Tag Archives: bioeconomy

1220–1234 I. S. Dunmade, E. Akinlabi and M. Daramola
A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa
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A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa

I. S. Dunmade¹*, E. Akinlabi² and M. Daramola³

¹Mount Royal University, Calgary, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Environmental Science, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary T3K 0C3, Canada
²University of Johannesburg, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa
³University of Witwatersrand, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa
*Correspondence: idunmade@mtroyal.ca

Abstract:

West African region has abundant second generation biomass resources consisting of agricultural residues, forest resources; municipal solid wastes; and animal wastes that could be harnessed to produce liquid biofuels. A number of countries in the region have developed energy policies to foster bioenergy production. Despite the national intent expressed in various countries’ bioenergy policies, development of bioenergy facilities and liquid biofuels production from cellulosic sources in the region are essentially at the research and development stage. This study, through comprehensive reviews of various bioenergy policies, news reports, related journal articles and development reports, examined the reasons for the delay in the development of bio-refineries in the region. The study then articulated feasible solutions to address the challenges. Among the discovered causes of the delay are over-dependence on fossil fuels and defective energy policy implementation manifesting in the form of lack of continuity. Other issues include poor private sector’s involvement and inadequate incentives necessary for private investors’ participation. This study concludes that boosting liquid biofuels production in West Africa would require public-private collaboration that is built from bottom-up. Successful bioenergy facilities’ development in the region would need to be community level scaled rather than being mega projects, and it would need to involve participation of communities as collaborators. In addition, to ensure sustainable production, it would be necessary to incorporate public enlightenment, and grant tax incentives to investors. Moreover, it would need to include a sustainable technology training package that would empower local engineers and technicians to not only develop bioenergy facilities that are suitable for the locality but also to maintain and improve them. Furthermore, Continuity and consistency in policy implementation and financing prioritization are essential to boosting liquid biofuel production in the West African region and to enable West African region to occupy its rightful place in the global bioeconomy.

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1665–1678 A. Kubule, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece
Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling
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Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling

A. Kubule*, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: anna.kubule@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Due to European and global resource efficiency efforts, the bioeconomy research and the search for new bioresource valorisation alternatives has become topical. Bioeconomy directly concerns such major sectors of the economy as agriculture, forestry, fishery, as well as other indirect bioeconomy sectors. However, the practical implementation of bioeconomy has had quite low implementation rate, which is partly caused by the multitude and variety of factors that affect the bioeconomy system. This paper evaluates seven bioeconomy affecting factors (particularly related to biotechonomy concept) and links between them in order to promote successful implementation of bioeconomy. To evaluate these factors interpretive structural modelling method (ISM) is used. The application of ISM method allows to not only identify the factor interaction links, but also to graphically represent their directed structure. The results show that three out of seven factors have the strongest interrelation, namely, climate change, bioresources and technologies. This research can be complimented by further adding other factors that could be influencing for bioeconomy development, for example, financial resources, human health, well-being, and so on; therefore, to reach better understanding about influential factors and bioeconomy dependency on them; also, system dynamics approach could be used in order to fully uncover the factor interaction links.

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220–233 M. Mõtte, J. Lillemets and R. Värnik
A systematic approach to exploring the role of primary sector in the development of Estonian bioeconomy
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A systematic approach to exploring the role of primary sector in the development of Estonian bioeconomy

M. Mõtte*, J. Lillemets and R. Värnik

Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, F.R. Kreutzwaldi 1a, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: mati.motte@emu.ee

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of biomass production and the use of biomass for the production of key products, as well as to map businesses operating in the field of bioeconomy in Estonia. The importance of primary sector in Estonian economy has decreased over the last decade. At the same time, the competitiveness of primary sector has increased, which will, in the future, contribute towards a stable production of biomass. Therefore, bioeconomy and respective business models are some of the key ways of coping with climate change. Innovative ways to transform the use of natural resources in a conscious manner are being mapped in Estonia as well as in other member states of the European Union. Comprehending the current use of biomass is essential for finding new sustainable management solutions. Acknowledging these aspects, the study explores biomass production in Estonia. One of the aspects observed during the period 2014–2017 is the proportion of the primary sector in total gross value added and the use of biomass in the food and feed industry. The results of the paper are presented in the form of Sankey diagrams, which illustrate noteworthy connections.

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1124-1132 I. Muizniece, V. Kazulis, L. Zihare, L. Lupkina, K. Ivanovs and D. Blumberga
Evaluation of reed biomass use for manufacturing products, taking into account environmental protection requirements
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Evaluation of reed biomass use for manufacturing products, taking into account environmental protection requirements

I. Muizniece*, V. Kazulis, L. Zihare, L. Lupkina, K. Ivanovs and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: indra.muizniece@rtu.lv

Abstract:

In many countries reed is considered as invasive or unnecessary plant, because it is spreading rapidly, causing decrease in biodiversity and creating unacceptable living conditions for many bird species in their natural habitats. Due to environmental considerations it is necessary to cut reed, to decrease their over exceeding growth. Reed burning or leaving for decomposition on fields, that has been practiced until now, creates additional carbon dioxide air pollution. Therefore, the question on what to do with cut reed has become vital from environmental protection perspective. In addition, this question applies to bioeconomy principles in compliance with their use in national economy, which makes it clear, that solutions for the use of reed biomass for production have to be found. But any production process can leave a negative effect on surrounding environment. Further to product production, economic motivation, possible market and availability of resources are primarily essential to see whether it is worth to produce the product at all. Therefore, reed biomass use possibilities in production have to be analysed as a complex question, taking into account environmental and climate, economic and technological aspects. In this study, solutions to perspective reed biomass use are evaluated, considering environmental protection requirements. For this task, multi-criteria analysis method TOPSIS is used, which includes 11 environmental and climate, economic and technological criteria. Evaluation includes both – already existing and new products that are divided in 3 sectors: power industry, construction and other products. Results of the research clearly state, which of reed biomass made products are perspective, taking into account not only traditional economic and technological aspects, but also environmental and climate aspects.

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