Tag Archives: ammonia

xxx P. Šařec, J. Korba, V. Novák and K. Křížová
Digestate application with regard to greenhouse gases and physical soil properties
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Digestate application with regard to greenhouse gases and physical soil properties

P. Šařec¹, J. Korba¹*, V. Novák¹ and K. Křížová¹²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machinery Utilization, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Crop Research Institute, Division of Crop Protection and Plant Health, Drnovská 507/73, CZ161 06 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: korba@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The article deals with the method of application of digestate with regard to the environment, soil properties and utilization of nutrients by plants. The aim is to monitor the dependence of the emission gas leakage and the dose of applied fertilizer. With the current expansion of biogas plants, a large amount of waste product, especially digestate, is being generated. This product is most often used as a liquid organic fertilizer because it contains substances important for plant growth. The disadvantage of this fertilizer is the release of greenhouse gases into the air. The digestate contains mainly ammonia, nitrogen in the residual organic matter and is a fertilizer with rapidly releasing nitrogen. The ammonium nitrogen contained in the digestate is easily subject to air losses. Therefore, a method of application for a certain crop is sought, where the smallest leaks of gases into the air occur. Different amounts of doses for the same route of administration are compared. To measure the amount of emission gases, a wind tunnel was placed on each variant of the application, taking air above the soil surface, which is discharged to the gas analyser. The monitored greenhouse gases are CH4, NH3 and CO2. Furthermore, physical properties of soil were monitored in order to verify the conditions of the experiment. One of the parameters measured was the soil bulk density of the soil by taking intact soil samples. The penetration resistance of the soil was also determined, which indicates the degree of compaction. The use of nutrients was assessed through the condition of the stand on each variant by monitoring vegetation indices using remote sensing of the earth.

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1015–1022 S. Eglite, A. Ilgaza and M. Butka
Reduction of ammonia emissions by applying probiotics on litter in a commercial breeding poultry house
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Reduction of ammonia emissions by applying probiotics on litter in a commercial breeding poultry house

S. Eglite¹*, A. Ilgaza¹ and M. Butka²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, K.Helmaņa Street 8, LV-3004, Jelgava, Latvia
²WPSA Latvia branch, A/S Balticovo - administrative building, LV-3913, Iecavas district, Latvia
*Correspondence: sabiine.eglite@gmail.com

Abstract:

Agricultural sectors account for a part of total ammonia emissions, including poultry. This is especially true in breeding poultry houses, where birds live on litter for several months. The purpose of the research was to reduce ammonia emission and to improve birds living environment. The study was performed in two breeding poultry houses: the test house (ProLG) and the control house (ConLG). The study starts when young breeding birds (Ross 308) are housed at 19 weeks of age until the birds are eradicated at 60 weeks of age. At the test house the probiotic mixture in a powder form was manually spread 10 g per m2 before the birds were placed, and it was spread manually once a week on litter and over manure pits throughout the lifetime 5 g per m2 of probiotic mixture. The amount of ammonia in ProLG and ConLG houses was measured in the fifth week after the start of the study and afterwards every four weeks at the same 6 points each time and the condition of the litter was assessed on a 5-point scale. As the age of the poultry increases, the number of measurements also increases. Electricity consumption was calculated every month for the test housing and for the control housing. The trial is still ongoing, initial results showed that amount of ammonia has decreased compared to the control house, indicating that the probiotics can be used efficiently to reduce ammonia in the manure of the birds and improving the microclimate in poultry houses, but subsequent results did not give the expected results – the efficacy of probiotics had not been yet approved.

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797–805 J. Priekulis, L. Melece and A. Laurs
Most appropriate measures for reducing ammonia emissions in Latvia’s pig and poultry housing
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Most appropriate measures for reducing ammonia emissions in Latvia’s pig and poultry housing

J. Priekulis¹, L. Melece²* and A. Laurs¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Agriculture Mashinery J.Čakstes bulv.6, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Department of Economics, Struktoru str. 14, LV-1039, Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: ligita.melece@arei.lv

Abstract:

New goals of ammonia emissions reduction for each of EU Member State, including Latvia, were approved by the EU Directive 2016/2284/EU ‘on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants’. Agriculture sector, particularly livestock farming, is the main source of these emissions. Besides, the implementation of modern or intensive animal rearing/breeding technologies causes the increase of emissions in Latvia. Therefore, more effective ammonia abatement measures or techniques should be chosen for implementation in Latvia to reach the objectives. The description and benefits of such measures are provided in the guidelines and recommendations developed and approved by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the European Commission. However, all of these recommendations are not applicable in Latvia. Therefore, the aim of research was to find most appropriate ammonia emissions abatement measures for pig and poultry farming in Latvia. The study was focused on the intensive pig and poultry farming, particularly animal housing. Evaluation or assessment of most appropriate ammonia emissions’ reduction measures was conducted using an expert method. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to ensure reduction of ammonia emissions by comparatively simple and less expensive options that could be more or less easy implemented (e.g. ensuring cleanness in the livestock building, periodical removal of manure, covering of poultry litter or solid manure stockpiles with plastic sheeting, etc.). Even more effective reduction of ammonia emissions can be achieved by implementation of measures, which require significant investments, as well as additional operating costs.

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67-78 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer
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Indoor climate of pigsty with deep litter and liquid manure system in summer

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences,Kreutzwaldi St. 56, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Construction of big deep-litter pigsties and pigsties without litter (using liquid manure systems) is becoming more extensive. Due to lack of knowledge concerning animal-keeping in big pigsties, it has become necessary to study the work environment in pigsties and, in particular, their indoor climate. In order to determine the impact of the outdoor climate, different methods for animal-keeping and tending activities on indoor climate during summertime, the air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and contents of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia were measured on a daily basis at the height of 1.5 m from the floor above the pigsty in the centre of deep-litter (800 fattening pigs) and liquid manure system (600 young pigs) pigsties. Simultaneously outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured. Data Logger equipment with relevant sensors and Gas Monitor Pac III were used for studying the indoor climate. Hydrolog equipment was used for measuring the parameters of outdoor climate. Measurement results were processed by using computer programmes AMR Win Control, HW3 and MS Excel.It turned out that during summertime the indoor climate of pigsties was most affected byoutdoor climate and tending works. The daily average indoor temperature (17.04 and 17.60°C respectively; outdoor temperature, 18.15 and 8.75°C) and relative humidity (68.11 and 78.59% respectively; outdoor relative humidity, 71.88 and 84.19%) remained within recommended limits for animals in the deep-litter pigsty and in the pigsty without litter. However, partial floor heating had to be used in the morning in order to ensure optimum indoor temperature and relative humidity in the pigsty for young pigs. Due to good ventilation in the pigsties the daily average contents of carbon dioxide (0.06 and 0.07%) and ammonia (20.9 and 8.7 ppm) remained within standard limits. Ammonia content in pigsties was higher during tending works, reaching 43 and 27 ppm. As a result of the study, the graphical and empirical relationship was determined between ammonia concentration and indoor air both in terms of air temperature and combined effect of temperature and relative humidity.

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45–54 O. Sada and B. Reppo
Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter
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Impact of tending work on pigsty inner climate in winter

O. Sada and B. Reppo

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi St. 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: boris.reppo@emu.ee

Abstract:

Inner climate at pigsty is in strong correlation with outdoor climate and tending work. Up to now, main research has been conducted to investigate air temperature and relative humidity, in order to be able to offer solutions to pigsty ventilation. At the same time, little data can be found about pigsty air gas content depending on pigs’ function work. With the aim of investigating the impact of outdoor climate and tending work on the inner climate at a pigsty of fatlings and youngs, the research was conducted to measure the air temperature, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia at these pigsties in winter time diurnally at the height of 1.5 meters. To measure the inner climate, Data Logger, appropriate sensors and the computer program PC AMR Win Control were used. At the same time, the winter outdoor air temperature and relative humidity were measured using Rotronic logger. The results of the research presented in the article concern the air temperature and velocity, relative humidity and the content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia of the working environment, measured in different places and heights of the room during daytime and diurnally above the pigpen. It became evident that the pigsty’s inner air temperature was within the extent recommended, but the air relative humidity increased partly very high. The carbon dioxide content partly exceeded the established limits. The average measured ammonia also exceeded the limits in some cases but always increased during the tending work.

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