Tag Archives: biodiesel

2172–2179 D. Atzmüller+, F. Hawe, D. Sulzenbacher, A. Cristobal-Sarramian+
Wheat straw and lipids: UV-mutagenized Yarrowia lipolytica for the conversion of wheat straw hydrolysate into lipids
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Wheat straw and lipids: UV-mutagenized Yarrowia lipolytica for the conversion of wheat straw hydrolysate into lipids

D. Atzmüller*+, F. Hawe, D. Sulzenbacher, A. Cristobal-Sarramian+

University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, School of Engineering, Stelzahmerstraße 23, AT4600 Wels, Austria
*Correspondence: denise.atzmueller@fh-wels.at
+These authors contribute equally to this work

Abstract:

Due to the rising energy demand of our modern society and the finite amounts of petroleum-based fuels, renewable forms of energy have become extremely important. Bio-based fuels like bioethanol and biodiesel represent an already applied and accepted alternative. Biodiesel is currently mainly produced from plant oils. A new and promising alternative, which avoids the use of food crops, is the cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, which possesses the capacity to accumulate up to 40% of its biomass in form of lipids. Moreover, this non-conventional yeast is able to metabolize a broad range of carbon-sources, presenting a sustainable alternative to reutilize a wide spectrum of waste substrates. This makes it an auspicious candidate for the generation of non-edible oils for biodiesel production. In this work, we aimed to generate a Y. lipolytica mutant strain with enhanced lipid production when grown on wheat straw hydrolysate as sole carbon source. Therefore, UV mutagenesis was applied and mutants with a high-lipid content were selected by their ability to grow in the presence of the fatty acid inhibitor cerulenin. Further, growth of the mutants on wheat straw hydrolysate was evaluated. The fatty acid composition was analysed by GC-FID and the calculated total lipid content revealed an up to 33% increase compared to the wild type strain. Fermentation optimisation and the combination of various waste substrates as carbon sources are expected to further increase the total lipid yield by the Y. lipolytica mutant strain and serve as initial point for its industrial scale evaluation.

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833–849 K. Spalvins and D. Blumberga
Single cell oil production from waste biomass: review of applicable agricultural by-products
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Single cell oil production from waste biomass: review of applicable agricultural by-products

K. Spalvins* and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes street 12/1, LV 1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: kriss.spalvins@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Single cell oil (SCO) is an attractive alternative source of oils, since it can be used as feedstock in biofuel production and also have been recognized as viable option in production of essential fatty acids suitable for either human nutrition or as supplementary in animal feeds. However, the usability of SCO is limited due to the high price of raw materials used in the fermentation process. This problem can be tackled by using low-cost agro-industrial residues which are applicable for SCO production. Use of these by-products as the main carbon source in fermentations not only significantly reduces the overall production costs of SCO, but also enables treatment of generated waste streams, thus reducing the negative impact on environment. Since various biodegradable agro-industrial by-products can be used in microbial fermentations, this review aims to categorize and compare applicable agricultural residues by their availability, necessary pre-fermentation treatments, SCO yields and current usability in other competing sectors.

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406–416 V. Hönig,, Z. Linhart, P. Procházka and K. Pernica
Regulatives for biorefineries
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Regulatives for biorefineries

V. Hönig¹,*, Z. Linhart², P. Procházka³ and K. Pernica¹

¹ University of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Strategy, W. Churchill Sq., CZ130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic
² University of Economics and Management, Department of Marketing, Nárožní 2600/9A, Prague 5, Czech Republic
³ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: vladimir.honig@vse.cz

Abstract:

The relationship between uncertainty and risk–taking behaviour towards innovations and Common Market protection are investigated in this article. Therefore, the aim of this article is to assess points of control over market regulation protecting innovative products. It was found that risk of creative destruction due to implementation of innovations is increased by regulators due to antimonopoly metric they use. EU fiscal policy implementation in renewable fuels in Czech Republic of both EU and CZ calculations is compared. Historical data has shown that regulators have collapsed market of high condensed biofuels. Pattern of fine calculation has explained a market collapse. Comparison of excise duty of favoured biofuels was compared with subsidies for photovoltaics. Substitution of former fossil fuels taking into account excise duty and subsidies of alternative or renewable energies is less market distorting than recent tariffs of excise duty and fines to first generation biofuels.

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318-327 H. Kahr, M. Pointner, K. Krennhuber, B. Wallner and A. Jäger
Lipid production from diverse oleaginous yeasts from steam exploded corn cobs
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Lipid production from diverse oleaginous yeasts from steam exploded corn cobs

H. Kahr, M. Pointner, K. Krennhuber, B. Wallner and A. Jäger*

University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, School of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Stelzhamerstraße 23, 4600 Wels, Austria *Correspondence: Heike.Kahr@fh-wels.at

Abstract:

Corn cob hydrolysate was used as substrate for growth and lipid accumulation via oleaginous yeast species. A mass based suspension of 10 g 100 g-1 corn cob hydrolysate contained 26.0 g L-1 glucose, 8.5 g L-1 xylose. The inhibitor concentrations were 0.16 g L-1 acetic acid, 1.50 g L-1 formic acid, 0.48 g L-1 HMF and 0.06 g L-1 furfural. These conditions reduced the cell growth of non-adapted yeast. Successful adaptation of the tested yeasts over several generations in corn cob hydrolysate was performed. The adapted yeast Candida lipolytica produced 19.4 g 100 g -1 lipids in relation to the dry weight in 7.5 g 100 g-1 dry matter corn cob hydrolysate in fed batch mode. The scale up was done up to a volume of 2.5 litres – here lipid accumulation up to 17.5 g 100 g-1 was demonstrated with the quantitative GC/FID analyses. Predominantly oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic and palmitoleic acid were produced. This lipid spectrum is suitable for biodiesel production.

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407-416 K. Sirviö,, S. Niemi, V. Vauhkonen and E. Hiltunen
Antioxidant studies for animal-based fat methyl ester
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Antioxidant studies for animal-based fat methyl ester

K. Sirviö¹,*, S. Niemi¹, V. Vauhkonen² and E. Hiltunen¹

¹University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland; *Correspondence: Katriina.Sirvio@uwasa.fi 2UPM Research Center, FI-53200 Lappeenranta, Finland

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to test an antioxidant, BioSineox, for animal-based fat methyl ester, AFME, in order to determine the optimal concentration of this antioxidant for meeting the six-hour oxidation stability requirement as set in the EN 14214:2010 standard. Oxidation stability was measured using a Biodiesel Rancimat 873, which meets the requirements of the EN 14112 standard. The variety of raw materials used in the production of methyl esters, i.e. biodiesels, renders a variety of fatty acid profiles. Consequently, the reaction of biodiesels with various antioxidants must be individually tested for each combination. Before the antioxidant is added during the manufacturing process, it must be tested in laboratory conditions. As the main result of this study it can be stated that the process requires a relatively high (2,000 ppm) BioSineox concentration in order for the biodiesel to meet the six-hour oxidation stability requirement. In March 2013, the standard EN 14214:2010 was replaced by the EN 14214:2012. One of the changes was an increase in the oxidation stability requirement from 6 hours minimum to 8 hours minimum. To reach this target, the concentration of the antioxidant must be further increased.

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