Tag Archives: breeding

xxx R.O. Spriazhka, V.L. Zhemoida, O.S. Makarchuk, Y.M. Dmytrenko and V.V. Bahatchenko
Selection value of initial material according to the main biochemical parameters of grain in new maize hybrids creation
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Selection value of initial material according to the main biochemical parameters of grain in new maize hybrids creation

R.O. Spriazhka¹*, V.L. Zhemoida¹, O.S. Makarchuk¹, Y.M. Dmytrenko¹ and V.V. Bahatchenko²

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Agrobiological Faculty, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Seed Production them Prof. M. O. Zelensky, Heroiv Oborony Street, 13, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Agrofirma Kolos, Vatutina Street, 18a, UA09051 Pustovarivka, Skvyrskyi district, Kyiv region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: roman.spriazhka@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Increasing demand for corn grain with improved quality indicators provides grounds for creating new breeding samples that can meet the requirements of society. To achieve this goal, the breeding program included inbred lines VK13, VK69, AE801, and AE392 – sources of mutations in the gene for endosperm structure waxy and ae, respectively. The article presents experimental data on the study of corn hybrids created by crossing with these sources of gene mutations and is characterized by a high content of protein, starch, and oil in the grain, as well as yield. According to the results of laboratory and field research, hybrid combinations with high protein content in grain were identified – 13.07%; starch – 72.6%; oils – 5.83%. In field conditions, the highest yield was 9.37 t ha-1. Further research will determine the nature of the inheritance of these traits, and suggest ways of breeding work to improve grain quality.

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2727–2742 N. Krasova,, L. Ikase and D. Dēķena
Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia
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Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia

N. Krasova¹,*, L. Ikase² and D. Dēķena²

¹All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding, VNIISPK, Zhilina, Orel district, RU302530 Orel oblast, Russia
²Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Apple selections of Latvian breeding were evaluated in the Central zone of Russia since 1980, in total 32 cultivars and hybrids. After long-term evaluation, the following can be recommended for use in breeding of scab resistant cultivars with high quality fruits – ‘Dace’ (gene Rvi6), ‘Arona’, and good storage – ‘Edite’ (Rvi6), ‘Forele’, ‘Olga’, ‘Маdоna’, for breeding of early cultivars – ‘Roberts’ and DI-93-4-8, both resistant to scab (gene Rvi6) and fruit rots. Cultivars and hybrids with the best cold resistance of vital tissues were selected by artificially modelling winter-hardiness components − early colds (1st component) and mid-winter colds up to -38 °C (2nd component), showing reversible damages not exceeding 2.0 points: ‘Daina’, ‘Ella’, ‘Atmoda’, ‘Gita’, ‘Saiva’, of which the last 3 maintained high hardiness of bark, cambium and xylem with slight increase of bud damages also at -40 °C. Cultivars ‘Daina’ and ‘Ella’ showed resistance of buds and vital tissues on the level of ‘Antonovka’ after modelling a thaw with following freezing to -25 °С (3rd component), which suggests tolerance to fluctuating winter temperatures. These cultivars demonstrated good adaptation to different environment conditions and may be considered in breeding of new adaptive apple cultivars with high fruit quality.

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2489–2500 E.F. Myagkikh, S.S. Babanina, V.S. Pashtetsky and M.Yu. Karpukhin
Morphological variability of phenotypic traits in of oregano samples
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Morphological variability of phenotypic traits in of oregano samples

E.F. Myagkikh¹*, S.S. Babanina¹, V.S. Pashtetsky¹ and M.Yu. Karpukhin²

¹Research Institute of Agriculture of Crimea, Kievskaya Str., 150, RU295453 Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russia
²Ural State Agrarian University, Karla Libknekhta Str., 42, RU620075 Yekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: myagkih_e@niishk.ru

Abstract:

The purpose of the research was to study the morphological variability of collection samples of oregano of the Crimean Peninsula. The experiments were carried out in 2016–2018 in the Foothill Zone of Crimea. The plant material consisted of 41 samples of origanum collected on the Crimean Peninsula territory. The degree of identification reliability of oregano collection samples by morphological traits was checked. The construction of relationship dendrograms was carried out by the Ward’s method based on the Manhattan distances. It was found that qualitative traits (coloration of corolla, leaf, bract, stalk and male fertility) showed themselves more consistently than quantitative ones. It was recommended to use the most polymorphic traits (entropy, H > 1.50 bits) for reliable identification of oregano samples from the Crimean peninsula: coloration of bract, stem, leaf and corolla, as well as the number of shoots and mass fraction of essential oil. The structure of the association differed by the years of study when constructing dendrograms (r = 0.58).Nevertheless, a fairly clear correspondence of the clusters of different years’ clusters to each other was established (78% of the samples). The established correspondence indicates the reliability of the genotypes combination into separate groups (clusters) and their similar reaction to environmental conditions. The most interesting combinations of samples for further breeding work were identified – these are clusters 2 and 5 (according to the 2018 data). In 42.7% of genotypes from the second cluster, the mass fraction of essential oil was at the level of 0.25–0.55% of the absolute dry mass (4–6 points). The samples from the second cluster could be used as high-oil sources, whereas samples from fifth cluster – as sources of high productivity of ‘green’ raw materials (up to 1,200 g plant-1). It is advisable to select parental forms from these two clusters for hybridization. The grouping of origanum samples used in the work divides the samples quite accurately separated them not only on qualitative, but also on economically valuable traits.

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545-552 D. Grauda, N. Lepse, V. Strazdiņa, I. Kokina, L. Lapiņa, A. Miķelsone, L.Ļubinskis and I. Rashal
Obtaining of doubled haploid lines by anther culture method for the Latvian wheat breeding
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Obtaining of doubled haploid lines by anther culture method for the Latvian wheat breeding

D. Grauda¹, N. Lepse¹, V. Strazdiņa², I. Kokina³, L. Lapiņa¹, A. Miķelsone¹, L.Ļubinskis¹ and I. Rashal¹

¹Institute of Biology, University of Latvia, Miera 3, Salaspils, LV-2169, Latvia;e-mail: dace@email.lubi.edu.lv; izaks@email.lubi.edu.lv
²State Stende Cereals Breeding Institute, p/o Dižstende, Talsi region, LV-3258, Latvia;e-mail: vijastrazdina@inbox.lv
³Institute of Systematic Biology, Daugavpils University, Vienības 13, Daugavpils, LV-5401,Latvia; e-mail: inese.kokina@biology.lv

Abstract:

Methods of modern biotechnology, like double haploids (DH), could highly contribute improving efficiency and speeding up the breeding process. Aim of the present work was to elaborate most effective protocol of obtaining DH lines by spring and winter wheat anther culture. As initial material 10 spring and 4 winter wheat F2 hybrids were used. The cold (4ºC) pre-treatment of spikes was applied, and spikes were sterilized by 50% solution of bleach for 17 min. Isolated anthers were cultivated on the different induction media: 190-0, AMC, and AMC with addition of 2.5 mg l-1 CuSO4 x 5H2O. The most suitable induction medium for obtaining DHs from used wheat hybrids was the AMC medium with copper. Produced DH lines were multiplied and tested in the field conditions.

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59-72 A. Razukas, Z. Jankauskiene, J. Jundulas and R. Asakaviciute
Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania
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Research of technical crops (potato and flax) genetic resources in Lithuania

A. Razukas¹, Z. Jankauskiene, J. Jundulas¹ and R. Asakaviciute¹*

¹ Voke Branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Zalioji a. 2, Vilnius, Lithuania.
² Upyte Research Station of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture, Linininku 3, Upyte, Panevezys distr., Lithuania.
* Corresponding author; e-mail: rita.asakaviciute@voke.lzi.lt

Abstract:

The research of potato accessions preserved in Lithuanian potato gene bank genetic diversity research was carried out at the Voke branch of Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in years 1990–2006. Research was provided with potato collection covering 200 varieties and hybrids from the main potato origin and growing regions and selection material bred in Lithuania. Potato varieties varied in accordance of morphologic, physiologic, immunologic and farming features in the different maturity groups and between groups. Using transgenic hybridization method and working with genetic material of local potato collection were selected potato varieties of Lithuanian origin. The key objective was to select the varieties immune to wart disease, cyst nematodes, with high resistance to other diseases, with excellent agronomic and cooking qualities, suitable for the processing industry. Over 1966–2006 years the collection of more than 350 flax breeding lines and varieties from different countries were investigated at the Upyte Research Station of the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture. Therefore it is desirable for the new flax varieties to be highly adaptable, stabile yielding and high fiber quality under different growing conditions. The collection serves as a base while selecting flax varieties for hybridization. There have been chosen the varieties and breeding lines having the complex of qualities and positive characters. The varieties and breeding lines with positive characters were involved into the program of fiber flax breeding.

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