Tag Archives: biomass-waste

xxx V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins
Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology
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Algae processing for energy production: development of waste pyrolysis technology

V. Bisters, J. Kalviss, J. Burlakovs and M. Klavins*

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Raina bulv. 19, LV-1586 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: maris.klavins@lu.lv

Abstract:

Waste processing accordingly to waste-to-energy concept remains a major challenge to deal with growing amounts of different waste types. The aim of the study is to expand the knowledge base for biomass waste thermochemical processing into syngas and biochar on example of algae waste treatment. In accordance to this concept, waste pyrolysis technology is further advanced by evaluating, studying and adapting the most technologically and economically feasible approach and by developing a pilot scale facility with the aim to demonstrate its potential to offer the industry an innovative solution for solid waste processing. The study includes theoretical background for thermal recovery of organic waste, with application of specifics of algae waste (beach wrack). Algae waste thermochemical processing and gas analysis are tested both for process of torrefied material and with full ash content characterisation. Additional algae waste proximate/ultimate analysis were done. The synthesis gas produced by the pyrolysis process contain 30–60% CH4, 5–12% H2, 20–40% CO (remaining CO2, N2) and thus can be used for heating purposes. The another algae waste pyrolysis product – biochar is enriched with mineral components thus increasing its application potential in agriculture, however in can be used also for energy production purposes. Thermal analytics of beach wreck undertaken on different type of samples to be common for the Baltic Sea area and projections on application of gasification technology for upscale at municipality level is analysed with a view to application for municipality larger amount material.

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2306–2316 D. Kunecová and P. Hlaváč
Determination of activation energy of the pellets and sawdust using thermal analysis
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Determination of activation energy of the pellets and sawdust using thermal analysis

D. Kunecová and P. Hlaváč

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK-949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
Correspondence: kunecova@uniag.sk; peter.hlavac@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to describe the thermophysical properties of pellets and sawdust. Samples were chosen with regard to sustainability and environmental friendliness of materials. The main object of this paper was the investigation of thermal degradation of selected samples. Industrial pellets from Slovakia and sawdust from household source were compared. Materials suitable for pyrolysis are organic materials that degrade at increased temperature. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are main components of biomass (wood) in varying proportions. Thermal processes were carried out from 25 °C to 850 °C using inert nitrogen atmosphere. Heating rate was linear from 5 °C min-1, 10 °C min-1 to 20 °C min-1. Mass decrease to 150 °C corresponds to release of water and other lighter unbound hydrocarbons. Samples lose 6–8% of their mass due to the temperature. At main decrease the mass loss was between 62% and 69%. In some cases this decrease is in two drops that end at the temperature around 500 °C. Pyrolysis can be considered to consist of independent parallel reactions. In order to make theoretical groundwork for biomass pyrolysis available, activation energies were calculated with the help of two kinetic models (Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa model). The residuals from pyrolysed samples are determined and temperature dependent profiles of the materials were obtained.

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