Tag Archives: balance

xxx S.S. Harutyunyan, L.G. Matevosyan, A.G. Ghukasyan and M.H. Galstyan
The system of soil protection and general balance of main nutrient elements in perennial plantations of semi-desert natural soil zone of Armenia
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The system of soil protection and general balance of main nutrient elements in perennial plantations of semi-desert natural soil zone of Armenia

S.S. Harutyunyan*, L.G. Matevosyan, A.G. Ghukasyan and M.H. Galstyan

Scientific Centre of Agriculture, Isi-le-Mulino 1, AM1101 Ejmiatsin, Armavir region, Armenia
*Correspondence: ss_harutyunyan@mail.ru

Abstract:

The aim of the research is to study the biological removal of the main nutrient elements from the most common technical grape varieties, as well as from apricot and peach plantations in the farms, situated on semi-desert natural soils of Armenia, to identify the extent of their input and losses due to natural factors and to calculate the balance associated with the soil conservation system in the absence of comprehensive fertilization. In the inter-row spaces of all fruit plantations and even vineyards of the republic, grass cover of productive significance has been established (4.5–6.5 t ha-1 yield of air-dry grass), through which the removal of nutrient elements is 2–3 times higher than the biological removal through trees and vines. The research was conducted in 2015–2020, in the grape, apricot and peach plantations of the semi-desert natural zone of Armenia (Armavir region), where the irrigation norm is 5,000 m3 ha-1, and the atmospheric precipitation is 256 mm, through which 40 kg ha-1 N, 2 kg ha-1 P2O5, and 44 kg ha‑1 K2O enter the soil. The losses due to erosion and washing away are N – 12 kg ha-1, P2O5 – 7 kg ha‑1, K2O – 75 kg ha-1. The balance of nutrient elements in all plantations is negative, nitrogen in plantations with industrial grass cover is 154, P2O5 – 52, K2O – 311, and in the system of black fallow – 15, 16 and 85 kg ha-1, respectively. The negative balance of nitrogen in apricot and peach plantations is 121, P2O5 – 44,K2O – 296 kg ha-1.

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60-67 M. Hautala
Measurement and Modelling of Circumstances in Animal Houses: What, Why and How
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Measurement and Modelling of Circumstances in Animal Houses: What, Why and How

M. Hautala

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
e-mail: mikko.hautala@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

The indoor air of the animal house has to be of such quality that the animal, the human being and the building should feel well. It means suitable temperature without moisture and gas, microbe and dust contents which should be low enough. The objective of our studies is to create general physical-chemical models for the ventilation and temperature of animal houses as the function of factors which affect micro climate (temperature, moisture, gases, dust, microbes, mould) and the heat balance of the animals. The optimal climate given by the models is achieved by the right ventilation. A system which is automatic or gives alarms and can be used to carry out the optimum conditions of the animal buildings in as stable a way as possible is needed. For this purpose reasonable and reliable sensors which measure the right factors are needed. So the results of sensors can be used for model based control of the ventilation in which case one can switch to the modelling adjustment in which more quantities can be simultaneously used and in such a way the quality of the indoor air of animal houses can be improved by the adjustment of only one quantity (temperature or moisture or carbon dioxide or other gas).

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183-190 E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas and T.L. Nedzinskienė
Effects of organic farming and crop rotations on crop productivity and nutrient amount in the soil
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Effects of organic farming and crop rotations on crop productivity and nutrient amount in the soil

E. Bakšienė, A. Ražukas and T.L. Nedzinskienė

Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Žalioji aikštė 2, Trakų Vokė,LT-02232 Vilnius Lithuania; e-mail: eugenija.baksiene@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The trials were carried out at the Voke Branch of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture during the period 2003–2007 and were designed to investigate the influence of organic (without fertilizers) and sustainable farming systems on plants (the plants were fertilized only with bonemeal as a source of phosphorus and magnesia of potassium as a source of potassium) and to explore their productivity, chemical properties of soil and balance of nutrients in the soil.The experiments were conducted in the trial field with 4 treatments, in various croprotations with the plants grown for green manure for the soil supply with nitrogen (the main nutritional element of sandy loam soil) without mineral fertilizers.The experimental results show that higher productivity was achieved when cultivatingplants after green manure of lupines and white mustard. We established negative nitrogen, phosphorus (except in the sustainable farming system) and potassium balance in the soil. The use of various crop rotations in all farming systems on sandy loam Haplic Luvisol showed that there was no definite effect on soil acidity but an increase in the total nitrogen and organic carbon content in the soil was observed. The amount of phosphorus increased and potassium decreased only in the organic farming system. Phosphorus and potassium amounts in the soil increased in the sustainable farming system.

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