Tag Archives: amino acids

xxx G. Palumbo, S. Carfagna, V. Stoleru, V. Torino, P.M. Romano, F. Letizia and C. Di Martino
Environmental sustainability fruit quality and production in mycorrhizal tomato plants without P fertilizing
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Environmental sustainability fruit quality and production in mycorrhizal tomato plants without P fertilizing

G. Palumbo¹, S. Carfagna², V. Stoleru³, V. Torino¹, P.M. Romano³, F. Letizia¹ and C. Di Martino¹*

¹University of Molise, Department of Agriculture, Environmental and Food, Via F. De Sanctis 1, IT86100 Campobasso, Italy
²University of Napoli, Department of Biology, Via Foria 223, IT80137 Napoli, Italy
³Ion Ionescu de la Brad, University of Agricultural, UASMV, Iasi, M. Sadoveanu 3, RO700490, Romania
³Institute of Agricultural Technical Higher Education ‘S. Pardo’, IT86035 Larino, CB, Italy
*Correspondence: lello.dimartino@unimol.it

Abstract:

The influence of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Funelliformis mosseae, on fruit quality, production and environmental sustainability were evaluated in field-tomato plants grown exposed to P-limited soil 5 μg g-1 soil (basal-soil) with nitrate fertilization (50 μg g-1 soil), after greenhouse germination and fungus colonization. After 60 days sowing (DAS), when the percentage of mycorrhizal root length (% RLC) raised at about 50%, the plants were transplanted in open field.
During the experiment, the mycorrhization has affected a lot of physiological aspects like vegetative and reproductive growth, improving them and ended the fruiting with a major fruit production that was 50% higher than not mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The ripening process of the fruits was also followed by testing sugars content and ß-Amylase activity in fruits of NM and mycorrhizal (M) plants fruits. At 140 DAS, in the harvesting fruits stage, fruits of M plants showed significantly higher mineral nutrient sugars and organic nitrogen compounds as amino acids and protein, compared to fruits from NM plants. In particular, GLU-GLN-ASP and ASN raised about 35% more than fruits from NM plants, improving nutritional aspect and flavor of the product. THR-ILEU-LEU-VAL and LYS, essential amino acids in man nutrition, increased around 25% more than fruits from NM plants, too. In this contest, lycopene, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and glutathione (GS) and reduced form (GSH) were also tested in ripe fruits. The overall results suggest that tomato roots colonization by mycorrhizal fungus Funelliformis mosseae affects host plant nutritional status, modifying reproductive behavior, fruits production and nutritional quality.

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290–300 E. Serba, N. Pimenov, P. Mochalina, M. Overchenko, Yu. Borscheva, A. Sharikov and L. Rimareva
Production of Aspergillus oryzae RCAM 01133 biomass with increased protein and polysaccharides content using by-products of food industry
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Production of Aspergillus oryzae RCAM 01133 biomass with increased protein and polysaccharides content using by-products of food industry

E. Serba¹, N. Pimenov², P. Mochalina¹, M. Overchenko¹, Yu. Borscheva¹, A. Sharikov¹* and L. Rimareva¹

¹Russian Research Institute of Food Biotechnology – branch of Federal Research Center of Nutrition and Biotechnology, Samokatnaya street 4b, RU111033 Moscow, Russia
²Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology named after K.I. Skryabin, 23 Academician Skryabin street, RU109472 Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: anton.sharikov@gmail.com

Abstract:

The biomass of filamentous fungi is a promising source of protein and carbohydrate. It can be used as an unconventional substrate in technologies for obtaining food and feed ingredients. The studies show that the fungus Aspergillus oryzae synthesizes an insufficient level of protein in the process of solid-state fermentation. The aim of the research was to develop conditions for the production of fungal biomass with a high content of protein and polysaccharides on the basis of solid-state fermentation using by-products of food industry as inexpensive substrate for biomass production. Wheat bran, soybean meal, distilled dry grains with solubles, and brewer’s spent grain were used as raw material. Results of fermentation show that the protein content was 73.4% and 82.0%, which is more than 3 times higher than in fungus grown by submerged fermentation. The studies of the biosynthesis properties of the selected strain A. oryzae RCAM 01133 confirmed the high biological value of microbial biomass cultivated using food by-products. Fermentation of micromycete on culture media containing soybean meal and DDGS provided an increase of protein content by 1.45 times. Maximum increase of amino acids was observed for isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, and glutamic acid. The increased content of synthesized polysaccharides related to media containing wheat bran and DDGS. The highest concentrations of polysaccharides were 27.9% and 32.9%, respectively

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2359–2372 L. Nadtochii, D. Baranenko, R. Melchakov, M. Muradova, A. Istomin and A. Istomin
Investigation of fly larvae Lucilia Caesar application in pet feed composition
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Investigation of fly larvae Lucilia Caesar application in pet feed composition

L. Nadtochii¹*, D. Baranenko¹, R. Melchakov¹, M. Muradova¹, A. Istomin² and A. Istomin²

¹ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Lomonosov street 9, RU191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
²Zooprotein LLC, Soviet street 64, RU398042 Lipetsk, Russia
*Correspondence: l_tochka@itmo.ru

Abstract:

The biomass of insect larvae is world-widely used as a valuable raw material for the pharmaceutical, microbiological, cosmetic industry and feeding production, also in the food industry. There is certain complex technology for processing biomass of insect larvae, which affords to isolate many physiologically active substances – chitin, antimicrobial peptides, fatty acids mixture, organic forms of mineral substances, hormones, etc.
The company New Biotechnology (Lipetsk, Russia) has developed a technical process for producing of the protein-lipid preparation (commercial name is Zooprotein) based on the fly larvae of the species Lucilia Caesar. The utilization of food waste as a substrate, unpretentiousness to cultivating environment and high protein content are capable of considering insects of the species Lucilia Caesar as a promising object of cultivation and a reliable, cheap, replenishable source of nutrients for resource-saving process of the feed production.
On the bases of ITMO University, an investigation is being conducted on the qualitative composition of the Zooprotein and the possibility of pet feed application. Cats are the most demanding animals to the quantitative and qualitative composition of protein fractions of feed. In present research an evidence-based calculation of the balance of the Zooprotein composition is presented as a feed component for cats during growth. Accordingly, the unique chemical composition of the development product based on fly larvae Lucilia Caesar makes possible to maintain that it is a promising functional ingredient in feeding rations for various animal species.

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1874–1880 L. Degola, V. Sterna, I. Jansons and S.Zute
The nutrition value of soybeans grown in Latvia for pig feeding
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The nutrition value of soybeans grown in Latvia for pig feeding

L. Degola¹*, V. Sterna², I. Jansons² and S.Zute²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Animal Sciences, Liela 2, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, “Dizzemes”, LV–3258 Dizstende, Libagi parish, Talsi County, Latvia
*Correspondence: lilija.degola@llu.lv

Abstract:

Soybean products are excellent sources of protein for pigs because their amino acid profiles complement those of cereal grains. Soy protein is rich in the limiting amino acids lysine, threonine, and tryptophan that are present in relatively low concentrations in the most commonly fed cereal grains. Amino acids in soy protein are more digestible than amino acids in most other plants proteins, which results in less nitrogen being excreted in the manure from pigs fed diets containing soybean meal than if other protein sources are used. The phosphorus in soy products is bound to phytic acid, which has a low digestibility to pigs, but the digestibility of phosphorus in soy products may be increased to more than 60% if diets are supplemented with microbial phytase. There are no much results about nutrition value of soybean growing in Latvia. Therefore the aim of study was determined chemical composition of soybeans growing in Latvia and evaluates their potential in pig feeding.
Research object were soybeans growing in Latvia. In the studied samples content of protein, fat, ash, fibre, composition of amino acids were determined and metabolizable energy were calculated. Evaluated that protein content varied from 32.7 till 40.7%, fat content was from 18.4–21.4% and significantly differed (p < 0.05) among growing places, but the sum of essential amino acids in the soy beans determined 115–125 g kg-1, and were not differed significantly by varieties. The content of lysine in protein were determined 5.1–5.5 g 100 g-1. Concluded that soy bean growing in Latvia provides equilibrium high metabolizable energy for pigs – from 13.2 to 17.6 MJ kg-1 and could be used in feed.

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1905-1914 A. Trūpa, B. Ošmane and I.H. Konošonoka
Fodder beans and peas in the diet of dairy cows
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Fodder beans and peas in the diet of dairy cows

A. Trūpa¹*, B. Ošmane² and I.H. Konošonoka²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, Zinatnes iela 2, LV-4130 Priekuli, Priekulu parish, Priekulu district, Latvia
*Correspondence: aiga.trupa@llu.lv

Abstract:

The Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White cows were grouped into four treatments groups according to the analogue principle (n = 4 × 5). Lactating dairy cows were included in the trial in the initial lactation phase with the average milk yield of 23.00 kg per day, fat content 4.10% and 3.20% protein content in milk. The analyses of the chemical composition of legume grains show, that crude protein and undegraded intake protein (UIP) were higher in fodder beans than in peas, respectively 29.97% and 25.04% of dry matter but UIP content, respectively 40.51% and 39.69% of crude protein. There was a total of 17 amino acids detected in legume grains and soybean meal. The highest concentration of arginine, leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and isoleucine was in fodder beans, respectively 0.76%, 0.58%, 0.67%, 0.42% and 0.29% more than in peas. Even though the daily milk yields decreased for all the cow groups during the experiment, which was normal during the lactation period, yet the milk yield decreases for the trial groups. The highest total amount of amino acids in milk was detected in 3rd and 2nd trial cow groups, respectively, 4.00 g kg-1 and 3.90 g kg-1 which was fed fodder beans and peas. The milk sale and feed cost summary records for the trial that lasted 90 days show that economic efficiency of peas plus beans has been positive.

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469-472 V. Strazdina, A. Jemeljanovs, V. Sterna and V. Vjazevica
Evaluation of Protein Composition of Game Meat in Latvian Farms and Wildlife
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Evaluation of Protein Composition of Game Meat in Latvian Farms and Wildlife

V. Strazdina, A. Jemeljanovs, V. Sterna and V. Vjazevica

Research institute of Biotechnology and Veterinary medicine ‘Sigra’ of Latvian University of Agriculture, Institute str. 1, Sigulda, LV 2150, Latvia, e-mail: sigra@lis.lv

Abstract:

The meat of wild animals is highly favourable for human health because it has lower SFA content than domestic animals but higher protein content. In recent years consumption and assortment of game meat products has significantly increased. Deer farms are being established. There have been few investigations of the biochemical composition of game meat, therefore, the aim of the investigation was to evaluate protein composition of game meat in Latvian farms and wildlife. The investigations were carried out in different regions of Latvia. The chemical analyses of 76 samples were made, i.e. wild deer (18), farm deer (12), roe deer (16), elk (18), wild boar (12) meat samples were collected after hunting in the Vidzeme and Latgale regions of Latvia. Protein, amino acids and the content of connective tissue (4-hidroxiproline) were determined in the studied samples. Protein protein ranged from 22.21–23.59%. The content of connective tissue ranged from 2.22% in elk meat up to 3.09% in roe deer. The sum of essential amino acids in game meat samples was determined from 27.06–45.70 g 100 g−1. Elk meat had the highest protein content and lowest content of connective tissues among the game meat.

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565-571 P. Aleknaviciene, H. Danilcenko, E. Jariene, I. Kraujutiene, J. Kulaitiene,A. Paulauskiene and Z. Taraseviciene
Amino acid profile of organically grown alternative agricultural products
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Amino acid profile of organically grown alternative agricultural products

P. Aleknaviciene, H. Danilcenko, E. Jariene, I. Kraujutiene, J. Kulaitiene,A. Paulauskiene and Z. Taraseviciene

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Kaunas, Studentu g. 11, Kaunas, Lithuania;e-mail: Paulina.Aleknaviciene@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Human nutrition recently has mainly focused on animal products; particularly processed products with large amounts of various synthetic additives. The benefit of fruits and vegetables for human health has been already shown and consumer interest in organic food products has increased. Therefore the main aim of this research work was to determine the amino acid content of the following organically grown raw alternative products: the pumpkins Cucurbita maxima Duchesne – ‘Stofuntovaja’, ‘Bambino’, ‘Kroška’; Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Duchesne ex Poir. – ‘Žemčiužina’; Cucurbita pepo L. – ‘Miranda’, ‘Golosemiannaja’, ‘Herakles’ and Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – ‘Swojecki’, ‘Rubik’, ‘Albik’.After harvest they were analyzed in order to estimate their amino acid composition. Amino acids were separated by the method of ion-exchange chromatography and detected photometrically with an automatic analyzer of amino acids Mikrotechna AAA 339. The amount of essential amino acids was highest in Jerusalem artichokes. The largest concentration of individual essential amino acids, depended on cultivar, was arginine 8.41 to 9.57 g kg -1 in Jerusalem artichokes; while in pumpkins this was leucine, which ranged from – 3.61.09 g kg -1. The pumpkin ‘Bambino’ cv. had the highest content of all essential amino acids compared with other pumpkins. Jerusalem artichokes of the ‘Albik’ cv. were exceptionally high in amounts of nonessential glutamate and pumpkins of ‘Golosemiannaja’ cv. in aspartate amino acid, respectively 11.09 and 12.99 g kg -1. The essential to total amino acids ratio is higher in Jerusalem artichoke tubers compared with pumpkin pulp.

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459-469 M. Järvan, L. Edesi, A. Adamson, L. Lukme and A. Akk
The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat
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The effect of sulphur fertilization on yield, quality of protein and baking properties of winter wheat

M. Järvan¹, L. Edesi¹, A. Adamson¹, L. Lukme² and A. Akk²

¹Department of Plant Sciences, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse St. 13,EE75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: malle.jarvan@eria.ee
²Agricultural Research Centre, Teaduse St. 4/6, EE75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

The present paper is based on the data of field and production trials conducted in the years 2004–2007. The trials were carried out in North-Estonia (59° 18’ N, 24° 39’ E) on break-stony soil and in South-Estonia (58° 27’ N, 25° 36’ E) on pseudopodzolic soil. The aim was to identify the effect of sulphur fertilization on the yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on some of the quality indices of yield and protein quality, including the content of non-replaceable amino acids, and on the baking properties of flour. In the field trials the effect of N and NS fertilization was compared on the nitrogen background of N60 + N40 kg ha-1. Due tosulphur (in two top dressings in total S10 kg ha-1) the yield of winter wheat ‘Lars’ increased,depending on the weather and soil conditions, in field trials 0.47–1.48 t ha-1, i.e. 7.7–43.0% and in production trials 1.35–2.44 t ha-1, i.e. 39.8–45.5%. The effect of sulphur on the protein and wet gluten contents of wheat grain was not always one-directional, but in all trials the gluten index increased and the quality of protein improved under the influence of sulphur. Sulphur fertilization increased the content of amino acids in the protein of winter wheat in field trials on the average as following: cysteine – 24.5%, methionine – 35.3%, threonine – 14.4% and lysine – 7.7%. In production conditions the fertilization with sulphur increased both the contents of protein and wet gluten and that of major amino acids. Due to sulphur fertilization all major parameters of winter wheat’s baking quality improved: stability and quality number of dough, loaf volume and specific volume and round loaf’s height to diameter ratio.

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149-160 G. Sokolov L. Szajdak and I. Simakina
Changes in the structure of nitrogen-containing compounds of peat-, sapropel-, and brown coal-based organic fertilizers
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Changes in the structure of nitrogen-containing compounds of peat-, sapropel-, and brown coal-based organic fertilizers

G. Sokolov¹ L. Szajdak² and I. Simakina¹

¹Institute for Problems of Natural Resources Use and Ecology, National Academy of Sciencesof Belarus, Skarina str. 10, 220114 Minsk, Belarus; email: agrico@ns.ecology.ac.by
²Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment of the Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań; email: szajlech@man.poznan.pl.

Abstract:

The three-stage acidic hydrolysis method was used for the degradation of three organic fertilizers prepared on the basis of peat, sapropel and brown coal. This method of hydrolysis may simulate the processes that occur in the natural environment, influenced by chemical and biological factors with a high degree of reliability, by taking substances from fractions depending on stability of compounds in the investigated organic materials. The investigation of changes in the content of nitrogen in the studied fractions allows judging the character and the degree of transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds in kaustobioliths organic substances and prepared fertilizers. In these three organic fertilizers the content of readily (“easy”) hydrolysable nitrogen ranged from 49.1 to 58.4%, the content of hard-to- hydrolyse nitrogen ranged from 4.6 to 19.5%, in unhydrolysable rest, content ranged from 31.6 to 37%. The results showed a significant supply of nitrogen included in amino acid structures in soils. Amino acids represent a form of organic nitrogen, readily hydrolysable by chemicals and enzymes, available for plants and soil microorganisms. The highest supply was observed for the fertilizer prepared on the basis of brown coal. This fertilizer supplied 93.7 % more nitrogen than the reference soil. Two other fertilizers prepared on the basis of peat and sapropel supplied 64.1 % and 56.3 %, respectively more than reference soil. A relationship and good correlation were found between the contents of readily (“easy”) hydrolysable forms of nitrogen and the total amount of amino acids, and also between the contents of readily hydrolysable forms of nitrogen and concentrations of nitrogen in amino acid structures.

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531-542 T. Meysner, L. Szajdak and J. Kuś
Impact of the farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and the forms of nitrogen in the soils
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Impact of the farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and the forms of nitrogen in the soils

T. Meysner¹, L. Szajdak¹ and J. Kuś²

¹Research Center for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences,Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań, Poland; e-mail: szajlech@man.poznan.pl
²Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy, Poland;e-mail: jankus@iung.pulawy.pl

Abstract:

Investigations were carried out in 2000 and 2001 to assess the impact of four farming systems on the content of biologically active substances and different forms of nitrogen in the soils. The transformation of bound amino acids and the total amount of free phenolic acids, urease activity as well as the total nitrogen, concentration of ammonium, nitrate, organic carbon, and humus in the soils were related to the choice of the farming systems. The highest concentration of bound amino acids, lysine and β–alanine, the total nitrogen, organic carbon, and humus in soils was found in ecological and conventional systems. It was confirmed that the increase of free phenolic acids in the soils of continuous cropping of winter wheat was followed by the decrease of the yearly mean concentrations of urease activity, the total amount of bound amino acids, the total nitrogen and grain yields, weight of 1000 grains, and number of ears m-2. The conventional system affects the increase of the yearly mean concentrations of the total amount of bound amino acids, the ammonium ions, and the grain yield, weight of 1000 grains, number of ears m-2 and the decrease of the total amount of free phenolic acids in the soils.

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