Tag Archives: biological control

xxx I.I. Novikova, V.B. Minin, J.A. Titova, I.L. Krasnobaeva, A.M. Zaharov and A.N. Perekopsky
Biological effectiveness of a new multifunctional biopesticide in the protection of organic potatoes from diseases
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Biological effectiveness of a new multifunctional biopesticide in the protection of organic potatoes from diseases

I.I. Novikova¹, V.B. Minin²*, J.A. Titova¹, I.L. Krasnobaeva¹, A.M. Zaharov² and A.N. Perekopsky²

¹Federal State Budget Scientific Institution "All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection" (FSBSI VIZR), 3, Podbelskogo shosse, RU196608 Saint-Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia
²Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production branch of the BFSBSI “Federal Scientific AgroEngineering Centre VIM (IEEP – branch of FSAC VIM), 3, Filtrovskoe shossse, p.o. Tiarlevos, RU196625 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: minin.iamfe@mail.ru

Abstract:

Crop disease control is of particular importance in organic crop production, as the use of chemical pesticides is prohibited there. A new multifunctional biofungicide Kartofin was selected and used to optimize the phytosanitary state of organic potatoes ecosystems. Previously of studies indicated the prospects of using the biofungicide to control numerous fungal and bacterial diseases during the potato growing season and storage of tubers. The crop rotation field experiment was carried out in 2017–2020 at the Experimental Station of the IEEP – BRANCH OF FSAC VIM near Saint-Petersburg (59°65 N and 30°38 E). The soil of experimental plots is sod-podzolic light loamy. In the potatoes (variety Udacha) field, a 2-factor field experiment was established which studied:
 the action of biofungicide Kartofin;
 the effect of the compost.
The experiment was established on the plots with the size 61.6 m2 each. The experiment had four replications.
Three doses of the compost were used which corresponded to different levels of the potato productivity. Potatoes were treated with biofungicide at the time of planting and by foliar spray during the growing season. The combined use of compost at a dose of 4 t ha-1 and biofungcide made it possible to achieve the yield of standard tubers of 27.3–28.2 t ha-1 with their low incidence of fungal diseases. The biological effectiveness of the biofungicide Kartofin in reducing the prevalence and development of a complex of fungal diseases (alternariosis, late blight, stem form of rhizoctoniosis) on potato plants of the Udacha variety reached 82.2–89.9%.

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716–724 L. Feodorova-Fedotova, B. Bankina and V. Strazdina
Possibilities for the biological control of yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in winter wheat in Latvia in 2017–2018
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Possibilities for the biological control of yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in winter wheat in Latvia in 2017–2018

L. Feodorova-Fedotova¹²*, B. Bankina² and V. Strazdina³

¹Institute of Plant Protection Research, Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technology, Paula Lejina 2, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Liela 2, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Stende Research Centre, “Dizzemes”, LV–3258 Dizstende, Talsu distr., Latvia
*Correspondence: liga.feodorova-fedotova@llu.llv

Abstract:

Yellow rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is a significant wheat disease worldwide. In Latvia, the distribution of yellow rust has increased recently and new aggressive races have been identified. The aim of this research was to investigate the possibilities for the biological control of yellow rust in winter wheat. A field trial was established in a biological field of winter wheat in Latvia in 2017 and 2018. Biological products that contained Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aurantiaca, Brevibacillus spp., Acinetobacter spp., and chitosan were used for treatments, and one variant was left untreated. The efficacy of products was evaluated by the AUDPC (area under the disease progress curve) comparison. Differences in the severity of yellow rust between the trial years were observed. In 2018, the severity of yellow rust was lower than in 2017. In untreated plots, on flag leaf, the severity varied from 10.9% to 32.5% in 2017 and from 1.4% to 6.5% in 2018. In 2017, the severity of yellow rust reached its maximum on 05.07. at wheat growth stage (GS) 79, and in 2018 – on 20.06. GS 79. Both in 2017 and 2018, no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in AUDPC values among the variants. After two years of investigations, the results were not convincing; therefore, further research is needed.

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171-175 E.L. Gasich and A.O. Berestetskiy
Studies on soil application of Stagonospora cirsii, a candidate for biological control of Cirsium arvense
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Studies on soil application of Stagonospora cirsii, a candidate for biological control of Cirsium arvense

E.L. Gasich and A.O. Berestetskiy

All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection RAS, shosse Podbelskogo 3, 196608 Pushkin,St.-Petersburg, Russia; e-mail: elena_gasich@mail.ru

Abstract:

Stagonospora cirsii, a causal agent of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) leaf spot, is under development as a biological control agent for this perennial noxious weed. S. cirsii had impact as a foliar spray and it proved highly pathogenic if applied at soil surface. Since Canada thistle is a perennial weed with a very vigorous root system, the ability of fungus to survive in soil and infect roots would greatly improve its potential as a mycoherbicide. Research was conducted to study the S. cirsii population dynamics in sterile soil, on the possibility of infecting Canada thistle creeping roots ed with the fungus, and its ablity to survive after being incorporated into/on the soil after over-wintering. The population dynamic was studied by dilution technique. In our experiments we used 10 g and 400 g of sterile field sod-podsol soil. At two initial inoculation concentrations about 103 and 106 conidia g-1 of soil the CFU amount in 1 g soil gradually were stabilized at a level about 105 g-1 of soil. The population density on this level was stable for 6 months. Inoculation of the creeping roots at different stages of their development (creeping roots with buds/rosettes/young roots) in laboratory conditions showed that fungus can infect leaves only in rosettes. It seems, under natural conditions, infection of Canada thistle root system with S. cirsii is not possible. However, S. cirsii maintains viability under various conditions of over-wintering (above/under/on ground).

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