Tag Archives: buckwheat

xxx O.V. Tryhub, А.V. Bahan, S.M. Shakaliy, Yu.M. Barat and S.О. Yurchenko
Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity
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Ecological plasticity of buckwheat varieties (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) Of different geographical origin according to productivity

O.V. Tryhub¹, А.V. Bahan², S.M. Shakaliy³*, Yu.M. Barat² and S.О. Yurchenko²

¹Ustymivska Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd.a. V.Ya. Yuryev of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, Ustymivka village, Hlobynskyi district, UA36003 Poltava region, Ukraine
²Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Selection, Seed Science and Genetics, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
³Poltava State Agrarian Academy, Faculty of Agro-Technology and Ecology, Department of Plant Production, 1/3, Skovorody str., UA36003 Poltava, Ukraine
*Correspondence: shakaliysveta@gmail.com

Abstract:

To determine the ecological plasticity of crop varieties, there are a number of methods that are based on the analysis of the variability of the trait by contrasting years under the conditions. The stability and plasticity of the studied traits of varieties are due to the ability of genetic mechanisms of plants to minimize the consequences of the negative impact of the environment, that is, to resist them. The researches on establishing regularities of manifestation of plasticity, stability and homeostaticity of buckwheat varieties of different ecological and geographical origin were carried out in the conditions of the central part of Ukraine during the period of 2016–2018. The low adaptability of modern buckwheat varieties is a determining factor for low production yields of potentially high-yielding varieties in the sharply contrasting (climatic factors) cultivation conditions. The level of yield (as a complex characteristic) and its main component, the individual productivity of the plant have been determined as the differentiative indicators of modern varieties and new promising breeding material consisting of 35 samples from 5 countries of the world. The analysis of research data has identified a group of varieties (SYN 3/02, Sofiia, Selianochka, Slobozhanka, Yelena, Roksolana, Populiatsiia 7/07, P-330, P-455, P-620, Ametist, Feniks, Ilishevskaia, Batyr and Arno), which have a value as a highly adaptable varietal material for the cultivation conditions and have an increased selective value according to abiotic adaptability indicators and can be used to create a more adaptable material as a potentially more productive as well as more plastic and stable resource for selection.

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1680–1688 L. Honchar, B. Mazurenko, R. Sonko, T. Kyrpa-Nesmiian, R. Kovalenko and S. Kalenska
Biochemical responses of 5 buckwheat (Fagopirum esculentum Moench.) cultivars to seed treatment by Azospirillum brasilense
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Biochemical responses of 5 buckwheat (Fagopirum esculentum Moench.) cultivars to seed treatment by Azospirillum brasilense

L. Honchar¹*, B. Mazurenko¹, R. Sonko¹, T. Kyrpa-Nesmiian², R. Kovalenko¹ and S. Kalenska¹

¹National University of Life and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, Heroiv Oborony str., no 15, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering of NAS Ukraine, Academika Zabolotnoho str., no 148, UA03043 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: honchar@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Cultivation condition have a large effect on efficiency of buckwheat. Drought, high temperatures and their fluctuations, salinity, oxygen deficit in the soil, ultraviolet radiation, and abnormal nutrient content in the soil are the most common reasons of decreasing productivity of plants. Suboptimal parameters of the cultivation technology can also cause abiotic stress. Plant can decrease its efficiency from 30% to 50% depend on stress conditions. Using bacterial cultures is one of the preventive approaches to overcoming the negative impact of stressors. Microorganisms produce biologically active substances that stimulate plant growth, increase their resistance to abiotic factors. They are growth regulators and long-acting anti-stressants as well. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is formed as a result of the oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fructans are polysaccharides that are derived from D-fructose residues found in higher plants, green algae and bacteria. Fructans are involved in the adaptation of plants to the action of abiotic stressors and are valuable nutrients. The effect of Azospirillum brasilense pre-sowing treatment of buckwheat seeds on physiological and biochemical processes of MDA and fructan content was researched. Seed treatment with Azospirillun brasilense reduced the content of MDA in Ukrayinka and Syn 3/02. Sofia and Olga had a low level of MDA, but seed treatment increase it. Seed treatment increased the efficiency of photosynthesis (Fv / Fm) in Syn 3/02 from 0.58 to 0.72; in other varieties this effect was negligible. All cultivars have a strong relation between MDA and fructan content, that shows their participation in responses on cultivation conditions. Efficiency of photosynthesis in flowering–seed formation stage (BBCH 65–75) was close to maximum in field condition(0.70 ± 0.05) and seed treatment can increase it.

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1425-1434 G. Krumina–Zemture, I. Beitane and I. Cinkmanis
Flavonoids and total phenolic content in extruded buckwheat products with sweet and salty taste
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Flavonoids and total phenolic content in extruded buckwheat products with sweet and salty taste

G. Krumina–Zemture¹*, I. Beitane¹ and I. Cinkmanis²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Nutrition, Riga street 22, LV–3004, Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Chemistry, Liela street 2, LV–3001, Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: gita.krumina@llu.lv

Abstract:

The aim of research was to evaluate the effect of added ingredients used for taste improvement on flavonoids and total phenolic content in extruded buckwheat products. The added ingredients were – sugar, vanilla sugar, stevia, agave syrup, cinnamon, caraway, garlic powder, sweet pepper powder and salt. Six extruded buckwheat products were analysed, where an extruded buckwheat product without added ingredients was a control sample, two extruded buckwheat products were with sweet taste and three products with salty taste. Total phenolic content was determined using the modified Folin–Ciocalteu method but flavonoid content according to LC-TOF-MS method.
The highest total phenolic content (p < 0.05) was determined in extruded buckwheat product with vanilla sugar + stevia (91.17 ± 0.67 GAE mg 100g-1DW). It was almost three times higher than in the control sample. The significant differences were observed in extruded buckwheat products with caraway + salt + agave syrup (41.5 ± 0.12 GAE mg 100g-1DW) and sweet pepper powder + salt + agave syrup (42.39 ± 0.80 GAE mg 100g-1DW) comparing to other extruded products (p < 0.05). The highest content of rutin and quercetin (p < 0.05) was established in extruded buckwheat product with garlic powder + salt + agave syrup, whereas the highest content of catechin and epicatechin – in extruded buckwheat product with vanilla sugar + stevia. The extruded buckwheat product with caraway + salt + agave syrup in addition contained luteolin, kaempferol and isoquercitrin. The results of research showed that some added ingredients used for taste improvement can significantly influence the total phenolic content and flavonoid content.

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1331-1340 I. Beitane, G. Krumina–Zemture and M. Sabovics
Effect of germination and extrusion on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of raw buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)
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Effect of germination and extrusion on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of raw buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

I. Beitane¹*, G. Krumina–Zemture¹ and M. Sabovics²

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Nutrition, Riga Street 22, LV–3004 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of Food Technology, Riga street 22, LV–3004 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: ilze.beitane@llu.lv

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to determine the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in raw and germinated common buckwheat grain and their extruded products in order to estimate the effect of germination and extrusion on the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in buckwheat. A total of 10 buckwheat samples were analysed, where the raw buckwheat grain was the control sample, four samples were germinated and then extruded. The total phenolic content was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using a micro plate assay and phenolic compounds with Liquid Chromatography –Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer method.
The results showed that germination of buckwheat significantly affected the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity and content of phenolic compounds. The decrease of the total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity and the content of some phenolic compounds depended on germination time – 48 h of germination provided greater concentrations at the end of a 24 h germination period, whereas the content of some phenolic compounds like rutin, quercetin and vitexin increased substantially after germination, besides, the increase of phenolic compounds depended on the germination time. In total 26 different phenolic compounds were detected in raw and germinated buckwheat samples and only one compound with an m/z value 385.1282 was unidentified. The data of extrusion revealed a significant decrease of total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, radical scavenging activity and phenolic compounds content in buckwheat samples (P < 0.05). In the extruded buckwheat samples novel phenolic compounds like 4–hydroxybenzoic acid, homovanillic acid, catechin, ferulic acid, and hyperoside were detected.

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444-450 V. Pilipavičius, P. Lazauskas and S. Jasinskaitė
Weed control by two layer ploughing and post-emergence crop tillage in spring wheat and buckwheat
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Weed control by two layer ploughing and post-emergence crop tillage in spring wheat and buckwheat

V. Pilipavičius, P. Lazauskas and S. Jasinskaitė

Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Management, Studentu 11, LT-53361Akademija, Kaunas r., Lithuania; tel.: +370 37 75 22 11, fax: +370 37 75 22 93;e-mail: vytautas.pilipavicius@lzuu.lt, petras.lazauskas@lzuu.lt; sonata.jasinskaite@lzuu.lt

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out at the Kazliškiai organic farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture in the period of 2002–2003. The aim of the work was to investigate elements of non-chemical weed control methods as main soil tillage, pre-sowing and post-sowing tillage. According to theoretical preconditions and data of the experiment, it is proved that total turnover of the layer in organic agriculture is a very important means of weed control decreasing weediness of the crop and increasing harvest. Two types of plough in combination with different pre-sowing and post-sowing soil tillage implements and technologies in crops of spring wheat and buckwheat were investigated. Spring wheat crops were grown comprising two varieties differing in plant height for additional investigations of their crop smothering power for weeds. It was proven that, for weed control, two-layer ploughing technology was favourable to conventional ‘cultural’ ploughing technology and that taller varieties had greater smothering power for weeds than shorter ones.

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