Tag Archives: biomass

404–409 S.B. Ismuratov, T.V. Bedych, T.I. Gluchshenko, D.S. Ismuratov and V.S Kukhar,
Production of bioethanol from biomass in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan
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Production of bioethanol from biomass in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan

S.B. Ismuratov¹, T.V. Bedych¹, T.I. Gluchshenko², D.S. Ismuratov³ and V.S Kukhar⁴,*

¹M. Dulatov Kostanay Engineering and Economic University, Department of Energy
and Mechanical Engineering, 59 Chernyshevskogo Str., KZ110000, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
²A. Baitursynov Kostanay State University, Agricultural and Technical Institute,
Department of Energetics, Str., Baitursynova 47, KZ110000, Kostanay, Kazakhstan
³Almaty Management University, Doctoral PhD, Str., Rozybakieva 227, KZ050060 Almaty, Kazakhstan
⁴Ural State Agrarian University, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Street Karl
Liebknecht 42, RU620075, Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract:

This article describes using renewable energy for bioethanol production. Kostanay Region is a developed agricultural region. Most part of its area is under grain crops and corn, oil crops and vegetables. In the course of production, transportation, storage and processing of agricultural crops, a large part of them becomes unsuitable for use; in future they cannot be used for the intended purpose. Substandard product often stays in the fields to rot or is thrown away. Information considered in this article demonstrates that agricultural waste can be used to produce rather inexpensive bioethanol. Most part of the population in this region is rural. Settlements are far apart from each. It would be reasonable to use bioethanol as a source of electric and thermal energy to meet the needs of rural residents and infrastructure. Wastes from bioethanol production can be used for feeding animal stock what is also important for rural areas and reduces environmental burden. In the course of human life, solid waste is formed that is suitable for producing bioethanol, and consequently, for generating thermal and electric energy. Presented calculations show the feasibility of processing municipal solid waste into bioethanol. EU countries successfully use researches performed by their scientists for developing technologies for the production of bioethanol and synthetic fuels. Kazakhstan, with its experience in cultivation
of oilseeds and required planted area, can successfully develop bioethanol industry. No researches in this respect have been conducted to this day in Kazakhstan. Using bioethanol provides
consumers with their own energy sources that meet quality standards, thereby increasing energy security of region, reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere, and creating small-scale energy enterprises where rural residents can work.

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1267–1277 K.D. Giannoulis, D. Bartzialis, E. Skoufogianni, G. Charvalas and N.G. Danalatos
Comparison of two perennial energy crops for biomass production at the end of their life cycle
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Comparison of two perennial energy crops for biomass production at the end of their life cycle

K.D. Giannoulis*, D. Bartzialis, E. Skoufogianni, G. Charvalas and N.G. Danalatos

University of Thessaly, Dept. of Agriculture, Crop Production & Rural Environment, Fytokoy street, GR38446 Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: kyriakos.giannoulis@gmail.com; kgiannoulis@uth.gr

Abstract:

Nowadays fossil fuels are decreasing, causing the world’s interest in renewable energy sources to rapidly grow. One of the most interesting renewable and ecologically pure fuels is biomass, which is considered to be carbon neutral. Biomass is a promising source of energy, as it can be used directly as an energy resource. Its quality characteristics such as gross calorific value and ash content are of paramount importance so as to improve the combustion process. Furthermore, during the last three decades, there has been an increasing interest in the production of biomass pellets for domestic and industrial use. Alternative feed stocks will need to be sourced to meet the demand for biomass pellets. Investigation for new energy crops that produce high amounts of biomass under low inputs and of high energy efficiency are the main tasks of this field. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the biomass yield and the quality characteristics (gross calorific value and ash content) of two perennial energy crops (Cynara cardunculus L. and Panicum virgatum L.) growing in a typical soil (Fluventic Xerochrept) of the main agricultural land of central Greece. The comparison for both cultivated crops was made in order to show the results during their 8th growing year. The examined factors were the irrigation (two levels: irrigated and rainfed) and the nitrogen fertilization (two levels: 0 and 80 kg N ha-1) as well as their effect on the dry biomass yield and the gross calorific value. It was found that higher dry biomass yield was produced from cardoon (21.3 vs. 14.23 t ha-1), while the higher average gross calorific value was observed for switchgrass biomass (17.31 vs. 15.65 Mj kg-1). Finally, multiplying the dry biomass yield (t ha-1) with the gross calorific value (Mj kg-1) it was found that 334 and 245 Gj ha-1 from a cardoon and a switchgrass cultivation could be produced, respectively. Cardoon has better results than switchgrass probably due to the fact that switchgrass is growing from March till October; while cardoon’s growing period is from October to June and in such areas precipitation is in shortage during summer months. Both crops could achieve high amounts of energy per hectare and thus their introduction in future land use systems, for an environmentally friendly energy production should be seriously taken into consideration.

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1147–1153 D. Bartzialis, K.D. Giannoulis, E. Skoufogianni, A. Lavdis, G. Zalaoras, G. Charvalas and N.G. Danalatos
Sorghum dry biomass yield for solid bio-fuel production affected by different N-fertilization rates
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Sorghum dry biomass yield for solid bio-fuel production affected by different N-fertilization rates

D. Bartzialis*, K.D. Giannoulis*, E. Skoufogianni, A. Lavdis, G. Zalaoras, G. Charvalas and N.G. Danalatos

University of Thessaly, Dept. of Agriculture, Crop Production & Rural Environment, Fytokoy street, GR38443 Volos, Greece
*Correspondence: dbartz@uth.gr; kyriakos.giannoulis@gmail.com

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to examine the effect on the dry biomass yield of two different sorghum hybrids (H1 and H2) under five different N-fertilization levels (0, 70, 140, 210 and 280 kg ha-1) in a soil which was formed by lacustrine deposits of Karla Lake and is characterized from the downward movement of calcium carbonate from the surface horizons due to leaching (Fluventic Xerochrept) during 2017. The results demonstrated a significant effect (P < 0.05) of fertilization only for one hybrid. Biomass yield ranged from 22.2 to 37.5 t ha−1. For both hybrids, sorghum accumulated a high amount of biomass in stems. Dry stem/total biomass ratio was rather constant throughout the different fertilization treatments achieving 81.6 and 77.5% for the first (H1) and the second hybrid (H2), respectively. The second hybrid (H2) had a higher percentage of leaf biomass (20.1 vs. 13.8%) than the first (H1), but lagged behind in seed production (2.4 vs. 4.6%). Biomass dry matter partitioning and total dry weight are important selection criteria for energy crops, due to different gross calorific value and ash content but also because of the different economic importance they may have e.g. the seed is also used as animal feed. The above high biomass yields of sorghum, confirming the high potential of this crop, should be taken into serious consideration regarding land use planning, but further investigation for the gross calorific value and the ash content is needed as well as biomass characteristics that are quite important in case to improve the combustion process.

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1800–1807 D. Urbancl, J. Krope and D. Goričanec
Torrefaction – the process for biofuels production by using different biomasses
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Torrefaction – the process for biofuels production by using different biomasses

D. Urbancl*, J. Krope and D. Goričanec

University of Maribor, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Smetanova street 17, SI2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*Correspondence: danijela.urbancl@um.si

Abstract:

Torrefaction process is a mild pyrolysis, where biomass material is converted into solid fuel with higher heating value. The results of torrefaction at different temperatures in a range from 220 to 400 °C for three varied materials, oak wood, mixed wood and dehydrated, granulated sewage sludge are presented. The torrefaction process started with warm up stage, which took place for 30 minutes, after that sample was torrefied for 2 hours at constant temperature. The process continued with cool down stage. The energy demands were covered by electric power, while the flue gasses were not integrated in the process. The influence of the operating temperatures are analysed in order to determine optimal operation parameters to get the torrefied biomass with highest calorific value. Furthermore, the optimal operation time according to the largest increase in calorific value for each material is evaluated. The results of calorific value, mass drop and chemical compositions such as elemental analyses are also presented. Results show that heating values increase with raising temperature for both wood samples. The heating values for sewage sludge increases to approximately 320 °C, after that temperature are unchangeable. Torrefied oak wood samples were more fragile at higher temperatures in comparison to raw or torrefied oak wood samples at lower temperatures. At torrefied sewage sludge samples the changes in fragility are not detected due to pre-prepared granulates of sludge.

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1779–1787 M. Toom, L. Talgre, P. Pechter, L. Narits, S. Tamm and E. Lauringson
The effect of sowing date on cover crop biomass and nitrogen accumulation
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The effect of sowing date on cover crop biomass and nitrogen accumulation

M. Toom¹²*, L. Talgre², P. Pechter¹, L. Narits¹, S. Tamm¹ and E. Lauringson²

¹Estonian Crop Research Institute, J. Aamisepa 1, EE48309 Jõgeva, Estonia
²Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
*Correspondence: merili.toom@etki.ee

Abstract:

Cover crops are important tools for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching from the soil and improving the nutrition of cash crops. In northern regions with short autumns it is important to maximise the growing season of cover crops to achieve sufficient biomass and N accumulation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the biomass and N accumulation of cover crops at different sowing dates in August.
Field experiment at Estonian Crop Research Institute was conducted in 2017 and 2018 with white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Cover crops were sown on August 3, 8, 14 and 18 in 2017 and August 3, 8, 13, 17 and 23 in 2018.
The two year experiment showed that biomass and N accumulation of cover crops were reduced with delayed sowings, but the reduction mainly depended on cover crop species.
White mustard, field pea and faba bean accumulated significantly higher amount of biomass and N than phacelia, buckwheat and berseem clover at all sowing dates in both years. Because of a rapid decrease in biomass, the optimum sowing time for phacelia and buckwheat should not be later than middle of August. In both year berseem clover produced the modest amount of biomass and therefore more suited as spring sown cover crop in Estonian conditions.

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862–871 B. Tamelová, J. Malaťák and J. Velebil
Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of cabbage waste
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Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of cabbage waste

B. Tamelová*, J. Malaťák and J. Velebil

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Technological Equipment of Buildings, Kamýcká 129, CZCZ165 21 Prague, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: tamelova@tf.czu.cz

Abstract:

In recent years, waste biomass has been increasingly becoming an energy source. The utilization of biomass includes a number of potential treatments: thermochemical, physicochemical and biochemical. In the food industry, significant amounts of biodegradable wastes are produced which have to be quickly treated to not pose an environmental problem. In this work cabbage waste (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) was treated by hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction.
Hydrothermal carbonization experiments were carried out in a pressure reactor vessel Berghof BR-300 (inner volume 400 mL, temperature regulation by Berghof BTC 3000). The carbonization took place at target temperatures 180 °C and 225 °C. Torrefaction tests were carried out in a thermogravimetric programmable oven LECO TGA701 under nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures 225 °C, 250 °C and 275 °C. The residence time was 30 min for both processes. Proximate and elemental composition, as well as calorific value was analysed in all samples. To express the influence of the treatments on combustion behaviour, stoichiometric combustion calculations were performed.
The analyses show a positive effect of both torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization on fuel properties in the samples. Most obvious is the reduction in oxygen content which depends on the process temperature. After hydrothermal carbonization at 225 °C the oxygen content was lowered by 46.7%. The net calorific value increased proportionally with temperature in both processes. After hydrothermal carbonization at 225 °C the net calorific value increased on average by 3 MJ kg-1 to 20.89 MJ kg-1. Both tested processes significantly increased the fuel value of this biodegradable waste.

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474-482 M. Križan, K. Krištof, M. Angelovič, J. Jobbágy and O. Urbanovičová
Energy potential of densified biomass from maize straw in form of pellets and briquettes
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Energy potential of densified biomass from maize straw in form of pellets and briquettes

M. Križan, K. Krištof*, M. Angelovič, J. Jobbágy and O. Urbanovičová

University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Machines and Production Biosystems, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, SK94976 Nitra, Slovakia
*Correspondence: koloman.kristof@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the study was the evaluation and comparison of energy potential of briquettes and pellets produced from the maize straw and woody biomass based on various diameters of pellets. By experimental measurements a calorific value and ash content was observed. Calorific value was measured by laboratory calorimeter IKA C 6000 (IKA® Works, Inc., USA) and laboratory combustion chamber Lindberg/Blue M (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc., USA). Individual calorific values and ash content was observed and subsequently confronted to obtain differences with replication. The analysis showed that calorific value of pellets with diameter 6 mm ranged from 16.99 MJ kg-1 to 17.80 MJ kg-1. Calorific value of pellets with 8 mm diameter ranged from 16.63 MJ kg-1 to 17.20 MJ kg-1. However, compared calorific value of briquettes ranged from 14.99 MJ kg-1 to 15.66 MJ kg-1. Further analysis showed that ash content of samples varied as well and it’s even affected by diameter of pellets. While ash content of pellets with diameter 6 mm was observed as 4.9% of total volume in case of pellets with 8 mm it was observed at value 5.5%. Briquettes produced from maize straw have ash content at value 5.4%. In contrary, ash content of woody biomass was significantly higher, 11% of volume, specifically. At the basis of observed parameters it can be concluded that maize straw densified in form of briquettes and pellets have a great energy potential which is comparable and competitive with currently used materials for production of briquettes and pellets.

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593-603 I. Vitázek, J. Tulík and J. Klúčik
Combustible in selected biofuels
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Combustible in selected biofuels

I. Vitázek*, J. Tulík and J. Klúčik

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Transport and Handling, Tr.A. Hlinku 2, SK949 76 Nitra, Slovak Republic
*Correspondence: ivan.vitazek@uniag.sk

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to determine the moisture, combustible and ash content in selected biofuels, in dependence on temperature by the means of gravimetric method. For this purpose, the furnace Nabertherm L9/11/SW/P330 was used. Analyzed samples consisted of crushed biomass which is used in small heat sources (e.g. spruce wood, cherry wood, apple wood, black locust wood) with bark and without additives. Biomass for larger heat sources (woodchips cuttings from coniferous trees), sawdust mix (plum, cherry, walnut, apricot, apple) and pellets (90% spruce and 10% fir) were also analyzed. The results are processed graphically and enable to characterize the tested fuels. The highest content of combustible was found in spruce wood sample without bark (99.889%), the lowest content of combustible indicated cuttings from coniferous trees (88.402%). Gravimetric experiments were supplemented by DSC measurement of selected samples on calorimeter Toledo DSC822e. The graphic courses of reactions are provided up to 500 °C.

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22-40 F. da Borso, C. Di Marzo, F. Zuliani, F. Danuso and M. Baldini
Harvest time and ensilage suitability of giant reed and miscanthus for bio-methane production and characterization of digestate for agronomic use
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Harvest time and ensilage suitability of giant reed and miscanthus for bio-methane production and characterization of digestate for agronomic use

F. da Borso, C. Di Marzo, F. Zuliani, F. Danuso and M. Baldini*

Department of Agricultural, Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Via delle Scienze, 206, IT33100 Udine, Italy
*Correspondence: mario.baldini@uniud.it

Abstract:

In many countries, biogas plants are mainly fed by livestock slurry and dedicated crops, including maize, which still represents one of the main energy crops utilized. Many concerns are now arising on environmental impact due to the high water consumption, chemical fertilizer and pesticide requirements and on adverse effect of maize as energy crop on the price of food and feed commodities. For these reasons two perennial crops, in particular miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and giant reed (Arundo donax L.), were cultivated at very low input and evaluated for their bio-methane yield at different harvest times and ensilage suitability, in a north-eastern area of Italy. Moreover, considering the agronomic use of the obtained digestate as fertilizer, this has been characterized by the content of heavy metals. Both multi-annual crops have proved highly productive in biomass especially with a harvest time in autumn, at which a satisfactory completion of the silage process without additives was observed. Conversely, bio-methane yield per hectare were not satisfactory with respect to the reference crops such as maize. The low BMP attained showed the main bottleneck of the methanisation of ensiled giant-reed and miscanthus, which is represented by fiber composition with high degree of lignification. The simulation use of digestate obtained as fertilizer in vulnerable areas, could lead to slightly exceed the levels allowed by the legislation of some European countries with regard of heavy metals as Cu, Zn and Cd.

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1956–1970 M.A. Luna-delRisco,, K. Orupõld, I. Diaz-Forero and M. González-Palacio
Influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates from Estonia
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Influence of chemical composition on the biochemical methane potential of agro-industrial substrates from Estonia

M.A. Luna-delRisco¹,*, K. Orupõld², I. Diaz-Forero³ and M. González-Palacio¹

¹ Universidad de Medellin, Faculty of Engineering, Energy Engineering,
Carrera 87 # 30 – 65, P.O. 050026 Medellin, Colombia
² Estonian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental
Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
³ Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje – SENA, Center for Design and Manufacture of
Leather, BIOMATIC Research Group, Calle 63 # 58B – 03, P.O. 055413 Itagüí,
Colombia
*Correspondence: mluna@udem.edu.co

Abstract:

Batch trials were carried out to evaluate the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of 61 different substrates collected from agricultural farms and industrial sites in Estonia. Tests were performed in 500 mL plasma bottles at 36°C. The highest methane yield from all tested substrates was obtained from unconsumed dairy products (557 ± 101 L kg-1 VS) while the lowest was obtained from animal slurries (238 L kg-1 VS ± 42). From tested energy crops, foxtail millet achieved the highest methane yield (320 L kg-1 VS). Silages from different crops presented methane yields from 296 ± 31 L CH4 kg-1 VS to 319 ± 19 L CH4 kg-1 VS. The influence of chemical composition and kinetic rate constants (k) on methane potential was analyzed. Anaerobic digestibility of selected agro-industrial substrates was markedly influenced by their organic content, i.e. total proteins and lignin concentrations. Rate constants were found to correlate negatively with hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin (p < 0.05). Results from this study suggest that an appropriate characterization of the chemical composition of the substrates is important not only for predicting BMP and the kinetics rates, but also for identifying possible inhibitors during the anaerobic digestion process. Results on the BMP and national availability of studied substrates indicate that herbal biomass and agro-industrial residues are promising substrates for biogas production in agricultural biogas facilities in Estonia.

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