# Tag Archives: biofuel

862-887 H. Kaletnik, V. Mazur, I. Gunko, V. Ryaboshapka, V. Bulgakov, V. Raide, R. Ilves and J. Olt
Study on performance of compression engine operated by biodiesel fuel
Abstract |

# Study on performance of compression engine operated by biodiesel fuel

H. Kaletnik¹, V. Mazur¹, I. Gunko¹, V. Ryaboshapka¹, V. Bulgakov², V. Raide³, R. Ilves³ and J. Olt³*

¹Vinnytsia National Agrarian University of Ukraine, 3 Soniachna Str., UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
²National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine, 15 Heroyiv Oborony Str., UA 03041 Kyiv, Ukraine;
³Estonian University of Life Sciences, Institute of Technology, 56 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: jyri.olt@emu.ee

### Abstract:

The analysis of the performance of biofuel is aimed at evaluating the energy efficiency of operating the engine with the use of biodiesel fuel as function of the fuel’s composition and other physical-and-chemical parameters. The mathematical models and analysis techniques known to the authors do not take into account the effect that the use of different bio-diesel fuels has on the operation of the engine and, therefore, need refinement in terms of the mathematical expressions and empirical formulae that describe the physical processes taking place in the engine’s cylinders. The aim of the study is to improve the mathematical relations taking into consideration the physical-and-chemical parameters of different types of fuel. The research methods proposed in the article are based on step-by-step consideration of the mathematical models of processes that follow each other, with due account for their possible overlapping, which jointly have an effect on the engine’s output indices. The boundary conditions and parameter increments are pre-set in electronic work sheets. Thus, it becomes possible, using the refined mathematical model, to calculate the main performance indices of the diesel engine with due account for the changes in the physical-and-chemical parameters of the fuel. The novelty of the described approach is in the possibility, through the use of the refined model and taking into account the data on the composition of the fuel and the design and operation parameters of the engine, to calculate the indices that allow evaluating the efficiency of use of specific fuels in the internal combustion engine under consideration. In results, formulas for the calculation of the effective power of the engine, fresh air charge density, excess air factor, effective specific fuel consumption and combustion pressure have been developed. Combustion pressure modelling and experimental data is presented.

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540–550 M. Kulokas, V. Zaleskas, N. Pedišius, M. Praspaliauskas and K. Buinevičius
Properties of biofuel fly ash and capabilities of its use for agricultural needs
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# Properties of biofuel fly ash and capabilities of its use for agricultural needs

M. Kulokas¹*, V. Zaleskas¹, N. Pedišius¹, M. Praspaliauskas¹ and K. Buinevičius²

¹Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Heat–Equipment Research and Testing, Breslaujos st. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas, Lithuania
²UAB ‘Enerstena’ Centre of Research and Development, Ateities pl. 30A, LT-52163 Kaunas, Lithuania
*Correspondence: kulokas@lei.lt

### Abstract:

The use of various types of biomass for energy production provides great prospects for reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and the negative impact on the environment. However, the use of biomass, in particular agromass for this purpose, results in relatively large amounts of bottom ashes and fly ashes, the composition and properties of which also raise a number of additional environmental problems. The composition and properties of fly ash are investigated in the paper, taking into account the possibilities of utilizing them for soil fertilization and other applications. Fly ash samples were collected from bunkers of flue gas cleaning equipment (electrostatic precipitator and cyclones) installed after water heating boilers, which are firing wood chips and chuffed straw. The composition of fly ash was determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) while particle size distribution was obtained using scattered-light aerosol spectrometer. Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) was used to separate fly ash into 14 groups by particle diameter, and the analysis of their composition showed differences in the composition of the fly ash collected in cyclones and Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP). An analysis of the composition of samples in regard to the existing heavy metals norms and considering concentrations of elements beneficial to the growth of plants, enables to prepare recommendations for fertilization. The determined alkalinity of fly ash pH 13 confirms the possibility of their use for reducing soil acidity. The analysis of fly ash composition has shown that they contain elements, important for plant growth (Ca, Mg, K, P, N, S), and their concentrations determine the further use for soil quality improvement because the amount of these elements in the acid soils is reduced.

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1190-1199 M. Pexa, J. Čedík, B. Peterka and M. Holůbek
The operational parameters and emissions of portable generator after long-term operation on n-butanol
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# The operational parameters and emissions of portable generator after long-term operation on n-butanol

M. Pexa, J. Čedík*, B. Peterka and M. Holůbek

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

### Abstract:

The utilization of biofuels in spark ignition and compression ignition engines is the trend of the recent time. The great expectations are inserted into n-butanol as a fuel, especially for spark ignition engines. The short time use of n-butanol in the SI (spark ignition) combustion engine does not make a big problem (start of the cold engine, change of the air-fuel ratio). The purpose of this contribution is the effect of long-term use of n-butanol as a fuel for SI engine. For this purpose the small portable generator was used. The harmful emissions, fuel consumption and power of the generator was measured then the generator was operated for 300 hours on 100% n-butanol with 80% of nominal load and the measurement was repeated. The generator was loaded with adjustable electrical resistance. As a reference fuel the petrol BA 95 with no bio-component was used. During the operation on n-butanol no technical problems occurred with the generator. After 300 hours of operation on n-butanol the performance parameters slightly decreased with little impact on production of harmful emissions components.

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1237-1246 K. Sirviö, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, S. Niemi and E. Hiltunen
Properties of local produced animal-fat based biodiesel and its blend with fossil fuel
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# Properties of local produced animal-fat based biodiesel and its blend with fossil fuel

K. Sirviö*, S. Heikkilä, R. Help, S. Niemi and E. Hiltunen

University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, PL 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
*Correspondence: katriina.sirvio@uva.fi

### Abstract:

In the near future, more emphasis must be put on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in road transportation, house heating, agricultural activities, marine transport etc. This study concentrated on the use of alternative fuels in engine-driven applications of non-road machineries and decentralized energy production. Today, the engines are mainly designed for crude oil derived fuels and liquid renewable fuels are blended with crude oil based fuels to fulfill the requirements of renewable energy usage. Due to the environmental reasons on one hand and to the agricultural needs, on the other hand, different blends of bio- and fossil fuels are becoming more popular. In Europe, the maximum FAME content in diesel fuel is 7 vol% according to the EN 590:2013 but higher percentages are also available and targeted around the world. For example in the United States, the 20% blend fraction is becoming more common. For these reasons, B20 fuels were chosen to be investigated in this study. Special emphasis was put on improving blending issues since fuel blending may cause some operating risks. The main aim was to research widely the properties of animal-fat based methyl ester (AFME) and B20 fuel blend produced from it. AFME is a waste based fuel and produced in Ostrobothnia region, Finland. The aim was to find out in which engine applications the fuels are feasible and investigate if the fuels fit in the quality of automotive fuel Standards. According to the results, AFME is a feasible option to increase self-sufficient energy production in Ostrobothnia.

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2226–2235 P. Zeman, V. Hönig, P. Procházka and J. Mařík
Dimethyl ether as a renewable fuel for diesel engines
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# Dimethyl ether as a renewable fuel for diesel engines

P. Zeman¹, V. Hönig¹*, P. Procházka² and J. Mařík³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcka 129, CZ16521, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: honig@af.czu.cz

### Abstract:

The area of automotive fuel, or fuel components, which can be produced from biomass also includes dimethyl ether, otherwise known as DME. The issue of the use of DME as a fuel is one which has been monitored until recently. Biomass can also be used as the raw material for the production of DME. DME has therefore replaced the previously-used CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are now banned for their role in dangerous levels of ozone depletion. With regard to its physical properties and combustion characteristics, it is currently expected that DME will soon apply significantly as a fuel in the municipal sector and in households, and as an alternative fuel for motor vehicles with diesel engines. DME is a suitable fuel for diesel engines and can be considered as one of the most promising diesel fuel replacements. DME is a suitable fuel for diesel engines mainly due to its low self-ignition temperature and good cetane figures. It is well miscible with most organic solvents and because the polar solvent is water-immiscible. The advantage is its high levels of purity, and its being free of sulphur, nitrogen, or metals. The physical properties of DME are very similar to the physical properties of LPG. DME requires relatively complex and costly fuel accessories, but the original compression ratio of the diesel engine is maintained. A diagram of the fuel system is illustrated in the paper. The paper analyses the dependence of vapour pressure on temperature, the dependence of the density on temperature, kinematic viscosity, the flash point, the boiling point, and the solubility of water. The objective is to evaluate this interesting energy source for applications in diesel engines.

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1846–1855 S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova, V. Krepl and A. Muntean
Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development
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# Research on solid biofuels from cotton waste biomass –alternative for Tajikistan’s energy sector development

S. Akhmedov, T. Ivanova*, V. Krepl and A. Muntean

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: ivanova@ftz.czu.cz

### Abstract:

An increasing awareness of the negative environmental cost associated with the combustion of fossil fuels and concerns over the geopolitical instability of the main oil producing regions is driving the development of renewable energy sources and biofuels. Use of solid biofuels made of different types of biomass became perspective alternative to conventional fuels in many countries. Such positive indicators as low cost of the final product that meets the quality of standards, not capital intensive production, possibility of producing briquettes/pellets from almost any agricultural waste or combination of raw materials are undoubted advantages of biomass based fuels. The main challenges for Tajikistan’s energy sector, which is depended on energy imports, are: to increase energy supply through better exploitation of hydropower and other renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and primary biofuels. Within the agricultural sector of Tajikistan, which is highly agrarian country, cotton accounts for 60% of agricultural output. According to the Ministry of Agriculture of Tajikistan 199,400 hectares of lands have been allocated to cotton cultivation in the year of 2014. Plenty of unused cotton residual biomass could be effectively utilized for winter heating in rural areas. The main focus of the research was to investigate and assess physical, chemical and mechanical properties of pellets and briquettes produced form cotton waste biomass.

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897–904 M. Strods and L. Mezule
Alcohol recovery from fermentation broth with gas stripping: system experimental and optimisation
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# Alcohol recovery from fermentation broth with gas stripping: system experimental and optimisation

M. Strods* and L. Mezule

Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Research Centre for Civil Engineering, Water Research Laboratory, Kipsalas 6A–263, LV–1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: martins.strods_4@rtu.lv

### Abstract:

Effective liquid biofuel production from various lignocellulosic waste resources is dependant not only on pre–treatment and hydrolysis but also on effective removal of alcohols from the fermentation media. Distillation and rectification is not suitable in low alcohol content systems (butanol production with clostridia) or in cases when the fermentation is performed in a continuous mode. One of the technologies offering continuous, in situ removal of alcohol is gas stripping. Despite the recognition of this technology, it is still under evaluation and adjustment. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate if gas stripping technology at rapid flow conditions is efficient enough to recover ethanol from the fermentation media. The results showed that 60 l min-1 flow rate was optimal to recover more than 45% of the available ethanol in 8 hours of stripping with nitrogen gas. The technology was efficient if the ethanol content in the fermentation broth was 10 wt%. At lower concentrations the recovery showed to be inefficient. Application of CO2 as the stripping gas was not suitable for ethanol recovery and should be tested prior use. In conclusion, the application of rapid N2 flow rate for gas stripping of ethanol from fermentation media showed to be an efficient technology and could replace long time, low flow rate stripping.

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830–847 L. Rocha–Meneses, M. Raud, K. Orupõld and T. Kikas,
Second-generation bioethanol production: A review of strategies for waste valorisation
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# Second-generation bioethanol production: A review of strategies for waste valorisation

L. Rocha–Meneses¹, M. Raud¹, K. Orupõld² and T. Kikas¹,*

¹ Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56,
EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
² Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: Timo.Kikas@emu.ee

### Abstract:

This paper reviews second–generation biofuel production chain and focuses on its energetic, economic and environmental impacts. The biggest challenge in the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic material refers to the biomass waste that is left over after the separation of bioethanol in the distillation process. This waste still has high energetic value and could be further utilised to add value to the production chain. Furthermore, the environmental impact of untreated waste from bioethanol production is very high, which also requires attention. Anaerobic digestion of bioethanol production waste has been proposed as a possible solution to utilise the energetic potential of this waste and lower its environmental impact.

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1582–1601 M. Gailis, J. Rudzitis, J. Kreicbergs and G. Zalcmanis
Experimental analysis of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and commercial diesel fuel blend characteristics using modified CFR engine
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# Experimental analysis of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and commercial diesel fuel blend characteristics using modified CFR engine

M. Gailis¹²*, J. Rudzitis¹, J. Kreicbergs¹ and G. Zalcmanis¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Department of Automotive Engineering, Viskalu 36A, LV1006 Riga, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanics, Liela street 2, LV 3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.gailis@rtu.lv

### Abstract:

Performance parameters of different commercial diesel fuels is a subject of interest for fuel consumers. Fuel retailer Neste recently introduced a new brand of WWFC 5th grade diesel fuel in Baltic market, consisting of diesel fuel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) blend. Fuel samples have been recently tested on chassis dynamometer, measuring wheel power and torque and in road conditions, measuring fuel consumption. Evaluation of fuel consumption and performance parameters in road or laboratory conditions may yield uncertain results due to complexity of modern automobile engine management and emission reduction systems. To better evaluate the combustion, fuel samples have been tested in modified CFR engine at various intake air pressure, temperature and compression ratio settings. Engine indicated performance parameters and combustion phasing of regular diesel fuel and diesel fuel-HVO blend are presented. Comparing to regular diesel fuel, fuel blend with HVO showed reduced apparent heat release rate (AHRR) during premixed combustion phase at low inlet air temperature and low compression ratio conditions, comparing to regular diesel fuel. Premixed combustion phase AHRR of diesel-HVO blend increased above AHRR of regular diesel fuel at higher inlet air temperature and higher compression ratio conditions. Diffusion controlled combustion phase AHRR of diesel-HVO blend increased above AHRR of regular diesel fuel at higher inlet air temperature, higher compression ratio conditions and supercharged air supply.

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406–416 V. Hönig,, Z. Linhart, P. Procházka and K. Pernica
Regulatives for biorefineries
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# Regulatives for biorefineries

V. Hönig¹,*, Z. Linhart², P. Procházka³ and K. Pernica¹

¹ University of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, Department of Strategy, W. Churchill Sq., CZ130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic
² University of Economics and Management, Department of Marketing, Nárožní 2600/9A, Prague 5, Czech Republic
³ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Kamýcka 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic