Tag Archives: bioenergy

1398-1418 S. Villegas, L. Rocha-Meneses, M. Luna-delRisco, C. Arroyave, C. Arrieta and C. Arredondo
Bioenergy transition as a strategic mechanism to diversify energy sources in rural areas in Colombia
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Bioenergy transition as a strategic mechanism to diversify energy sources in rural areas in Colombia

S. Villegas¹*, L. Rocha-Meneses²*, M. Luna-delRisco¹, C. Arroyave¹, C. Arrieta¹ and C. Arredondo¹

¹University of Medellín, Faculty of engineering, Carrera 87 #30-65, postal code 050026, Medellín, Colombia
²Technology Innovation Institute, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Research Center, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 9639, United Arab Emirates
*Correspondence: svillegas@udemedellin.edu.co; Lisandra.Meneses@tii.ae

Abstract:

The growth in population has resulted in an increase in the consumption of goods and services, which has led to a surge in waste generation and the use of fossil fuels. To mitigate the envi-ronmental issues associated with improper waste management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, residual organic matter can be used to produce bioenergy in the form of biogas and biomethane through anaerobic digestion (AD). These biofuels can act as substitutes for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas (NG) and can be utilized for power and heat generation. In Colombia, the current production of biogas is 4 MW, and the government aims to increase its utilization by promoting the inclusion of biogas and biomethane in the energy matrix through a supportive regulatory framework. Studies suggest that the theoretical energy potential of livestock waste in Colombia is estimated to be 2,673 MW, but the current technological conditions allow for the utilization of only 198 MW, with the pork sector contributing 34%. This study examines the legal context and the present state of biogas in the Colombian energy matrix, while exploring the potential of the Colombian pig farming sector for biogas production. The social, economic, and environmental barriers and opportunities faced by this sector in becoming an energy producer during the transition period are also identified. The findings suggest that biogas presents a sustainable energy solution for rural areas of Colombia where pig farming is a prominent economic activity. Biogas can replace traditional fuels like LPG and firewood for cooking purposes or serve as a complementary source for electricity and thermal energy
production in non-interconnected zones. This could mitigate environmental issues and reduce the prevalence of respiratory diseases associated with the use of firewood.

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120-134 B. Jankovičová, M. Hutňan, Z. Imreová and R. Zakhar
Increased biogas production from lignocellulosic biomass by soaking in water
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Increased biogas production from lignocellulosic biomass by soaking in water

B. Jankovičová*, M. Hutňan, Z. Imreová and R. Zakhar

Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Department of Environmental Engineering, Radlinského 9, SK812 37 Bratislava 1, Slovakia
*Correspondence: barbora.jankovicova@stuba.sk

Abstract:

Due to its large production worldwide, lignocellulosic biomass represents a substrate with great potential to produce biogas. However, this type of biomass is characterized by a complex and solid structure, which is difficult to decompose by anaerobic microorganisms. Applying the correct pre-treatment method can increase its biodegradability. Lignocellulosic substrate was pre-treated by soaking in water for one day at room temperature to increase biogas production and monitoring of long-term operation of laboratory models of anaerobic reactors for anaerobic digestion of such pre-treated maize waste was employed. Monitoring results in two reactors, R1 with biogas produced from a substrate soaked in water for one day and R0 with the production of biogas from a substrate mixed with water just before dosing into the reactor, were compared showing positive effect of the pre-treatment method. This was expressed by higher values of biogas production and higher methane content in biogas from the substrate soaked in water for one day. The achieved specific biogas productions during four different phases of reactor operation in reactor R1 were in the range of 190–335 mL g-1 of VS (volatile solids)
and 101–221 mL g-1 of VS in reactor R0. Methane content of biogas during reactor operation was 49.3–55.2% in reactor R1 and 42.5–45.5% in reactor R0. During long-term operation of another reactor, pre-treated maize waste was used as a co-substrate for maize silage, in the ratio of 1:1 based on VS of the substrates proving as a suitable co-substrate for maize silage, as the achieved average value of specific biogas production during reactor operation at OLR (organic loading rate) = 1.75 kg VS m-3 d-1 was 510 mL g-1 of VS and during first 67 days at OLR = 2 kg VS m-3 d-1 it was 454 mL g-1 of VS.

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687–697 K. Bumbiere, A. Gancone, J. Pubule and D. Blumberga
Carbon balance of biogas production from maize in Latvian conditions
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Carbon balance of biogas production from maize in Latvian conditions

K. Bumbiere, A. Gancone, J. Pubule* and D. Blumberga

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Faculty of Electrical and Environmental Engineering, Azenes 12-K1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: jelena.pubule@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Production of biogas using bioresources of agricultural origin plays an important role in Europe’s energy transition to sustainability. However, many substrates have been denounced in the last years as a result of differences of opinion on its impact on the environment, while finding new resources for renewable energy is a global issue. The aim of the study is to use a carbon balance method to evaluate the real impact on the atmosphere by carrying out a carbon balance to objectively quantify naturally or anthropogenically added or removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This study uses Latvian data to determine the environmental impact of biogas production depending on the choice of substrate, in this case from specially grown maize silage. GHG emissions from specially grown maize use and cultivation (including the use of diesel fuel, crop residue and nitrogen fertilizer incorporation, photosynthesis), biogas production leaks, as well as digestate emissions (including digestate emissions and also saved nitrogen emissions by the use of digestate) are taken into account when compiling the carbon balance of maize. The results showed that biogas production from specially grown maize can save 1.86 kgCO2eq emissions per 1 m3 of produced biogas.

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1220–1234 I. S. Dunmade, E. Akinlabi and M. Daramola
A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa
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A sustainable approach to boosting liquid biofuels production from second generation biomass resources in West Africa

I. S. Dunmade¹*, E. Akinlabi² and M. Daramola³

¹Mount Royal University, Calgary, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Environmental Science, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary T3K 0C3, Canada
²University of Johannesburg, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa
³University of Witwatersrand, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa
*Correspondence: idunmade@mtroyal.ca

Abstract:

West African region has abundant second generation biomass resources consisting of agricultural residues, forest resources; municipal solid wastes; and animal wastes that could be harnessed to produce liquid biofuels. A number of countries in the region have developed energy policies to foster bioenergy production. Despite the national intent expressed in various countries’ bioenergy policies, development of bioenergy facilities and liquid biofuels production from cellulosic sources in the region are essentially at the research and development stage. This study, through comprehensive reviews of various bioenergy policies, news reports, related journal articles and development reports, examined the reasons for the delay in the development of bio-refineries in the region. The study then articulated feasible solutions to address the challenges. Among the discovered causes of the delay are over-dependence on fossil fuels and defective energy policy implementation manifesting in the form of lack of continuity. Other issues include poor private sector’s involvement and inadequate incentives necessary for private investors’ participation. This study concludes that boosting liquid biofuels production in West Africa would require public-private collaboration that is built from bottom-up. Successful bioenergy facilities’ development in the region would need to be community level scaled rather than being mega projects, and it would need to involve participation of communities as collaborators. In addition, to ensure sustainable production, it would be necessary to incorporate public enlightenment, and grant tax incentives to investors. Moreover, it would need to include a sustainable technology training package that would empower local engineers and technicians to not only develop bioenergy facilities that are suitable for the locality but also to maintain and improve them. Furthermore, Continuity and consistency in policy implementation and financing prioritization are essential to boosting liquid biofuel production in the West African region and to enable West African region to occupy its rightful place in the global bioeconomy.

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1665–1678 A. Kubule, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece
Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling
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Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling

A. Kubule*, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: anna.kubule@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Due to European and global resource efficiency efforts, the bioeconomy research and the search for new bioresource valorisation alternatives has become topical. Bioeconomy directly concerns such major sectors of the economy as agriculture, forestry, fishery, as well as other indirect bioeconomy sectors. However, the practical implementation of bioeconomy has had quite low implementation rate, which is partly caused by the multitude and variety of factors that affect the bioeconomy system. This paper evaluates seven bioeconomy affecting factors (particularly related to biotechonomy concept) and links between them in order to promote successful implementation of bioeconomy. To evaluate these factors interpretive structural modelling method (ISM) is used. The application of ISM method allows to not only identify the factor interaction links, but also to graphically represent their directed structure. The results show that three out of seven factors have the strongest interrelation, namely, climate change, bioresources and technologies. This research can be complimented by further adding other factors that could be influencing for bioeconomy development, for example, financial resources, human health, well-being, and so on; therefore, to reach better understanding about influential factors and bioeconomy dependency on them; also, system dynamics approach could be used in order to fully uncover the factor interaction links.

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1599–1616 I.S. Dunmade
Potential social lifecycle impact analysis of bioenergy from household and market wastes in African cities
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Potential social lifecycle impact analysis of bioenergy from household and market wastes in African cities

I.S. Dunmade

Mount Royal University, Faculty of Science & Technology, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, Calgary T3E 6K6, Canada
E-mail: idunmade@mtroyal.ca or israel_dunmade@yahoo.ca

Abstract:

Bioenergy is touted as a viable source of stable and affordable energy in a number of remote sub-urban centres. This study evaluates the potential social lifecycle impacts of bioenergy production from household wastes and agri-wastes in some African cities. The assessment considered the use of rotten and unsold fruits, vegetables and other related agri-wastes from central open markets in Lagos and Johannesburg as case studies. The 2009 UNEP/SETAC’s social lifecycle assessment (sLCA) guidelines and the associated sLCA methodological sheets are used to evaluate the potential social impacts of bioenergy production from agri-waste on operators/workers, the consumers, the value chain, and the local community. Preliminary results showed that it will provide a lot of benefits such as alternative employment opportunities, improved profits for small businesses, waste minimization, cleaner environment and improved communal health. It will also lead to improvement in energy supply, and alleviation of poverty. However, care has to be taken to protect the bio-digestion facility’s neighbourhood from unpleasant odour, rodents and other organisms that may attempt to feed on the rotting agri-waste. The outcome of this study provides an insight to the necessity for the development of appropriate bioenergy policy/regulation and for the need to take preemptive steps to eliminate/minimize potential negative consequences of bioenergy production on the stakeholders.

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1474–1483 A. Annuk, A. Allik and K. Annuk
Reed canary grass cultivation’s energy efficiency and fuel quality
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Reed canary grass cultivation’s energy efficiency and fuel quality

A. Annuk¹*, A. Allik¹ and K. Annuk²

¹University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Engineering, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Fr.R. Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: andres.annuk@emu.ee

Abstract:

The article discusses the energy yield and yield capacity of reed canary grass stands in semi-natural and cultivated meadows with edaphic conditions most favourable for species growing on fertile soil. Energy grass production yields have been assessed with respect to the issues of precipitation, sunshine, and frozen ground. In Estonia, a dried matter level of 4.2–8.5 t ha-1 of reed canary grass may produce 72.91–147.56 GJ ha-1 gross energy by using 1.48–3.06 GJ ha-1 input energy, which consequently nets 71.44–1,445.00 GJ ha-1. The above finding indicates that 1 MJ input energy enables the production of 2.8 kg dry matter. The efficiency of energy production (ratio of energy returned on energy invested) depends on the amount of input energy used to grow and harvest reed canary grass. The input energy payback ratio for the given case was 48.2–49.4, which was higher than cases with lower and higher dry matter yield levels. Precipitation during the second part of the Estonian summer, heavy winter snow cover and a simultaneous frequent lack of frozen ground reduce the productivity of reed canary grass as energy hay because the winter or early spring harvest cannot be used.

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883–895 R. Pecenka, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann
Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants
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Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants

R. Pecenka*, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE 14469 Potsdam, Germany
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

 With focus on renewable energy from agriculture governments can either support the growing production of energy crops or it can invest in technology or measures to reduce the energy consumption. But what is more efficient with regard to the use of the limited resource arable land: to insulate a building with fibre material grown on arable land to reduce the heating demand or to use such land for growing energy plants for the sustainable energy supply of a building? To answer this question, a long term balance calculation under consideration of numerous framework parameters is necessary.
Based on traditional fibre plants like hemp, flax, and woody fibre crops (e.g. poplar), these agricultural plants and their processing to insulation material were examined. Based on available data for the typical building structure of detached and semi-detached houses in Germany, models of buildings were developed and the accessible potentials for heating energy savings by using suitable insulation measures with natural fibre materials were determined. As a comparable system for the supply of renewable energy, bio-methane from silage maize was chosen, since it can be used efficiently in conventional gas boilers for heat generation. The different levels of consideration allow the following interpretations of results: in a balance calculation period of 30 years, the required acreage for heating supply with methane can be reduced by approx. 20%, when at the beginning of the use period fibre plants for the insulation of the houses are grown on the arable acreage. Contrariwise, to compensate only the existing loss in heating energy due to inadequate insulation of older detached and semi-detached houses (build prior to 1979) an annual acreage of approx. 3 million ha silage maize for bio-methane would be required in Germany. Therefore, from the land use perspective the production of biogas plants in agriculture for heating should be accompanied by the production of fibre plants for a reasonable improvement of the heat insulation of houses.

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348-353 R. Lauhanen,, J. Ahokas and J. Esala
Direct and indirect energy input in the harvesting of Scots pine and Norway spruce stump-root systems from areas cleared for farmland
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Direct and indirect energy input in the harvesting of Scots pine and Norway spruce stump-root systems from areas cleared for farmland

R. Lauhanen¹,*, J. Ahokas² and J. Esala¹

¹Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences, School of Food and Agriculture, Ilmajoentie 525, FI60800 Ilmajoki, Finland
²University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Koetilantie 5, Helsinki, Finland *Correspondence: risto.lauhanen@seamk.fi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to find the net energy and energy ratios for the recovery of Scots pine and Norway spruce stump-root systems when clearing land for cultivations. The energy analyses were carried out for direct and indirect energy under Finnish conditions. In the base study case for direct energy input; the net energy yields for stump-root system harvesting were 446–698 GJ ha-1, and the energy ratios were 22–33. In the case of indirect energy input the net energy yields were 440–692 GJ ha-1, and the energy ratios were 17–26. The proportion of indirect energy was low, because the amount of operating hours annually was high. When calculating indirect energy, only the energy input of machine manufacturing was used, since there was no data on the indirect energy used for repair and maintenance of the machines. The energy assessment for repairing and maintenance operations for heavy forest machines and vehicles in bioenergy procurement will need to be assessed.

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275-282 A. Barisa, G. Cimdina, F. Romagnoli and D. Blumberga
Potential for bioenergy development in Latvia: future trend analysis
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Potential for bioenergy development in Latvia: future trend analysis

A. Barisa*, G. Cimdina, F. Romagnoli and D. Blumberga

Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University,Kronvalda Boulevard 1, LV – 1010, Riga, Latvia;
*Correspondence: Aiga.Barisa@rtu.lv

Abstract:

The paper discusses development trends of bioenergy production and use in Latvia.A methodology for the assessment of biomass potential was developed and applied to a Latviancase  study.  Four  scenarios  were  built  to  analyse  the  potential  of  biomass  supply  for  energyneeds  and  energy  costs.  The  biomass  resources  considered  are  forestry  residues  and  by-products, energy crops, and agricultural residues.The  evaluation  is  performed  on  the  basis  of  historical  data  analysis  and  literature  reviewapplying  indicators  with  sufficient  levels  of  information  aggregation  and  adequacy.  Futurebioenergy development patterns are assessed from technological, ecological and environmentalpoints of view. The analysis focuses on currently initiated cogeneration plant and boiler houseprojects  (planned  to  be  finished  in  two  years’  time)  and  maximum  available  bioenergyresources in country.The  analysis  indicates  the  biomass  potential  available  for  energy  needs  in  the  range  of  25–30 TWh per year in 2020, of which circa 15 TWh were used in 2011.  Key words: bioenergy, biomass potential, wood fuel.

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