Tag Archives: biochar

xxx V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins
Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology
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Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology

V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins*

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Raina bulv. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Waste processing accordingly to waste-to-energy concept remains a major challenge to deal with growing amounts of different waste types. The aim of the study is to expand the knowledge base for biomass waste thermochemical processing into syngas and biochar on example of algae waste treatment. In accordance to this concept, waste pyrolysis technology is further advanced by evaluating, studying and adapting the most technologically and economically feasible approach and by developing a pilot scale facility with the aim to demonstrate its potential to offer the industry an innovative solution for solid waste processing. The study includes theoretical background for thermal recovery of organic waste, with application of specifics of algae waste (beach wrack). Algae waste thermochemical processing and gas analysis are tested both for process of torrefied material and with full ash content characterisation. Additional algae waste proximate/ultimate analysis were done. The synthesis gas produced by the pyrolysis process contain 30–60% CH4, 5–12% H2, 20–40% CO (remaining CO2, N2) and thus can be used for heating purposes. The another algae waste pyrolysis product – biochar is enriched with mineral components thus increasing its application potential in agriculture, however in can be used also for energy production purposes. Thermal analytics of beach wreck undertaken on different type of samples to be common for the Baltic Sea area and projections on application of gasification technology for upscale at municipality level is analysed with a view to application for municipality larger amount material.

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862–871 B. Tamelová, J. Malaťák and J. Velebil
Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of cabbage waste
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Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of cabbage waste

B. Tamelová*, J. Malaťák and J. Velebil

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZCZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: tamelova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

In recent years, waste biomass has been increasingly becoming an energy source. The utilization of biomass includes a number of potential treatments: thermochemical, physicochemical and biochemical. In the food industry, significant amounts of biodegradable wastes are produced which have to be quickly treated to not pose an environmental problem. In this work cabbage waste (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) was treated by hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction.
Hydrothermal carbonization experiments were carried out in a pressure reactor vessel Berghof BR-300 (inner volume 400 mL, temperature regulation by Berghof BTC 3000). The carbonization took place at target temperatures 180 °C and 225 °C. Torrefaction tests were carried out in a thermogravimetric programmable oven LECO TGA701 under nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures 225 °C, 250 °C and 275 °C. The residence time was 30 min for both processes. Proximate and elemental composition, as well as calorific value was analysed in all samples. To express the influence of the treatments on combustion behaviour, stoichiometric combustion calculations were performed.
The analyses show a positive effect of both torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization on fuel properties in the samples. Most obvious is the reduction in oxygen content which depends on the process temperature. After hydrothermal carbonization at 225 °C the oxygen content was lowered by 46.7%. The net calorific value increased proportionally with temperature in both processes. After hydrothermal carbonization at 225 °C the net calorific value increased on average by 3 MJ kg-1 to 20.89 MJ kg-1. Both tested processes significantly increased the fuel value of this biodegradable waste.

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614–623 J. Velebil, J. Malalák and J. Bradna
Mass and energetic yields of hydrochar from brewer’s spent grain
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Mass and energetic yields of hydrochar from brewer’s spent grain

J. Velebil*, J. Malalák and J. Bradna

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of
Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZ 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: velebil@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) was hydrothermally carbonized at combinations of three temperatures (180 °C, 215 °C, 250 °C) and three reaction times (2 h, 5 h, 12 h). For comparison, the corresponding barley malt was also tested at the same conditions. Elemental composition, volatile matter, ash and heating values were determined for original biomasses as well as resulting hydrochars. The mass yield of dry BSG hydrochar ranged from 45 to 73%. The energetic yield defined as retention of total lower heating value in the hydrochar on dry basis ranged from 66 to 85%. Specific lower heating value of dry material rose from 20.6 MJ kg-1 to 30.3 MJ kg-1 at the most severe conditions. Nitrogen and sulphur content in hydrochar were not strongly dependent on reaction conditions.

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