Tag Archives: B20

1159-1168 T. Ovaska, S. Niemi, T. Katila and O. Nilsson
Exhaust particle size distributions of a non-road diesel engine in an endurance test
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Exhaust particle size distributions of a non-road diesel engine in an endurance test

T. Ovaska¹*, S. Niemi¹, T. Katila² and O. Nilsson¹

¹University of Vaasa, School of Technology and Innovations, P.O. Box 700, FI-65101 Vaasa, Finland
²AGCO Power Oy, Linnavuorentie 8–10, FI37240 Linnavuori, Nokia, Finland
*Correspondence: teemu.ovaska@uva.fi

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to find out how the non-road diesel engine running period of 500 hours affects the exhaust particle size distribution. By means of an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS), particle number was measured before the endurance test and after 250 and 500 hours of engine operation. The size distributions were determined at full and 75% loads both at rated and at intermediate speeds. The soot, gaseous emissions and the basic engine performance were also determined and lubricating oil was analysed a few times during the running period. A blend of low-sulphur fossil diesel and soybean methyl ester (B20) was used as fuel in the 4-cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled engine which was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. All emissions were measured downstream the catalysts. During the 500 hours of operation, the particle number increased considerably within an approximate size range of 7 to 30 nm. Between the initial and final measurements, no notable differences were observed in the particle number emissions within a particle size range of 50 to 200 nm. The copper content of lubricating oil also increased significantly during the 500 hours’ experiment. One possible reason for the substantial increase in the nucleation mode particle number was assumed to be copper, which is one of the metallic elements originating from engine wear. The engine efficiency was almost equal, and the differences both in smoke and hydrocarbon emission were negligible throughout the 500 hours’ experiment.

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1237-1246 K. Sirviö, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, S. Niemi and E. Hiltunen
Properties of local produced animal-fat based biodiesel and its blend with fossil fuel
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Properties of local produced animal-fat based biodiesel and its blend with fossil fuel

K. Sirviö*, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, S. Niemi and E. Hiltunen

University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: katriina.sirvio@uva.fi

Abstract:

In the near future, more emphasis must be put on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in road transportation, house heating, agricultural activities, marine transport etc. This study concentrated on the use of alternative fuels in engine-driven applications of non-road machineries and decentralized energy production. Today, the engines are mainly designed for crude oil derived fuels and liquid renewable fuels are blended with crude oil based fuels to fulfill the requirements of renewable energy usage. Due to the environmental reasons on one hand and to the agricultural needs, on the other hand, different blends of bio- and fossil fuels are becoming more popular. In Europe, the maximum FAME content in diesel fuel is 7 vol% according to the EN 590:2013 but higher percentages are also available and targeted around the world. For example in the United States, the 20% blend fraction is becoming more common. For these reasons, B20 fuels were chosen to be investigated in this study. Special emphasis was put on improving blending issues since fuel blending may cause some operating risks. The main aim was to research widely the properties of animal-fat based methyl ester (AFME) and B20 fuel blend produced from it. AFME is a waste based fuel and produced in Ostrobothnia region, Finland. The aim was to find out in which engine applications the fuels are feasible and investigate if the fuels fit in the quality of automotive fuel Standards. According to the results, AFME is a feasible option to increase self-sufficient energy production in Ostrobothnia.

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1232–1241 K. Sirviö, S. Niemi, S. Heikkilä and E. Hiltunen
Effects of sulphur on the storage stability of the bio and fossil fuel blends
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Effects of sulphur on the storage stability of the bio and fossil fuel blends

K. Sirviö*, S. Niemi, S. Heikkilä and E. Hiltunen

University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: katriina.sirvio@uva.fi

Abstract:

In this study, the aim was to find out if mixing two common fuels together could be beneficial for both the environment and storage stability of fuel. It is obvious, that adding biodiesel to fossil fuel will decrease its sulphur content and reduce its carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon, sulphur dioxide and soot emissions. But will the high sulphur content enhance the storage stability of the biodiesel? Four B20 samples were produced, consisting of 20 vol% biodiesel and 80 vol% fossil diesel. The samples were prepared from rapeseed methyl ester (RME), low sulphuric fossil diesel fuel and high sulphuric diesel solvent. The blends had different sulphur contents of 6, 76, 149 and 226 mg kg-1. For these B20 fuel samples, the parameters were compared that correlate with the storage stability of the fuel blends. The studied parameters were the oxidation stability (OSI, according to EN 15751:2015), acid number (AN, according to EN 14104:2003) and kinematic viscosity (KV, by Stabinger SVM 3000 rotational viscometer). The measurements were carried out straight after mixing the blends, and again after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. According to the results, the fuel containing less sulphur slightly lost its oxidation stability within three months. Instead, the oxidation stability of high sulphuric samples improved within the same time frame. As a conclusion, the study gave a reason to assume that – in spite of its known drawbacks – the sulphur may be favourable to fuel blends’ storage stability but the phenomenon and chemistry should be studied in more detail.

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244–250 K. Sirviö, S. Niemi, S. Heikkilä and E. Hiltunen
The effect of sulphur content on B20 fuel stabil
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The effect of sulphur content on B20 fuel stabil

K. Sirviö*, S. Niemi, S. Heikkilä and E. Hiltunen

University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: katriina.sirvio@uva.fi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate if a high amount of sulphur is favourable for the fuel blends’ storage stability. The parameters that correlate with the storage stability of the fuel blends were compared with two B20 fuel samples consisting of 20 vol% biodiesel and 80 vol% fossil diesel. The studied parameters were the oxidation stability (OSI), acid number and kinematic viscosity. The measurements were carried out straight after mixing the blends, and again after 4 and 9 weeks. One of the B20 samples was prepared from rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and fossil diesel fuel containing 6.6 mg kg-1 sulphur and the other from the same RME but the fossil diesel fuel contained 186 mg kg-1 of sulphur. According to the results of this study, the fuel containing less sulphur had slightly better quality during the entire study. Though, the OSI of the fuel containing more sulphur decreased less in percentages than it did for the fuel containing less sulphur. As a conclusion, the study gives a reason to assume that the sulphur may be favourable to fuel blends’ storage stability but it should be studied for a longer time to confirm this statement. 

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