm (MRA) for the evaluation of localization sensors properties
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Measurement Robotic Arm (MRA) for the evaluation of localization sensors properties

P. Matějka¹*, J. Kadeřábek² and V. Shapoval²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: matejkapavel@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The purpose of this longitudinal project is to verify the dynamic properties of the Real Time Kinematic receivers (‘RTK’). For this purpose, a verification method using Measurement Robotic Arm (‘MRA’) described in this paper has been developed. This device can be moved along a circular trajectory in a horizontal surface. Using the methodology described in this paper, the absolute position of the MRA trolley in absolute time can be defined with absolute accuracy and can serve as a reference for the verification of RTK receivers positioning. Its movement, including its breaking, can be controlled via a PC app and various sensor properties can be monitored. The position of the trolley is determined by the encoder. A Hall sensor indicates the absolute start position of one full turn. The absolute time marks of the measurement and the time synchronization of the microprocessor based on Pulse Per Second (‘PPS’) were obtained from the standard GNNS receiver. This study provides information about a proposal solution of the MRA reference system in terms of the frame construction description, the design of electronic equipment and the design of a software solution for processing and logging of messages. This paper also presents the results of three tests performed to verify the functionality and reliability of the MRA system: PPS time accuracy verification, the quantity and correctness of sent messages according to the arm instantaneous speed, and a real RTK verification test. The MRA also can be used to verify the dynamic properties of other localization devices.

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621-633 R. Abrahám, R. Majdan and R. Drlička
Comparison of consumption of tractor at three different driving wheels on grass surface
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Comparison of consumption of tractor at three different driving wheels on grass surface

R. Abrahám¹*, R. Majdan¹ and R. Drlička²

¹University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Quality and Engineering Technologies, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: rudolf.abraham@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The paper deals with possibility of reduction of tractor fuel consumption when working on grass surface, and compares use of two versions of spike devices embedded to the original tyre body. The device was designed at Department Transport and Handling (Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra). Older as well as newer system proposed in 2017 comprises spikes and it is assembled to common tractor tyre tread pattern with auxiliary grooves cut in. Same device can be set to two positions, allowing to work as 8-spikes and 16-spikes system. The spikes are tilted in grooves when moving on paved road. The spikes are ejected out to reduce wheels slip when operated in field. Remaining eight spikes are tilted in case of 8-spikes system. Measurements were realised on grass surface. Tractor Mini 070 type was loaded with heavier tractor MT8-065 type in tests with 3 different driving wheels, balancing the actual weight in all cases. Drawbar pull and fuel consumption were measured in tests, allowing to compute specific drawbar consumption and fuel consumption per hour for three different loads. The results pointed out a fact the tyre slip loss and energy consumption of tractor movement increase at the soil humidity 19.45%. It follows from results achieved that use of both 8- and 16-spikes wheel device versions reduced fuel consumption when cultivating higher humidity soil, preferable for tillage. Eight spikes system with semi-tilted remaining spikes is the most efficient method.

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749-757 J. Kadeřábek, V. Shapoval and P. Matějka
Evaluation of the RTK receiver’s capability of determination the accurate position
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Evaluation of the RTK receiver’s capability of determination the accurate position

J. Kadeřábek¹*, V. Shapoval¹ and P. Matějka²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Agricultural Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ16500 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jkaderabek@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The main aim of this experiment was to compare low-cost RTK receiver, that possible can be used for precise agricultural application, another that is currently used for these applications and the third one that suits for static measurement the most and gives the reference point for results comparison. The main idea of this research was to compare the measured positions during static measurement of RTK receivers. Were discovered that the receiver Trimble 750 was not able to work in fix mode (mode when the RTK receivers are capable to measure the most accurately) for the whole time. This fact affects the results from whole measurement and showed that errors were a little higher than producers specifies. The low-cost receiver u-Blox C94-M8P showed satisfying results when in most cases it was capable to solve the problem of ambiguity integer phases. The main parameters in this work that were counted and summarized were: accuracy, precision, RMS error, system status ratio and number of satellites.

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1142-1149 V. Obuka, M. Boroduskis, A. Ramata-Stunda, L. Klavins and M. Klavins
Sapropel processing approaches towards high added-value products
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Sapropel processing approaches towards high added-value products

V. Obuka¹, M. Boroduskis², A. Ramata-Stunda², L. Klavins¹ and M. Klavins¹*

¹University of Latvia, Department of Environmental Science, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
²University of Latvia,Faculty of Biology, Raina Blvd. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Sapropel is an organic sediment from fresh water bodies that is widely distributed in the northern regions of the world. The distribution and unique properties of sapropel make it an important natural resource that can be used in agriculture, horticulture, forestry and farming directly as obtained. The aim of this study was to investigate the extraction possibilities of sapropel and potential applications of its extracts. Humic substances constitute an important ingredient of sapropel, and they can be extracted by mild alkaline extraction. Humic substances from peaty sapropel have significant differences in composition and properties, thus demonstrating the impact of precursor biological materials on the properties of humic substances formed in the humification process.

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1700–1707 M. Mimra and M. Kavka
Risk analysis regarding a minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters in agricultural companies
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Risk analysis regarding a minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters in agricultural companies

M. Mimra* and M. Kavka

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilisation, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6–Suchdol, Czech Republic *Correspondence: mimra@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This article presents the results of entrepreneurial risk analysis concerning a minimum annual utilization of harvesters in a company providing agricultural services where a group of combine harvesters is used. Furthermore, this article presents the following analysed key operating parameters with the greatest influence on reaching the minimum annual utilization and performance: the changing market price of mechanized work, the volatile purchase price of the machines, average maintenance costs).
Partial profit which an enterprise can reach through operating combine harvesters is directly affected by the level of their annual utilization. Not reaching the minimum annual utilization of combine harvesters would create losses that could result in termination of business activity in the specific field or even insolvency of the company. It is therefore necessary to monitor the key factors which influence the minimum annual usage and in case of negative developments to take timely corrective actions.

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490–500 J. Nagy and A. Zseni
Human urine as an efficient fertilizer product in agriculture
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Human urine as an efficient fertilizer product in agriculture

J. Nagy¹* and A. Zseni²

¹Széchenyi István University, Faculty of Mechanical, Informatics and Electrical Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, Egyetem tér 1. HU9026 Győr, Hungary
²Széchenyi István University, Audi Hungaria Faculty of Automotive Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Egyetem tér 1. HU9026 Győr, Hungary
*Correspondence: nagyju@sze.hu

Abstract:

Flush toilet based water infrastructure, which handles blackwater and greywater together, causes a lot of environmental problems. Among these, the loss of valuable organic material and nutrient content of human excreta (faeces and urine) is not sufficiently emphasized yet. Utilization of human excreta for agricultural purposes is based on the separate collection of greywater and human excreta. As urine contains most of the nutrients of human excreta, researches focus mainly on urine’s treatment and utilization for agricultural purposes. We reviewed the data in literature about the nutrient content of human excreta. In this paper we present the content of macro and microelements of human urine to show its potential value as a fertilizer. To confirm the necessity of urine’s utilization in agriculture instead of treated it by traditional waste water treatment methods, we have collected and compared the most important advantages and disadvantages of traditional wastewater treatment, separated handling of greywater and excreta as well as human urine’s agricultural utilization.

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1069–1077 Č. Mizera,, D. Herák and P. Hrabě
Relaxation and creep behaviour of false banana’s fibre (Ensete ventricosum)
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Relaxation and creep behaviour of false banana’s fibre (Ensete ventricosum)

Č. Mizera¹,*, D. Herák² and P. Hrabě³

¹,²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mizera@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study was focused on the analysis of viscoelastic behaviour of fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum). The aim of the experiment was to describe the short term creep and relaxation behaviour under tension loading. The fibers of Ensete ventricosum, originally from Ethiopian region Hawasa, were used in this experiment. Moisture content Mc = 8.40 ± 0.67% (d. b.) and true density ρt = 668 ± 44 kg m-3 of the samples were determined. The specimens had initial gauge length of L0 = 100 ± 1 mm and the average yarn breaking load (YBL) after 20 tests was σr = 14.3 ± 1.7 N. To determine the relationship between tension force and deformation, tension device (Labortech, MPTest 5.050, Czech Republic) was used to record the course of deformation function. All tests were performed using a constant rate α = 3.1 N s-1. The short term creep tests were performed using constant loads of 30%, 60% and 90% of the average YBL. The short term relaxation tests were performed using constant strain of 30%, 60% and 90% of maximal strain. Measured data were analysed by computer software Mathcad 14. Experimental reep and stress relaxation curves at different load levels were determined. Experimental creep lifetimes tr for different load levels: 24,311 ± 7,489 s (30% YBL), 1,831 ± 462 s (60% YBL) and 17.6 ± 5.5 s (90% YBL) were determined. Initial modulus of elasticity, finite modulus of elasticity and initial energy of stress relaxation and creep of Ensete fibres were determined.

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680-689 Č. Mizera, D. Herák, M. Müller and P. Hrabě
Mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite with fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum)
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Mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite with fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum)

Č. Mizera¹*, D. Herák², M. Müller³ and P. Hrabě⁴

¹ ²Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16521 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic
³ ⁴Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ-16521 Praha 6 Suchdol, Czech Republic *Correspondence: mizera@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

This study was focused on the analysis of the deformation characteristics of the polymer composite with continuous phase in the form of two-part epoxies and discontinuous phase (reinforcing particles) in the form of fibres of false banana (Ensete ventricosum). The aim of the experiment was to describe the mechanical behaviour of polymeric composite reinforced by fibres of false banana under tensile loading and to determine the modulus of elasticity and deformation energy. The fibres of Ensete ventricosum, originally from Ethiopian region Hawasa, were used in this experiment. Reinforcing fibres were prepared in sizes of lengths 1–2, 2–3, 3–5, 5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 mm with randomly fibres arrangement in matrix. The fibres with length of 1–2, 2–3, 3–5, 5–6, 7–8 and 9–10 mm were used in short fibres composites and fibres with length of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm in long fibres composites. The composite material was created with 2 wt.% of the filler. The modulus of elasticity of the short-fibre composite material was increased of 28 ± 12% by adding Enset fibres as the filler. The modulus of elasticity of the long-fibre composite material was increased of 46 ± 14%. The influence of the fibre length on the value of the volume deformation energy was not proved.

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