Tag Archives: carotenoids

xxx J. Bazarnova, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva
A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae
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A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae

J. Bazarnova*, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Graduate School of Biotechnology and Food Science, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, RU195251, St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: j.bazarnova@spbstu.ru

Abstract:

Microalgae are distinguished from land plants by the high content of plastid pigments and the biodiversity of carotenoids. The aim of this study is to develop a technology for extracting a pigment complex from the biomass of the microalgae of the genus Chlorella and to determine the extracted pigments’ composition. To obtain biomass, a crude cell suspension of microalgae was used, which was obtained under laboratory conditions for pre-culture cultivation of C. sorokiniana (strain 211-8k). The extraction of plastid pigments from air-dry biomass after disintegration of cell membrane was performed in the 40 kHz mode. It was found that the highest pigment content in ethanol extracts was observed after 30 min (870.0 ± 27.1 mg L-1) at 45−50 °C. The pigments’ composition in the resulting total extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the Reverse Phase HPLC method. The established content of chlorophyll a in the obtained extracts was 537.5 ± 10.0 mg L-1, the content of chlorophyll b was 182.5 ± 27.5 mg L-1; the maximum output of the amount of carotenoids in extracts was 150.0 ± 10.0 mg L-1. Thus, the main identified forms of carotenoids in extracts from the biomass of microalgae C. sorokiniana were xanthophylls: lutein and fucoxanthin (18.6 and 4.7% of the amount of pigment in extract, respectively) and β-carotene (1.8% of the amount of pigment). It is planned to further fractionate the obtained total extracts of the pigment complex to obtain various forms of chlorophylls and carotenoids to study the spectrum of physiological activity of plastid pigments.

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1700–1716 O.N. Kanwugu, S.A. Shatunova, T.V. Glukhareva and E.G. Kovaleva
Effect of Different Sugar Sources on P. rhodozyma Y1654 Growth and Astaxanthin Production
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Effect of Different Sugar Sources on P. rhodozyma Y1654 Growth and Astaxanthin Production

O.N. Kanwugu¹*, S.A. Shatunova¹², T.V. Glukhareva¹³ and E.G. Kovaleva¹

¹Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Mira street 28, RU620002 Ekaterinburg, Russia
²University of Queensland, School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, 68 Cooper Road, Brisbane City QLD 4072, Australia
³Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis, S. Kovalevskaya street 22, Akademicheskaya street 20, RU620990 Ekaterinburg, Russia
*Correspondence: nabayire@gmail.com

Abstract:

Phaffia rhodozyma (also known as Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is one of the most promising natural sources of commercial astaxanthin. It has high growth rates, easy cultivation conditions and able to utilize different carbon substrates. This provides an opportunity to further lower production cost by using industrial waste such as molasses. This research therefore evaluates the growth dynamic and astaxanthin production of P. rhodozyma Y1654 growing on soy and sugar beet molasses-based media. Liquid growth media based on soy molasses (SM), sugar beet molasses (SBM) and glucose (control) as main sugar source with peptone and yeast extract supplementation were inoculated with 48 h old seed culture (grown in standard glucose media: 2.0% glucose, 1.0% peptone, 0.2% yeast extract) and incubated at 20 °C with stirring speed of 180 rpm for 7 days. Samples were taken daily throughout the study period to assess; cell count, dry cell weight (DCW) and amount of astaxanthin. Soy molasses-based media resulted in the highest biomass yield (7.7 g L-1) followed by SBM (5.8 g L-1). Generally, more than 90% of initial fermentable sugar was consumed at the end of the study. However, about 40% of total sugar in SM was unassimilable by P. rhodozyma Y1654. The highest astaxanthin yield was observed in the control media (77 μg g-1 of DCW). Cultivation of P. rhodozyma Y1654 in SBM resulted in as much as twice (32.8 μg g-1 of DCW) the astaxanthin yield of SM (12.4 μg g-1 DCW). Molasses-based media are good for growth of P. rhodozyma Y1654 but for astaxanthin production, they need further optimization.

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1728-1741 D. Kļava, S. Kampuse, L. Tomsone, T. Kince and L. Ozola
Effect of drying technologies on bioactive compounds maintenance in pumpkin by-products
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Effect of drying technologies on bioactive compounds maintenance in pumpkin by-products

D. Kļava, S. Kampuse*, L. Tomsone, T. Kince and L. Ozola

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Food Technology, Riga street 22, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: skampuse@inbox.lv

Abstract:

During the pumpkin processing large amounts of waste material as a combination of pumpkin peel, seeds and the flesh between seeds has produced. Therefore it is important to investigate the possibilities for using the pumpkin residues. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of different drying technologies on maintenance of bioactive compounds in pumpkin by-products. Two pumpkin residue products of Hubard group pumpkins were used to obtain pumpkin powder: residue products formed in the process of extracting industrial pumpkin purée by heating it in a heat exchanger and treating through a sieve of pulpier; residues resulting from pumpkin juice extraction process mechanically pressed from fresh, chopped pumpkins. In order to be able to choose the most suitable drying technology pumpkin by-products were dried in the microwave-vacuum, convective (at 40, 50, 70 and 80 °C) and freeze-drying type dryers. For all samples total carotenes, the ascorbic acid, total phenols content (TPC) and antiradical activity (DPPH˙, ABTS˙+) were determined by using standard methods. The highest total carotenes content was retained in freeze-dried pumpkin powders. The most suitable drying method for obtaining pumpkin powder with the highest ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and antiradical activity is drying in convective type drying at 80 °C temperature.

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712-718 A. Radzevičius, R. Karklelienė, P. Viškelis, Č. Bobinas,R. Bobinaitė and S. Sakalauskienė
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit quality and physiological parameters at different ripening stages of; Lithuanian cultivars
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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit quality and physiological parameters at different ripening stages of; Lithuanian cultivars

A. Radzevičius, R. Karklelienė, P. Viškelis, Č. Bobinas,R. Bobinaitė and S. Sakalauskienė

Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. LT-54333, Babtai, Kauno 30, Kaunas distr., Lithuania;e-mail: a.radzevicius@lsdi.lt

Abstract:

Four cultivars (‘Neris’, ‘Svara’, ‘Vytėnų didieji’, ‘Jurgiai’) and one hybrid (‘Vaisa’) of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture from 2007─2008.During this investigation fruit quality and physiological parameters were evaluated: thelycopene and β-carotene contents, colour indices (CIE L*a*) and hue angle (h°) with chroma (C) at four different fruit ripening stages (I stage – green, II stage – beginning of ripening, III – not fully ripened, IV – fully ripened)A significant increase in lycopene and β-carotene content at each successive ripeningstage of tomato fruit was recorded. Tomato fruit colour became darker and the ratio of red to green colour increased during the ripening process. Chroma value increased with a change of tomato colour from green to light red, and subsequently declined at the red fruit stage, but chroma of the hybrid ‘Vaisa’ increased at all ripening stages.External colour was expressed in terms of hue angle. All the analyzed tomato cultivarsdeveloped a similar colour when mature, with average hue angles generally being close to 40 degrees, but the cultivar ‘Neris’ had lower hue value (32 degrees).

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761-767 A. Urbonavičiūtė, G. Samuolienė, S. Sakalauskienė, A. Brazaitytė,J. Jankauskienė, P. Duchovskis, V. Ruzgas,A. Stonkus, P. Vitta, A. Žukauskas and G. Tamulaitis
Effect of flashing amber light on the nutritional quality of green sprouts
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Effect of flashing amber light on the nutritional quality of green sprouts

A. Urbonavičiūtė¹, G. Samuolienė¹, S. Sakalauskienė¹, A. Brazaitytė¹,J. Jankauskienė¹, P. Duchovskis¹, V. Ruzgas³,A. Stonkus², P. Vitta², A. Žukauskas² and G. Tamulaitis²

¹Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, 30 Kaunas str., LT–54333, Babtai, Kaunas distr.,Lithuania. Tel. +370–37–555476, fax: +370–37–555176; e-mail: a.urbonaviciute@lsdi.lt
²Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University,Saulėtekio al. 9–III, LT–10222 Vilnius, Lithuania
³Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų g. 11, LT–53361 Akademija,Kaunas distr., Lithuania

Abstract:

We report on the application of flashing amber (596 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), supplemental to high pressure sodium lamps, for the cultivation of green sprouts, such as wheatgrass, barley grass, and leafy radish. The flashing light was found to significantly affect metabolism, thus conditioning the nutritional quality of the sprouts. In particular, it causes stressful conditions for the plants and within a short growth period can promote the synthesis of antioxidative compounds, such as vitamin C, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. However, the flashing amber light effect is dependent on the plant species.

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