Tag Archives: biofuels

957–973 J. Čedík, M. Pexa, D. Mader and R. Pražan
Combustion characteristics of compression ignition engine operating on rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blends
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Combustion characteristics of compression ignition engine operating on rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blends

J. Čedík¹*, M. Pexa¹, D. Mader¹ and R. Pražan²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agriculture Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The effect of biofuels on the operational parameters of the combustion engines, such as performance parameters or emission production, are monitored often. These changes are, however, based on the effect of biofuels on the course of combustion pressure inside the combustion chamber. The contribution deals with the effect of rapeseed oil-diesel fuel blends on the combustion characteristics of turbocharged compression ignition engine. The course of cylinder pressure was monitored and analysed and heat release rate was calculated. The brake specific fuel consumption, indicated and brake thermal efficiency were calculated and evaluated, in-cylinder temperature and ignition delay were also evaluated. As a test fuels a 5% and 20% concentrations of rapeseed oil in diesel fuel were selected while 100% diesel fuel was used as a reference. Turbocharged CI engine Zetor 1204 located in the tractor Zetor Forterra 8642 was used for measurement. During measurement the rotation speed of the engine was kept constant at approx. 1,950 min-1 and the load of the engine was selected at approx. 20, 60, 80 and 100%. The results showed decreased cylinder peak pressure, decreased intensity of heat release rate and earlier end of combustion in all tested loads for both tested fuel blends in comparison with diesel fuel, while the lowest peak cylinder pressure was reached using fuel with 5% rapeseed oil. Fuel with 5% rapeseed oil also showed highest indicated efficiency. Ignition delay was found shorter with both of the blended fuels in comparison with diesel fuel.

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1001–1012 M. Holúbek, M. Pexa, J. Čedík and D. Mader
Effect of long-term operation of combustion engine running on n-butanol – rapeseed oil – diesel fuel blend
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Effect of long-term operation of combustion engine running on n-butanol – rapeseed oil – diesel fuel blend

M. Holúbek*, M. Pexa, J. Čedík and D. Mader

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21, Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: holubekm@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The short time use of biofuels in compression ignition engines is being studied by many authors. However, in many cases the real long–term operation of the engine on biofuels may cause problems. The article deals with the operation parameters of the combustion engine, fuelled by n-butanol – rapeseed oil – diesel fuel blend, during 70 hours operation in total. Two brand new diesel power generators Kipor KDE 6500 with output power of 4.6 kW were used for certain testing. The first generator was operated on 100% diesel fuel and it was used as a reference and the second generator was operated on experimental fuel containing 10% n-butanol – 20% rapeseed oil – 70% diesel fuel blend. The generators were equipped with single cylinder compression ignition engine Kipor KM 186 with the rated power of 5.7 kW. For the first 10 operating hours approx. 40% load was applied. Then, the generators worked for another 60 operating hours with approx. 70% load. The harmful emissions, smoke, fuel consumption and the amount of produced particles were also measured after 10 hours run-in period and then after another 60 hours of operation. Consequently, the results were compared. Measurements were carried out at gradually increasing electric power output, approx. 14%, 28%, 42%, 56%, 68%, 82% and 95% (in results can be found in Watts). Emission analyser and opacimeter BrainBee and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer TSI were used for the measurements. The results showed increased production of emission of the engine running on fuel blend after 70 hours of operation. On the other hand, engine which operated on standard diesel reached lower fuel consumption. After 70 hours the blended fuel tended to produce more particles in comparison with diesel fuel.

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985-996 J. Čedík, M. Pexa, M. Holůbek, D. Mader and R. Pražan
Effect of sunflower and rapeseed oil on production of solid particles and performance of diesel engine
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Effect of sunflower and rapeseed oil on production of solid particles and performance of diesel engine

J. Čedík¹*, M. Pexa¹, M. Holůbek¹, D. Mader¹ and R. Pražan²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 21 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agriculture Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The development of biofuels for compression ignition engines is heading primarily to utilization of vegetable oils. Combusting of 100% vegetable oil in unmodified CI engine is usually not possible due to higher viscosity of the vegetable oil. In order to use 100% vegetable oil in CI engine the oil needs to be preheated, esterified or hydrotreated. Alternatively, in order to use raw vegetable oil in CI engine without preheating it is possible to use vegetable oil – diesel fuel blends or vegetable oil – butanol – diesel fuel blends in order to lower the viscosity of the fuel. The contribution focuses on comparison of the effect of sunflower and rapeseed vegetable oils on operational parameters of the turbocharged compression ignition engine, especially on production of solid particles. The measurement was carried out according to standardized NRSC test cycle. 5% and 20% concentration of vegetable oils in diesel fuel were used as a test fuels for the measurement while the diesel fuel was used as a reference. The count and size of solid particles were measured by means of EEPS particle analyser. Based on the measured values it can be stated that the slight increase of performance parameters occurred with strong effect on emissions production, especially on production of solid particles.

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547-555 M. Pexa, J. Čedík and R. Pražan
Smoke and NOX emissions of combustion engine using biofuels
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Smoke and NOX emissions of combustion engine using biofuels

M. Pexa¹*, J. Čedík¹ and R. Pražan²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamycka 129, CZ 16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ 16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

Production of solid particles significantly increases the dangerousness of combustion engines. The excellent sorbtion characteristics of the solid particles increases their harmful effects and makes them very dangerous component of emissions which causes health problems. Currently there are many design solutions which aim to reduce smoke of combustion engines. One of the most significant solutions suggests increasing the injection pressures up to the limit of 250 MPa and filtering the exhaust gases. The paper compares different fuels and biofuels, whether used alone or in mixtures, and their effect on smoke of supercharged CI engine. The comparison uses the 8-point NRSC (Non-Road Steady Cycle) test during which the following fuels were used: diesel, rapeseed methyl ester, rapeseed oil, Jatropha curcas oil, biobutanol, hydrotreated oil and other blended fuels. The measurement and comparison results show that using biofuels can significantly reduce smoke of combustion engine by up to tens of percent in comparison to diesel.

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783–789 P. Jindra, M. Kotek, J. Mařík and M. Vojtíšek
Effect of different biofuels to particulate matters production
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Effect of different biofuels to particulate matters production

P. Jindra¹*, M. Kotek¹, J. Mařík¹ and M. Vojtíšek²

¹Czech University of Life Science Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Vehicles and Ground Transport, Kamýcká 129, CZ 16521 Prague, Czech republic
²Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Center of Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility, Technická 4, CZ 16607 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jindrap@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

 In recent years the European Union has exhibited a significant interest in the reduction of crude oil usage. Biofuels can be used in conventional engines but the biofuels should reduce the emissions produced by internal combustion engines. This article deals with analysis of particulate matters (PM) production in chosen biofuels burned in internal combustion engine Zetor 1505. The conventional emission analysers are capable to detect gaseous emission components but they are not able to classify PM. Analysis of PM was performed with a TSI Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer 3090 which is able to classify particles from 5.6 nm to 560 nm. The device analysed different blends of alcohol–based biofuels tested under NRSC cycle conditions. The given size of PM can be taken as an impact on human organism’s cells consequently human health. PM create an ideal medium for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), their composition and structure. Analysis of PM should become a standard component of every emission parameter assessment.

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541-549 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine
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Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of butanol produced from organic products. The use of pure butanol in diesel engines is not possible. However, it may be used as an additive for fuels of petroleum origin or adding to oil for improving the operating conditions of the engine. Successively 10, 30 and 50% n-butanol was used as an additive. Turbocharged combustion engine of the tractor Zetor 8641 Foretrra was used to the test. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance parameters and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurements. Performance parameters of the engine decreases and fuel consumption increases due to the properties of butanol. Cleansing properties of butanol which restrict carbonization on functional surfaces of the engine seems advantageous.

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604-612 M. Müller, V. Šleger, M. Pexa, J. Mařík and Č. Mizera
Evaluation of stability of elastomer packing exposed to influence of various biofuels
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Evaluation of stability of elastomer packing exposed to influence of various biofuels

M. Müller¹, V. Šleger², M. Pexa³⋅*, J. Mařík³ and Č. Mizera²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of the European Union Member States is to reduce dependence on fuels derived from oil. For this reason, significant attention is paid to the use of organic products as a substitute or an additive in the fuel of petroleum origin. The usage of biofuels in conventional combustion engines is not easy due to the different properties of the products. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of biofuels on mechanical properties of O-rings type ACM (polyacrylate elastomer). The research was evaluated by the change of density, Shore A hardness, permanent deformation CS, tensile strength and deformation after exposure in the test environment for a period of 15 months. Comparing the O-rings immersed in standard diesel fuel it is clear that similar behaviour of the hardness shows are sunflower oil and canola oil. RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester 20% and oil from Jatropha has a negative effect on the increase in hardness. Comparing the O-rings immersed in standard diesel fuel it is evident that except RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester 20% other fuels have negative influence on permanent deformation CS.

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613-620 M. Pexa, J. Čedík,, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil
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Comparison of the operating characteristics of the internal combustion engine using rapeseed oil methyl ester and hydrogenated oil

M. Pexa¹, J. Čedík¹,*, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of oils from biological materials. The use of the oil in standard engines is not usually possible. The engine modification or the fuel modification is necessary. Esterification or hydrogenation of oils can be used as the fuel modification. Impact of these changes on the operational characteristics of a turbocharged internal combustion engine is observed in the paper. The internal combustion engine of the tractor Zetor Foretrra 8641 was used for testing. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurement. As fuels the 100% rapeseed methyl ester and 100% hydrogenated oil was elected. Based on the results we can say that the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine does not change significantly when using these fuels.

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541-549 J. Čedík,, M. Pexa, J. Mařík, V. Hönig, Š. Horníčková and K. Kubín
Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine
Abstract |
Full text PDF (851 KB)

Influence of butanol and FAME blends on operational characteristics of compression ignition engine

J. Čedík¹,*, M. Pexa¹, J. Mařík¹, V. Hönig², Š. Horníčková² and K. Kubín³

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence cedikj@tf.czu.cz
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Chemistry, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i., Drnovská 507, CZ16101 Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract:

The issue of the use of alternative fuels in diesel engines is discussed in this paper. The purpose is to reduce the dependence of EU Member States on fuels of petroleum origin. One of the possibilities is the use of butanol produced from organic products. The use of pure butanol in diesel engines is not possible. However, it may be used as an additive for fuels of petroleum origin or adding to oil for improving the operating conditions of the engine. Successively 10, 30 and 50% n-butanol was used as an additive. Turbocharged combustion engine of the tractor Zetor 8641 Foretrra was used to the test. This engine was burdened using a dynamometer to the PTO. Performance parameters and fuel consumption of the engine were monitored during measurements. Performance parameters of the engine decreases and fuel consumption increases due to the properties of butanol. Cleansing properties of butanol which restrict carbonization on functional surfaces of the engine seems advantageous.

Key words:

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604-612 M. Müller, V. Šleger, M. Pexa, J. Mařík and Č. Mizera
Evaluation of stability of elastomer packing exposed to influence of various biofuels
Abstract |
Full text PDF (695 KB)

Evaluation of stability of elastomer packing exposed to influence of various biofuels

M. Müller¹, V. Šleger², M. Pexa³⋅*, J. Mařík³ and Č. Mizera²

¹Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Material Science and Manufacturing Technology, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
²Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
³Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Quality and Dependability of Machines, Kamýcká 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic; *Correspondence: pexa@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

The aim of the European Union Member States is to reduce dependence on fuels derived from oil. For this reason, significant attention is paid to the use of organic products as a substitute or an additive in the fuel of petroleum origin. The usage of biofuels in conventional combustion engines is not easy due to the different properties of the products. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of biofuels on mechanical properties of O-rings type ACM (polyacrylate elastomer). The research was evaluated by the change of density, Shore A hardness, permanent deformation CS, tensile strength and deformation after exposure in the test environment for a period of 15 months. Comparing the O-rings immersed in standard diesel fuel it is clear that similar behaviour of the hardness shows are sunflower oil and canola oil. RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester 20% and oil from Jatropha has a negative effect on the increase in hardness. Comparing the O-rings immersed in standard diesel fuel it is evident that except RME – Rapeseed Methyl Ester 20% other fuels have negative influence on permanent deformation CS.

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