Response surface for biodiesel production from soybean oil by ethylic route
¹Federal Fluminense University, Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Department, 156 Rua Passos da Pátria 156, bloco D, sala 235, 24210-240, Niterói, Brasil
²Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Engineering Department, Rodovia BR 465, Km 07, s/n Zona Rural, 23890-000, Seropédica, Brasil
Petroleum has been the most consumed energy source in the world, but it tends to run out due its non-renewable character. Among biofuels, biodiesel has emerged as the main candidate to substitute petroleum diesel. The present study aimed to identify the maximum yield point of biodiesel production by generating a response surface using molar ratio, temperature and agitation time as independent variables, and yield as a dependent variable. From the response surface, it is observed that the increase in temperature and reaction time leads to reduced yield. The configuration that resulted in maximum yield of 93.30% was 12:1 molar ratio, 30 °C temperature and 30-minute reaction time. From the chromatographic analysis it was possible to identify five different fatty acids in the composition of the biodiesels. Total saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids) ranged from 41.53% to 42.09% and total unsaturated fatty acids including monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) ranged from 57.92% to 58.48%. According to the results of the physicochemical analyses, the specific mass at 68 °F is in agreement with Brazilian, American and European specifications, ranging from 877.46 kg m-3 to 879.64 kg m-3. The kinematic viscosity at 104 °F ranged from 4.49 mm² s-1 to 4.82 mm² s-1. The acid value obtained did not vary within the limits established by the norms, and values between 0.54 and 2.74 mg KOH g-1 were observed.