Behavior of B20 fuels in arctic conditions
University of Vaasa, School of Technology and Innovations, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
Several renewable and sustainable liquid fuel alternatives are needed for different compression-ignition (CI) engine applications to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to ensure proper primary energy sources for the engines. One of the shortcomings of several bio oils and first generation biodiesels has been their cold properties. Still, the need for alternative fuels is also present in arctic areas where the storing of the fuels may become problematic. The main aim of the current study was to determine how the storage related properties of fuel blends change if the fuels first freeze and then melt again. The samples were analyzed three times: as fresh, and after the first and second freezing-melting phase transitions.
The share of renewables within the blends was 20 vol-%. Rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and animal-fat based methyl ester (AFME) were blended with LFO in a ratio of 80 vol-% of LFO and 20-vol% of RME or AFME.
The investigated and compared properties were the FAME content of the neat FAMEs, and kinematic viscosity, density, oxidation stability index, and acid number of the blends. Cold filter plugging point was measured for AFME and its blend. According to the results, the quality of the FAMEs and their blends did not change significantly during the freezing over. The freezing-melting phase transition seems, thus, not to be as big a threat to the fuel quality as the high temperatures are. According to the results of this study, the studied fuels were feasible after the freezing-melting phase transition.