Cadmium-induced oxidative damage and protective action of fractioned red beet (Beta vulgaris) root juice in chickens
¹University of Latvia, Institute of Biology, 3 Miera Str., LV-2169 Salaspils, Latvia
²Institute of Innovative Biomedical Technology Ltd, 2 Inchukalna Str., LV-1014 Riga, Latvia
Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous environmental bioaccumulative pollutants that affects many organs in humans and animals. Present investigation was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of fractioned red beetroot juice on Cd-induced oxidative stress in chickens. The named red beetroot juice fraction (BJF) was received by juice ultrafiltration. Per oral administration of BJF for 10 days followed by dietary Cd exposure (50 mg kg-1 of diet) was evaluated in the in vivo experiments in chickens. The prominent increase of Cd concentration in blood plasma, liver and kidney provoked the rise of oxidative processes activity in organs. BJF treatment attenuated the Cd-induced oxidative stress. The changes of oxidative stress markers – the reduction of hepatic and kidney malondialdehyde amount, the increase of glutathionperoxidase level in liver and blood catalase activity indicated the possible antioxidative influence of BJF. Chickens exposed to Cd showed no evidence of clinical toxicity, but exhibited some features of adverse action of this heavy metal. The increase of uric acid concentration in blood serum is associated with protein catabolic processes intensified by Cd affect. Suppressive effect of Cd on the immune response in chickens manifested in alteration of cell and humoral immunity parameters. The data of the most investigated oxidative stress markers, biochemical and immunological indices in Cd-exposed chickens were almost back to the values, when received BJF per os during 10 days. Administration of fractioned red beetroot juice to Cd-treated chickens prevented the oxidative impact of this heavy metal and provided immunomodulating effect.