Tag Archives: automation

xxx R. Kägo, P. Vellak, H. Ehrpais, M. Noorma and J. Olt
Assessment of power characteristics of unmanned tractor for operations on peat fields
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Assessment of power characteristics of unmanned tractor for operations on peat fields

R. Kägo¹²*, P. Vellak¹², H. Ehrpais²³, M. Noorma² and J. Olt¹

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 56/1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Milrem Robotics, Betooni 1, EE11415 Tallinn, Estonia
³University of Tartu, Tartu Observatory, Observatooriumi 1, EE61602 Tõravere, Estonia
*Correspondence: riho.kago@emu.ee

Abstract:

In this article, power characteristics of a state-of-the-art unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) are characterised. It is demonstrated that in terms of power characteristics requirements, purpose-built computer aided autonomous UGV systems are capable of replacing systems that utilise conventional tractors in peat field operations, with milled peat extraction operations as a case study. The authors demonstrate the viability of the UGV in achieving optimal mobility capabilities in operating on peatland surface. The UGV of interest was assessed for two operations of milled peat extraction: milling and harrowing. For both operations, the power consumption of the UGV and the drawbar pull of the implements (passive miller and harrower) were measured and analysed. The required drawbar pull values of the investigated implements remained in the range of 4–8 kN, which corresponded to the drawbar power of 14–36 kW. It was found that the UGV of interest is capable of carrying out milled peat operations in terms of traction capacity. However, it was found that the power supply capacity to be insufficient, thus requiring an improved solution.

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1318–1324 J. Vošahlík and J. Hart
Measurability of quality in fermentation process of rice wine by IoT in the field of industry 4.0
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Measurability of quality in fermentation process of rice wine by IoT in the field of industry 4.0

J. Vošahlík¹* and J. Hart²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Constructions, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýck

Abstract:

The article inquiries into the issue of automation of the rice wine fermentation process in the field of industry 4.0. Fermentation is the process of converting D-glucose into ethanol along with oxidation of reduced coenzymes (fermentation). This is known as ethanol fermentation, which takes place anaerobically in the presence of yeast. The fermentation is being improved by automation (sensors, etc.). The main aim is to develop an experimental automation environment in industry 4.0 for the process of rice wine fermentation. During the rice wine fermentation process, variety of measurable attributes are created which affect the quality of the resulting product. They can be monitored with the help of automation elements (pH, temperature, humidity etc.). In case of an experimental environment development, it is therefore important to select appropriately the sensory that can record the measurable attributes. At the same time, the sensory must be at a level of reliability that guarantee their sufficient use in the mentioned experimental environment for the rice wine fermentation. The result is that, if the right environment is chosen, the quality of the fermented wine will improve.

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1031-1039 A. Pastukhov
Automatic control and maintaining of cooling process of bakery products
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Automatic control and maintaining of cooling process of bakery products

A. Pastukhov

ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia;
e-mail: artem.pastukhov¹⁹⁸⁴@gmail.com

Abstract:

During the development of automation control of the bakery products cooling process using a ‘cooler’ it is necessary to build an integrated control system, which allows to optimize the process parameters in case of a variety of work situations that may occur in the bakery enterprise. The main task for control of such multifactorial object is to reach a certain temperature in the center of the product by maintaining the temperature of the cooling air near the surface of the loaf set in the limits t ± Δt, its velocity v ± Δv and humidity φ ± Δφ, and maintain the speed of the conveyor within Vc ± ΔVc using the frequency converters. Simultaneous exposure to multiple channels of control allows selecting the optimal combination of the cooling process control commands, yielding the product with necessary temperature and mass. Automatic control and regulation of the cooling process is based on the fact that the current value of the adjustable parameters in mismatch block is compared with predetermined values of the corresponding parameters, and the mismatch signals are formed, which are amplified to a value sufficient to trigger actuators that provide executive regulators. Novelty of the paper consists in the development of the process control system based on the mathematical model which allows calculating the temperature at the center of freshly baked products by the surface temperature of the product at any time of location in the cooling zone. Experiments were carried out on the bread made in the laboratory and cooled after baking, by natural and forced convection. Baking was conducted in a special parallelepiped tins with lids. Thus, the output product had a parallelepiped shape. Process of cooling by natural convection was implemented in a cooling chamber, which allowed to measure temperature and relative humidity. Temperatures changing in the center of the loaf and weight loss were recorded during the experiments. Cooling time was determined by the time required to achieve the temperature in the center of the loaf 30°C. On the basis of the experimental data a mathematical model and the computer system, allowing calculating the parameters of cooling and in time to make a regulatory influence on one of the control channels and thus optimize the process parameters were built.

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