Tag Archives: animal welfare

xxx P.F.P. Ferraz, V.G. Cadavid, G.A.S. Ferraz, J.A.O. Saraz, G. Rossi and M. Barbari
Decision three to predict respiratory rate of piglets submitted to cold conditions
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Decision three to predict respiratory rate of piglets submitted to cold conditions

P.F.P. Ferraz¹*, V.G. Cadavid², G.A.S. Ferraz¹, J.A.O. Saraz², G. Rossi³ and M. Barbari³

¹Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Engineering Department, Campus
Universitário, PO Box 3037, CEP 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, Facultad de Cuencias Agrarias, Departamento de Ingenieria Agricola y de Alimentos, PO Box 050034 Medellín, Colombia
³University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, 13 Via San Bonaventura, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: paricia.ponciano@ufla.br

Abstract:

Pigs subjected to thermal conditions outside their comfort zones may show altered physiological and behavioural responses, which may consequently cause productive losses. For these reasons, the aim of this paper is to develop a decision tree for the prediction of respiratory rate (RR, mov min-1) of piglets exposed to different thermal situations. The experiment was carried out in an experimental pig farm of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia Campus Medellin, located at the San Pablo Agraria Experimental Station located in the eastern sector of the department of Antioquia, during August 2019. A database containing the raw data for dry bulb temperature – tdb (°C), and relative humidity – RH (%) as input variables, and RR (mov min-1) of six piglets were assessed every two hours as output variable for piglets was generated. The experimental database was composed of 78 observed data. The decision trees were developed to conditions of tdb between 19.2 to 29.5 °C and RH between 50.2 to 88.4%. In the experimental period, RR of piglets submitted to tdb higher than 27.1 °C the RR was around 60 mov min-1, tdb smaller than 27.1 °C the RR varied from 36 to 46 mov min-1. These low values of physiological responses may indicate that the piglets are not in a comfortable situation, so their development, welfare and production can be affected. The decision tree developed can be useful to provide a quick understanding of the piglet’s welfare condition based on the environmental variables and physiological responses.

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1244–1254 P.F.P. Ferraz, V.C. Gonzalez, G.A.S. Ferraz, F.A. Damasceno, J.A.S. Osorio and L. Conti
Assessment of spatial variability of environmental variables of a typical house of laying hens in Colombia: Antioquia state Case
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Assessment of spatial variability of environmental variables of a typical house of laying hens in Colombia: Antioquia state Case

P.F.P. Ferraz¹*, V.C. Gonzalez², G.A.S. Ferraz¹, F.A. Damasceno³, J.A.S. Osorio² and L. Conti⁴

¹Federal University of Lavras – UFLA. Department of Agricultural Engineering – DEA- PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín. Departamento de Ingeniería Agrícola Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Código postal 050034 Medellín, Colombia
³Federal University of Lavras – UFLA. Department of Engineering – DEG- PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry (DAGRI), Via San Bonaventura 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: patricia.ponciano@ufla.br

Abstract:

This paper aimed to analyze the magnitude and spatial variability of environmental variables: Temperature and Relative Humidity Index (THI), Radiant Thermal Load (RTL), Globe Temperature and Relative Humidity Index (BGTH) and Enthalpy (H), inside a house for laying hens, in the state of Antioquia (Colombia) during the month of August. A traditional Colombian poultry house with natural ventilation was used. All variables were manually measured at equally spaced 1.0×1.0 m points, totaling 99 data collection points inside the poultry house. Geostatistical techniques were used through semivariogram analysis, and isochore maps were generated through data interpolation by kriging. The semivariogram was fitted by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The used mathematical model was the spherical one. After adjusting the semivariograms, the data were interpolated by ordinary kriging. The semivariograms and the isochore maps allowed identifying the non-uniformity of the spatial distribution of all evaluated variables throughout the poultry house. The results show that THI, RTL, BGTH and, H presented values above the comfort limits in the most significant part of the poultry house during the observed period. It is possible to concluded that the use of natural ventilation alone was not sufficient to guarantee the homeothermy conditions for the layers. Thus, it is suggested that in addition to natural ventilation, secondary modifications should be used to improve farm productivity.

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783–796 C.E.A. Oliveira, F.A. Damasceno, P.F.P. Ferraz, J.A.C. Nascimento, G.A.S. Ferraz and M. Barbari
Geostatistics applied to evaluation of thermal conditions and noise in compost dairy barns with different ventilation systems
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Geostatistics applied to evaluation of thermal conditions and noise in compost dairy barns with different ventilation systems

C.E.A. Oliveira¹, F.A. Damasceno¹*, P.F.P. Ferraz¹, J.A.C. Nascimento¹, G.A.S. Ferraz¹ and M. Barbari²

¹Federal University of Lavras, Engineering Department, BR37200-000, Lavras - Minas Gerais, Brazil
²University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@deg.ufla.br

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial distribution of thermal conditions and bed variables in compost dairy barns with different ventilation systems, through the technique of geostatistics. The experiment was conducted in April 2017, in farms located in Madre de Deus, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three facilities were evaluated with different ventilation systems: natural (NV); mechanical of low volume and high speed (LVHS); and mechanical of high volume and low speed (HVLS). The interior of the premises was divided into 40 meshes equidistant points, in which air temperature, relative humidity and air speed were manually collected. Geostatistics technique was used to assess the spatial dependence of the variables. The results showed the occurrence of dependence and spatial variability of the variables evaluated. Based on thermal comfort indexes, it was concluded that dairy cows were under stress conditions during the hottest hours of the day in the three animal facilities evaluated. The results obtained allow us to understand that the thermal environment is more influenced by the ventilation system adopted.

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385–395 F.A. Damasceno, C.E.A Oliveira, G.A.S Ferraz, J.A.C Nascimento, M Barbari and P.F.P Ferraz
Spatial distribution of thermal variables, acoustics and lighting in compost dairy barn with climate control system
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Spatial distribution of thermal variables, acoustics and lighting in compost dairy barn with climate control system

F.A. Damasceno¹*, C.E.A Oliveira¹, G.A.S Ferraz¹, J.A.C Nascimento¹, M Barbari² and P.F.P Ferraz¹

¹Federal University of Lavras, Engineering Department, BR37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@deg.ufla.br

Abstract:

The main objective of this research was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the thermal variables, acoustics and lighting in climate controlled compost dairy barn. The experiment was conducted in October 2017, in a farm located in the west of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. For the study, the interior of the animal facility was divided into 120 meshes equidistant points, in which air temperature (tdb), relative humidity (RH), noise, illuminance, and air speed (Vair) were manually collected. The technique of geostatistics was used to evaluate the distribution and spatial dependence of variables. Spatial distribution maps showed the occurrence of high variability of attributes and content within the animal facility. Thermal environment variables showed alert situations throughout practically the entire facility. The noise and luminance levels were within the recommended values.

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704–710 P.F.P. Ferraz, G.A.S. Ferraz, M. Barbari, M.A.J.G. Silva, F.A. Damasceno, D. Cecchin and J.O. Castro
Behavioural and physiological responses of rabbits
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Behavioural and physiological responses of rabbits

P.F.P. Ferraz¹*, G.A.S. Ferraz¹, M. Barbari², M.A.J.G. Silva¹, F.A. Damasceno¹, D. Cecchin³ and J.O. Castro¹

¹Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Engineering Departament, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
³Federal University Fluminense, Department of Agricultural Engineering and Environment, Campus Praia Vermelha, São Domingos, BR24.210-240 Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
*Correspondence: patricia.ponciano@deg.ufla.br

Abstract:

The profitability of a rabbit farming system must consider the thermal environment that the animal will be exposed during the productive period. The goal of this study was to evaluate the physiological responses and behaviours of 26 New Zealand rabbits during seven days of their lives at three times a day. The experiment was carried out in rabbit house in the Federal University of Lavras at Lavras, Brazil. To characterize the thermal environment sensors were used to measure the dry bulb temperature and relative humidity at 48 points inside the rabbit house, at 6:00 a.m., 12:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. In addition, the temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. The respiratory rate and the superficial temperature of the rabbits’ ears were measured. Behaviour evaluations were monitored in punctual record, with duration of two min/cage. Later an ethogram was made with the main behaviours identified. Similar data of behaviour and data of physiological responses were identified by using Ward’s method of cluster analysis. It was observed the period of 6 a.m. showed more comfortable conditions of THI values than the others analysed. Besides, physiological responses presented better values at 6:00 a.m. in comparison to 12:00 and 6:00 p.m. Furthermore, in general, a similar behaviour was observed in the rabbits at 12:00 and 6:00 p.m., while at 6:00 a.m. was different. But rabbits demonstrated to be more comfortable at 6 a.m. maybe because at this time environment conditions were better than the rest of the day. Besides, it can be observed that rabbits were more active in sunrise and sunset than in the rest of the day.

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574–581 L. Leso, P. Pellegrini and M. Barbari
Effect of two housing systems on performance and longevity of dairy cows in Northern Italy
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Effect of two housing systems on performance and longevity of dairy cows in Northern Italy

L. Leso, P. Pellegrini and M. Barbari*

University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13. IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it

Abstract:

The objective of the current study was to evaluate and compare performance of dairy cows housed in compost-bedded pack barns (CBP) and free stall barns, with a focus on longevity-related parameters. Study included 30 commercial dairy farms located in the Po Valley, Italy. Twenty farms had free stall barns, among which 10 used rubber mattresses (FSM) and 10 used deep straw bedding (FSS). The remaining 10 farms had CBP. Monthly dairy herd records were obtained from the Italian DHI association for each farm included in the study over a period of one year. All farms were visited to measure characteristics and dimensions of housing facilities. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the association between housing system and the outcome variables. In CBP total available area was larger than both in FSM and FSS. However, space per cow over the bedded pack area in CBP (6.8 ± 2.4 m2 cow-1) was relatively low for this housing system. Milk production was similar among housing systems but somatic cell count and mastitis infection prevalence resulted to be higher in CBP than in FSM and FSS. Calving interval was lower in FSS compared with both FSM and CBP while no differences were found in number of services per pregnancy. Cows housed in CBP were older and had higher parities than those in FSM and FSS while no significant differences in herd turnover rate were detected among housing systems. Results confirm that CBP housing system may improve longevity of dairy cows, which is reported to be one of the most important motivations for building this kind of housing. Nevertheless, CBP housing can pose some challenges in achieving adequate udder health and high milk quality, especially with low space per cow.

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691-705 F.W. Oudshoorn, C.G. Sørensen and I.J.M. de Boer
Environmental evaluation of three alternative futures for organic dairy in Denmark
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Environmental evaluation of three alternative futures for organic dairy in Denmark

F.W. Oudshoorn¹*, C.G. Sørensen¹ and I.J.M. de Boer²

1Århus University, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Department of AgriculturalEngineering, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
²Wageningen University and Research centre, Animal Production Systems Group, P.O.Box338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
*corresponding author; e-mail: Frankw.Oudshoorn@agrsci.dk

Abstract:

Objective of this study was to explore sustainability of scenarios for organic dairy farming based on visions and goals of the future, by parameterization at farm level. The scenarios were in agreement with the scope of principles for organic farming; health, ecology, fairness and care. Scenarios were designed using stakeholder and expert opinions and then translate them through choice of relevant production parameters to a farm unit design. This resulted in three vision-based scenarios, one animal welfare (ANW), one environmental (ENV) and one using all possible new technologies to enhance productivity and efficiency (business as usual, BAU). The amount of milk produced per ha was, 9500, 7215 and 5188 kg ECM respectively for BAU, ANW and ENV. Stocking density was 1.41, 1.38, and 0.88 Livestock Units respectively for BAU, ANW and ENV, parallel to large differences in required import of feed. The different organic farms of the future are to be evaluated on the environmental impacts, green house gas (GHG) emissions, nitrogen surplus and energy use, economy, and social acceptance.

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