Tag Archives: biogas

1642-1648 V. Dubrovskis, I. Plume and I. Straume
Suitability of Common nettle (Urticadioica) and Canadian goldenrod (Solidagocanadensis) for methane production
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Suitability of Common nettle (Urticadioica) and Canadian goldenrod (Solidagocanadensis) for methane production

V. Dubrovskis*, I. Plume and I. Straume

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstesblvd. 5, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

Support for biogas production in Latvia was decreased. There is an urgent need to investigate the suitability of various inexpensive renewable biomass resources for energy production. Also, itis necessary to explore the possibilities to improve the anaerobic fermentation process with the help of various catalysts. Biocatalyst Metaferm produced in Latvia was used in previous studies with other biomass and showed increase in biogas and methane production. The article shows the results of studies on biogas (methane) production from chopped fresh Common nettle (Urtica dioica) and Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis) biomass and effect of catalyst Metaferm in anaerobic fermentation process. The anaerobic digestion process was performed in 0.75 L laboratory digesters, operated in batch mode (38 ± 1.0 °C, 35 days). The average specific biogas or methane production per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from Common nettle was 0.709 L g-1DOM or was 0.324 L g-1DOM respectively. Average specific biogas or methane volume produced from chopped Canadian goldenrod in anaerobic fermentation was 0.548 L g-1DOM or 0.267 L g-1DOM respectively. Average biogas or methane yield from digestion of chopped Common nettle with 1 mL Metaferm was 0.752 L g-1DOM or 0.328 L g-1DOM respectively. Average specific biogas or methane yield from anaerobic fermentation of chopped Canadian goldenrod with 1 mL Metaferm was 0.624 L g-1DOM or 0.276 L g-1DOM respectively. Adding of catalyst Metaferm increases methane yield from chopped nettle or Canadian goldenrod by 1.2% or 3.4% respectively. All investigated biomass resources can be used for methane production.

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769-783 K. Krištof and J. Gaduš
Effect of alternative sources of input substrates on biogas production and its quality from anaerobic digestion by using wet fermentation
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Effect of alternative sources of input substrates on biogas production and its quality from anaerobic digestion by using wet fermentation

K. Krištof¹* and J. Gaduš²

¹Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
²Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of European Studies and Regional Development, Department of Regional Bioenergy, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to confirm the suitability of alternative input substrates for production of biogas in order to decrease the need of utilization of high quality maize silage. All of the experiments were conducted by employment of wet fermentation process in mesophilic conditions (temperature in fermentor 40 ± 1 °C) in experimental fermentor with volume 5 m3. The experiments were realised in operating conditions of biogas station designed for utilization of agricultural biowaste. The experiments were divided into two alternatives (I and II cycle) and one control input substrates. In the first alternative (I cycle) was daily dosage formed by 33 kg of Amaranth and 250 L of control manure mixture. In this cycle, more than 3–times greater specific production of biogas was observed with average methane content 63.9% in comparison with control manure mixture (80 : 20%, liquid manure and manure). In the second alternative (II cycle) was daily dosage formed by 19.5 kg of sugar beer cuts, 3.3 kg of maize silage, 1.9 kg of oil-seed rape moldings, 2.5 kg of glycerin and 250 L of control manure mixture. In this cycle, more than 5.9–times greater specific production of biogas was observed. The decrease in average methane content 55.1% however also decrease in average content of hydrogen sulfide (128 ppm) was observed as well. An unquestionable advantage for both tested alternative mixed substrates was increase in biogas production and its quality in comparison with control substrate based on manure. At the basis of these findings can be concluded that both tested alternative input substrate mixtures are suitable as co–fermentation substances with great potential to increase the biogas production and its quality in case of wet fermentation processes.

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688-695 V. Dubrovskis, I. Plume and I. Straume
Anaerobic co-fermentation of molasses and oil with straw pellets
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Anaerobic co-fermentation of molasses and oil with straw pellets

V. Dubrovskis*, I. Plume and I. Straume

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd. 5, LV3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

The average grain and straw production in Latvia is increasing in last decade. Straw is not always managed properly and its utilisation in biogas plants can be considered as an alternative. Straw is not the best feedstock for methane production, because it has high C/N ratio. Co-fermentation with other biomass with higher N content can improve the methane production. Purpose of investigation is to evaluate the wheat straw pellets biomass suitability for production of the methane and effect of its co-fermentation with molasses, fried sunflower oil and catalyst Metaferm. The anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at temperature 38 ± 1.0°C. The average biogas yield per unit of dry organic matter added from digestion of wheat straw pellets was 0.540 L g-1DOM and methane yield was 0.285 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from co-fermentation of wheat straw pellets and molasses was 0.777 L g-1DOM and methane yield was 0.408 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from fermentation of wheat straw pellets with 1ml Metaferm was 0.692 L g-1DOM and methane yield was 0.349 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from co-fermentation of wheat straw pellets and sunflowers oil was 1.041 L g-1DOM and methane yield was 0.639 L g-1DOM. All investigated biomasses can be used for methane production.

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1956–1970 M.A. Luna-delRisco,, K. Orupõld, I. Diaz-Forero and M. González-Palacio
Influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates from Estonia
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Influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates from Estonia

M.A. Luna-delRisco¹,*, K. Orupõld², I. Diaz-Forero³ and M. González-Palacio¹

¹ Universidad de Medellin, Faculty of Engineering, Energy Engineering,
Carrera 87 # 30 – 65, P.O. 050026 Medellin, Colombia
² Estonian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³ Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje – SENA, Center for Design and Manufacture of
Leather, BIOMATIC Research Group, Calle 63 # 58B – 03, P.O. 055413 Itagüí,
Colombia
*Correspondence: mluna@udem.edu.co

Abstract:

Batch trials were carried out to evaluate the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of 61 different substrates collected from agricultural farms and industrial sites in Estonia. Tests were performed in 500 mL plasma bottles at 36°C. The highest methane yield from all tested substrates was obtained from unconsumed dairy products (557 ± 101 L kg-1 VS) while the lowest was obtained from animal slurries (238 L kg-1 VS ± 42). From tested energy crops, foxtail millet achieved the highest methane yield (320 L kg-1 VS). Silages from different crops presented methane yields from 296 ± 31 L CH4 kg-1 VS to 319 ± 19 L CH4 kg-1 VS. The influence of chemical composition and kinetic rate constants (k) on methane potential was analyzed. Anaerobic digestibility of selected agro-industrial substrates was markedly influenced by their organic content, i.e. total proteins and lignin concentrations. Rate constants were found to correlate negatively with hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin (p < 0.05). Results from this study suggest that an appropriate characterization of the chemical composition of the substrates is important not only for predicting BMP and the kinetics rates, but also for identifying possible inhibitors during the anaerobic digestion process. Results on the BMP and national availability of studied substrates indicate that herbal biomass and agro-industrial residues are promising substrates for biogas production in agricultural biogas facilities in Estonia.

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674–679 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Suitability of oat bran for methane production
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Suitability of oat bran for methane production

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

There is need to investigate the suitability of various cheaper biomasses for energy production. It is necessary to explore ways to improve the anaerobic fermentation process with the help of various catalysts. Biocatalyst Metaferm produced in Latvia previous studies with other biomass gave an increase in production. The purpose of study is evaluation of suitability of granular and crushed oat bran waste biomass for the production of methane and influence of catalyst Metaferm on anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The biomass anaerobic digestion process was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at temperature 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average biogas yield per unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of granular oat bran was 0.400 L g-1 DOM and methane yield was 0.193 L g-1 DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of crushed oat bran was 0.439 L L g-1 DOM and specific methane yield was 0.193 L L g-1 DOM. Adding of 1 mL Metaferm in substrates with not crushed or crushed oat bran increases specific methane yield by 0.227 L g-1
DOM or 0.236 L g-1 DOM respectively. Investigated oat bran can be used for methane production, but methane production was less than from traditional biomass, e.g. maize silage.

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1198–1203 J. Pošta, B. Peterka, Z. Aleš, J. Pavlů and M. Pexa
Selection and evaluation of degradation intensity indicators of gas combustion engine oil
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Selection and evaluation of degradation intensity indicators of gas combustion engine oil

J. Pošta, B. Peterka, Z. Aleš, J. Pavlů* and M. Pexa

Faculty of Engineering, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, CZ16521 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: jindrichpavlu@seznam.cz

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the analysis of data obtained during the operation of gas combustion engines running on biogas. The observed engines were running continuously in cogeneration units of biogas plants. The long-term operational monitoring of engines operating on biogas was carried out using tribotechnical diagnostics methods focused on oil properties. Each of individual indicators was determined in obtained time series. As critical indicators oils were identified oxidation, sulfation, nitration and total acid number. The prerequisite for correct selection of the oil change interval is knowledge on evolution of critical indicators over time. In the reference case, oil oxidation was identified as critical indicator. This knowledge allows to optimize intervals of oil sampling and oil change interval on the basis of time series evaluation.

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540–552 H. Roubík, J. Mazancová,, L.D. Phung and D.V. Dung
Quantification of biogas potential from livestock waste in Vietnam
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Quantification of biogas potential from livestock waste in Vietnam

H. Roubík¹, J. Mazancová¹,*, L.D. Phung² and D.V. Dung²

¹ Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Department of Sustainable Technologies, Kamýcká 129, CZ165 00 Prague, Czech Republic
² Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry, Hue University, 102 Phung Hung, Hue city, Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam
*Corresponding author: mazan@ftz.czu.cz

Abstract:

Quantification of biogas potential in Vietnam is highly needed to provide sufficient information for authorities properly support their future policy decisions. To achieve the aim of this investigation, two methods were applied: (i) the method for calculation of the amount of manure and its biogas potential from chosen livestock obtained from statistical data and (ii) the method for future forecast using middle scenario applications based on previous development of specific category, presuming homogenous continuation of growth. The total biogas energy potential in Vietnam was quantified to approximate 120,000 T Jy-1 in 2015 and has the potential of increasing to 127,000 TJ y-1 by 2020. However, when considering current manure management practices (including accessibility factor and collection efficiency) biogas potential was quantified to the values of almost 67,000 T Jy-1 in 2015 and over 71,000 T Jy-1 by 2020 if the current manure management practices remain unchanged. Biogas has the potential of generating renewable energy, while meeting requirements related to waste treatment and minimizing environmental impacts. This study shows that animal waste is a promising sustainable energy source in Vietnam which can be efficiently utilized for the generation of biogas energy as well as electricity. Furthermore, anaerobic digestion of livestock waste has the potential to play a vital role in farming systems by adding value to agricultural waste and livestock excreta, and reducing their presence in the environment therefore enhancing public health. There is a high development potential for the decentralized energy generation due to the exploitation of small-scale biogas plants in Vietnam. However, it is essential to realize that competition to other energy generating technologies is present.

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069–078 V. Dubrovskis and I. Plume
Biogas from wastes of pumpkin, marrow and apple
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Biogas from wastes of pumpkin, marrow and apple

V. Dubrovskis* and I. Plume

Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Institute of Energetics, Cakstes blvd 5, LV 3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: vilisd@inbox.lv

Abstract:

A lot of vegetables and fruits, which have been grown in Latvia or were imported from foreign countries, become waste, often due to unconformity to the marketing standards or biodegradation process fouling during storage. Waste biomass piles emissions during storage that contributes to global warming. It is appropriate to use such biomass as raw material for anaerobic digestion. This article shows the results of studies on evaluation of suitability of vegetable and fruit waste biomass for the production of biogas. Anaerobic digestion was investigated in 0.75 L digesters, operated in batch mode at a temperature of 38 ± 1.0 °C. The average biogas yield per mass unit of dry organic matter added (DOM) from digestion of pumpkin biomass was 1.095 L g-1DOM and the specific methane yield was 0.422 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of marrow biomass was 0.768 L g-1ODM and the methane yield was 0.274 L g-1DOM. Average biogas yield from digestion of apple biomass was 1.020 L g-1DOM and the methane yield was 0.451 L g-1DOM. All investigated wastes can be a very good source for biogas production. Anaerobic digestion may be a solution to treat waste biomass from food production facilities or supermarkets.

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1155–1160 M. Bloch-Michalik and M. Gaworski
Practical usage of additional heat from biogas plant
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Practical usage of additional heat from biogas plant

M. Bloch-Michalik* and M. Gaworski

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Department of Production Management and Engineering, Nowoursynowska str. 164, PL 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
*Correspondence: marta_michalik@sggw.pl

Abstract:

Biogas plants are one of the most stable and cost-effective energy sources. The better volume of produced biogas is used for parallel electricity and heat production in CHP gas engines. The heat from the engine is conveniently used for heating the digester but the additional amount causes lot of problems and is wasted despite its large potential. The inefficiency in energy use is a bottleneck in current biogas production, causing macroeconomic and microeconomic losses and challenges in the context of increasing land use competition. As a major output of the biogas management process research provide by authors, this article was elaborated in order to introduce the results of theoretical heating system analysis.

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883–895 R. Pecenka, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann
Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants
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Efficient use of arable land for energy: Comparison of cropping natural fibre plants and energy plants

R. Pecenka*, H.-J. Gusovius, J. Budde and T. Hoffmann

Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, DE 14469 Potsdam, Germany
*Correspondence: rpecenka@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

 With focus on renewable energy from agriculture governments can either support the growing production of energy crops or it can invest in technology or measures to reduce the energy consumption. But what is more efficient with regard to the use of the limited resource arable land: to insulate a building with fibre material grown on arable land to reduce the heating demand or to use such land for growing energy plants for the sustainable energy supply of a building? To answer this question, a long term balance calculation under consideration of numerous framework parameters is necessary.
Based on traditional fibre plants like hemp, flax, and woody fibre crops (e.g. poplar), these agricultural plants and their processing to insulation material were examined. Based on available data for the typical building structure of detached and semi-detached houses in Germany, models of buildings were developed and the accessible potentials for heating energy savings by using suitable insulation measures with natural fibre materials were determined. As a comparable system for the supply of renewable energy, bio-methane from silage maize was chosen, since it can be used efficiently in conventional gas boilers for heat generation. The different levels of consideration allow the following interpretations of results: in a balance calculation period of 30 years, the required acreage for heating supply with methane can be reduced by approx. 20%, when at the beginning of the use period fibre plants for the insulation of the houses are grown on the arable acreage. Contrariwise, to compensate only the existing loss in heating energy due to inadequate insulation of older detached and semi-detached houses (build prior to 1979) an annual acreage of approx. 3 million ha silage maize for bio-methane would be required in Germany. Therefore, from the land use perspective the production of biogas plants in agriculture for heating should be accompanied by the production of fibre plants for a reasonable improvement of the heat insulation of houses.

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