Tag Archives: bread

xxx B. Kulishov, K. Kulishova, N. Rudometova, A. Fedorov and A. Novoselov
Advantages of electric resistance method for baking bread and flour confectionery products of functional purpose
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Advantages of electric resistance method for baking bread and flour confectionery products of functional purpose

B. Kulishov¹*, K. Kulishova¹², N. Rudometova¹², A. Fedorov¹ and A. Novoselov¹

¹ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, Kronverkskiy ave. 49, RU 197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
²All-Russian Research Institute for Food Additives – Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS, Liteyniy ave. 55, RU 191014 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kulishov.b@list.ru

Abstract:

In this paper we studied the effect of the baking method on the preservation of beta-carotene in two types of products: pan wheat bread and sponge cake. Five sources of beta-carotene were used in the study, three of which are commercially available samples, and the two others are experimental samples of supramolecular complexes of beta-carotene with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins in powder form (molecular ratio 1: 1). Bread and sponge cake were baked by convective and electric resistance methods. The values of temperature and current flowing through the dough were monitored during electric resistance baking. The beta-carotene content was measured in the dough after kneading, in the cake batter after mixing and in the finished products after baking and cooling. The beta-carotene content was evaluated by spectrophotometry after extraction. The control samples of bread and sponge cake were baked without adding beta-carotene. Different sources of beta-carotene exhibited varying stability in bread and sponge cake. Bread samples baked by the electric resistance method with addition of supramolecular complexes had minimum losses of beta-carotene. Electric resistance baking ensured lower losses of beta-carotene in bread and sponge cake samples.

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1873–1887 O. Savkina, L. Kuznetsova, M. Burykina, M. Kostyuchenko and O. Parakhina
The influence of the flour amylolytic enzymes activity, dosage of ingredients and bread making method on the sugar content and the bread quality
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The influence of the flour amylolytic enzymes activity, dosage of ingredients and bread making method on the sugar content and the bread quality

O. Savkina¹*, L. Kuznetsova¹, M. Burykina¹, M. Kostyuchenko² and O. Parakhina¹

¹St.Petersburg branch State Research Institute of Baking Industry, Podbelskogo highway 7, RU196608, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Russia
²State Research Institute of Baking Industry, Bolshaya Cherkizovskaya street 26A, RU107553, Moscow, Russia
*Correspondence: 1103savkina@mail.ru

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to study the effect of the sugar dosage, improver dosage, type of bread making methods and the amylolytic activity of five different types of wheat flours on the sugar content and the bread quality. The sugar content in the bread crumb was determined using the Bertrand’s method and was counted for sucrose. When the dough was prepared using accelerated technology, the improver affected the sugar content in the bread due to the starch enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect of improver dosages and sugar dosages on the sugar content in the bread was established. When using the improver, the sugar content exceeded the permitted amount in 1.25 times. No correlation was found between sugar dosage in recipe and bread quality when accelerated bread making way was used because of short fermentation time. The influence of wheat flour amylolytic activity (falling number) on the sugar content in bread was established, including when sugar was absent in the formulation. When sugar presented at bread formulation, the flour amylolytic activity did not significantly affect the bread quality, except the acidity. The bread making way had a greater influence on bread quality than falling number of flour. When sugar absent at bread recipe, the higher was the flour amylolytic activity, the higher was the sugar content in bread made by traditional way due to the starch deterioration. Obtained data have shown that when a baking method is selected, the flour amylolytic activity must be taken into account.

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1299–1312 N. Dubrovskaya, O. Savkina, L. Kuznetsova, O. Parakhina and L. Usova
Accelerated technology of rye bread with improved quality and increased nutritional value
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Accelerated technology of rye bread with improved quality and increased nutritional value

N. Dubrovskaya¹*, O. Savkina², L. Kuznetsova³, O. Parakhina² and L. Usova²

¹Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, RU195251 St. Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg branch State Research Institute of Baking Industry, Podbelskogo highway 7, RU196608 St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Russia
³Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova street, 9, RU191002 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: dubrovskaja_nata@mail.ru

Abstract:

Accelerated bakery technologies do not always ensure high bread quality. The taste and smell of bread is less pronounced when compared with the traditionally prepared bread and it is quickly subjected to microbial spoilage. The aim of the research was to develop an improved composite mixture for the accelerated technology of rye bread, which would improve its quality, nutritional value, extend shelf life and microbiological stability. Rowan powder (botanical species Sorbus aucuparia) as unconventional raw ingredients of high nutritional and biological value was used. Rowan powder has high acidity (40 degrees or 5.7% in terms of malic acid) and contains a wide range of organic acids, including volatile acids (2–3%) and preservative acids (such as sorbic acid), as well as other micro- and macronutrients. New acidifying additive with rowan powder was created. The optimal dosage of rowan powder in the new acidifying additive by 13% per 100 kg of flour allows bread making with higher specific volume, acidity and porosity of the crumb compared with the control sample. The research proves that rowan powder usage in the accelerated bread technology improves its organoleptic and physico-chemical indicators and also increases the content of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. The content of fibers in custard bread with rowan powder was 1.85 times higher than in the control sample. The rowan powder usage has a positive effect on the preservation of bread freshness during its storage. The rowan powder usage slows down the custard bread mould disease.

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1375–1385 N. Naumenko, A. Paymulina, A. Ruskina, V. Khudyakov
The Effects of Various Raw Ingredients on Bread Quality
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The Effects of Various Raw Ingredients on Bread Quality

N. Naumenko,* A. Paymulina, A. Ruskina, V. Khudyakov

South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of
Food and Biotechnology, 85 Lenina Avenue, 454080 Chelyabinsk, Russia;
*Correspondence: naumenko_natalya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the current research is to study the mechanisms behind how various
raw ingredients affect the quality of bread. The objects of the research were the flour used in
making the bread (consisting of gluten at 28.5%, and with an ash content of 0.55), with no added
fats; tap water or activated water (treated in a USTA-0.4/22 OM ultrasonic processor (Volna,
Russia), operating at a frequency of 22±1.65kHz and at 30% of maximum output power (400W)
for mixing dough); and plant extract additives based on stevioside and fucoidan (fully replacing
the sugar). Included in the analysis were the effects of using activated water and combined plant
extract additives on organoleptic qualities (appearance, crust colour, crumb condition, taste,
stickiness during mastication, and friability), as well as the physical and chemical qualities
(moisture content, porosity, and acidity). Yeast activity was studied in dough which had been
produced using activated water and combined plant extract additives. An Altami-136T optical
microscope (Altami, Russia) was used to study the activity of yeast cells. The effects of activated
water and combined plant extract additives were analysed by examining the microstructure.
Microscopic studies were carried out using a Jeol JEM-2100 electron microscope (Jeol Ltd,
Japan). The results confirm that activated water and combined plant extract additives may be used
to improve the quality of fresh bread.

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1386–1398 L. Nilova, N. Naumenko, I. Kalinina
A Study of the Forms of Bound Water in Bread and Bakery Products using Differential Thermal Analysis
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A Study of the Forms of Bound Water in Bread and Bakery Products using Differential Thermal Analysis

L. Nilova¹, N. Naumenko²*, I. Kalinina²

¹Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Industrial Management, Economics and Trade, Graduate School of Commodity and Service, Novorossiyskaya Street 50, 194021, Saint-Petersburg, Russia;
²South Ural State University, Higher School of Medicine and Biology, Department of Food and Biotechnology, 85 Lenina Avenue, 454080, Chelyabinsk, Russia;
* Correspondence: naumenko_natalya@mail.ru

Abstract:

The objective is to study the forms of bound water in bread and bakery products using differential thermal analysis, changes to these forms corresponding to different recipe components, and changes occurring during storage. The subject of this research are bread and bakery products made of wheat flour (with gluten content of 28.5%, and ash content of 0.55%): without added fat; with tap water or activated water used for dough mixing; with varying fat content (4 and 14%); protein-enriched with cedar nut flour (5%); and dietary (food) fiberenriched with red-fruited mountain ash and sea buckthorn powder (5%). The reference samples of bread and bakery products were stored in plastic film bags at 20 ± 2 °C for a period of 72 hours. The freshness was monitored by changes in the physical-chemical parameters (moisture content, swelling capacity, friability). The various forms of bound water were determined using the method of differential thermal analysis on a simultaneous TGA-DTA/DSC thermogravimetric analyzer, with a programmable temperature regime. Based on the obtained digital data on thermogram (TG) change, using Pearson’s criterion, a mathematical model has been created to identify the linear sections with a different inclination angle which are characterized by a constant rate of water removal. For all studied samples of bakery products, 6 linear sections were identified, but statistically significant results were obtained for sections III, IV and V, with the exception of section III for bakery products with cedar flour. Use of activated water, fat, and additives of cedar flour, powders of red-fruited mountain ash and seabuckthorn in the production of bread and bakery products leads to redistribution of water forms, which is confirmed by changes in the boundaries of the linear sections, both for freshly made products and for products after storage. As a result, these products stay fresh longer.

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1348–1357 L. Kuznetsova & O. Savkina
A study of factors which influence mould spoilage in flat (sourdough) bread
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A study of factors which influence mould spoilage in flat (sourdough) bread

L. Kuznetsova & O. Savkina*

Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnologies, ITMO University, Lomonosova Street 9, 191002 St Petersburg, Russia;
*Correspondence: 1103savkina@mail.ru

Abstract:

Bakery products are an excellent substrate for the development of microbial spoilage, especially mould spoilage and lime disease (otherwise known as chalk disease), because they have high levels of water activity aw = 0.94-0.97 and pH 5.5-6.0. Sliced bread in its packaging is highly susceptible to moulds and lime disease during storage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects shown by the microbial contamination of flour quality, and the type of sourdough and organic acid, especially acetic acid, on mould spoilage in wheat and rye wheat bread. Microbial contaminations were studied in two batches of wheat flour and three batches of rye flour which had been manufactured in Belarus and Russia and in sourdough bread which had been produced using this flour. Investigated here was the impact of the quality and type of sourdough with various starter cultures of micro-organisms and the impact of the content of organic acid, especially acetic acid, on mould spoilage in wheat and rye wheat bread. The content of organic acids, including acetic acid, in different types of sourdough which has been prepared using different starter cultures and in different kinds of sourdough bread which have been studied using liquid chromatography. It was found that, in spite of the presence in flour of spore-forming bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, microbial contamination of the finished product immediately after baking was absent. It was proven that the use of starter cultures and sourdough can slow down or prevent entirely the microbial spoilage of bread. It was found that the content of acetic acid which had been accumulated during the fermentation of various types of sourdough served to effect the presence of mould spoilage on sourdough bread.

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