Tag Archives: cereal

xxx D.C. Silveira, M. Pelissoni, C.R. Buzatto, S.M. Scheffer-Basso, L.A. Ebone, J.M. Machado and N.C. Lângaro
Anatomical traits and structural components of peduncle associated with lodging in Avena sativa L.
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Anatomical traits and structural components of peduncle associated with lodging in Avena sativa L.

D.C. Silveira¹*, M. Pelissoni², C.R. Buzatto³, S.M. Scheffer-Basso², L.A. Ebone², J.M. Machado⁴ and N.C. Lângaro²

¹Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Faculty of Agronomy, Departament of Forage Plant and Agrometeorology, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 7712 Bairro Agronomia, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre RS, Brazil
²University of Passo Fundo, Faculty of Agronomy, Agronomy Post-Graduate Program, BR 285, Bairro São José, CEP 99052-900 Passo Fundo, Brazil
³University of Passo Fundo, Institute of Biological Sciences, Environmental Sciences Post-Graduate Program, BR 285, Bairro São José, CEP 99052-900 Passo Fundo, Brazil
⁴University of Cruz Alta, Faculty of Medicine veterinary, Center for Health and Agrarian Sciences, Rod. Jacob Della Méa, km 5.6, ZIP98005-972 Cruz Alta, Brazil
*Correspondence: diogenessilveira@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Lodging dramatically reduces the yield of cereals and increases the difficulty of mechanical harvesting. Because it is a complex phenomenon, new cultivars with genetic resistance to lodging is a sustainable alternative in agricultural production systems. This resistance is associated with a combination of factors, such as stem thickness and stiffness, being closely linked to anatomical traits and structural carbohydrates present in the stem. In the present study we compared, under field conditions, eight contrasting oat cultivars in terms of lodging resistance. Our aim in this study was to investigate the association of anatomical traits and structural components of the peduncle with resistance to lodging, aiming to assist in the plant selection process. In addition, a second objective was to understand the genetic dissimilarity among oat cultivars according to the characters studied. Some characteristics for potential indirect selection were studied in this work and if correlated with lodging can be used to identify superior genotypes. From the anatomical point of view, the correlation obtained between the internal vascular bundle and the lodging resistance factor allowed us to confirm that this trait can be used in indirect selection to lodging resistance. The structural components of peduncle, in the two ways explored in the present study, comparison of mean and correlation, did not demonstrate the potential to be used exclusively as plant selection characters traits for lodging resistance. There is noticeable variability in oat cultivars for most stem traits.

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379-384 K. Tamm
The impact of distance to the cereal plot on the annual emission of diesel exhaust caused by intra-farm transportation
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The impact of distance to the cereal plot on the annual emission of diesel exhaust caused by intra-farm transportation

K. Tamm

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Estonia;e-mail: kalvi.tamm@eria.ee

Abstract:

Machines and heavy-duty vehicles used in agriculture are powered almost exclusively by diesel engines. Diesel engines make a significant contribution to air pollution in most European countries. Aside from the engine properties, their use affects the annual diesel exhaust (DE) emission. The enlarging of farm production areas results in longer travelling distances to plots, which cause a higher fuel consumption and annual DE emission. The aim of the present study is to explain annual DE caused by transportation of equipment and materials, depending on plot distance and tillage technology.The calculation of annual DE emission is based on on-road transportation work hoursrelated to cereal plot. In the process of composing a calculation model, all technology/technical equipment used during the whole crop year on the plot is taken into account. The model incorporates two components from the model designed by the author: the transport of field operation units (FOUs) and the transport of technological materials. The simulations include considered specific DE emissions for on-road transport of agricultural machines.The simulations show that plot distance to the farm centre and tillage technology has sig-nificant impact on annual DE emission, especially on NOX amount. The greater the distance from plot to the farm centre, the higher is the emission. The emission is lowest in the case of direct drilling and highest when conventional tillage is used. The average values for CO, NOX, HC and PM are 7.2, 44.4, 2.6 and 1.9 g ha-1 km-1 respectively, in the case of conventional tillage.

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181–186 D. Kehayov, Ch. Vezirov and At. Atanasov
Some technical aspects of cut height in wheat harvest
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Some technical aspects of cut height in wheat harvest

D. Kehayov¹, Ch. Vezirov² and At. Atanasov²

¹Agrarian University – Plovdiv, Mendeleev Street 12, 4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria;
e-mail: d2k@au-plovdiv.bg
²University of Rousse, Studentska street 8, 7017 Rousse, Bulgaria;
e-mail: vezirov@ru.acad.bg, aatanasov@ru.acad.bg

Abstract:

In order to determine the most appropriate cut height of wheat harvest, it is necessary to take into consideration not only the agronomical aspects, but some technical factors as well. In this research, the influence of cut height of harvest on the accounted losses and the fuel consumption of a combine harvester has been considered. It has been shown that the increasing of cut height up to straw-level in the threshed wheat mass 0.24 does not lead the accounted losses of the combine “CLAAS DOMINATOR – 106” over the permissible limits, without a necessity to install additional equipment on the machine. With such a technical solution, a decrease of fuel consumption of up to 30% can be achieved.

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