Tag Archives: chlorophyll

xxx J. Bazarnova, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva
A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae
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A method for obtaining plastid pigments from the biomass of Chlorella microalgae

J. Bazarnova*, Т. Kuznetsova, E. Aronova, L. Popova and E. Pochkaeva

Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Graduate School of Biotechnology and Food Science, Polytechnicheskaya, 29, RU195251, St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: j.bazarnova@spbstu.ru

Abstract:

Microalgae are distinguished from land plants by the high content of plastid pigments and the biodiversity of carotenoids. The aim of this study is to develop a technology for extracting a pigment complex from the biomass of the microalgae of the genus Chlorella and to determine the extracted pigments’ composition. To obtain biomass, a crude cell suspension of microalgae was used, which was obtained under laboratory conditions for pre-culture cultivation of C. sorokiniana (strain 211-8k). The extraction of plastid pigments from air-dry biomass after disintegration of cell membrane was performed in the 40 kHz mode. It was found that the highest pigment content in ethanol extracts was observed after 30 min (870.0 ± 27.1 mg L-1) at 45−50 °C. The pigments’ composition in the resulting total extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the Reverse Phase HPLC method. The established content of chlorophyll a in the obtained extracts was 537.5 ± 10.0 mg L-1, the content of chlorophyll b was 182.5 ± 27.5 mg L-1; the maximum output of the amount of carotenoids in extracts was 150.0 ± 10.0 mg L-1. Thus, the main identified forms of carotenoids in extracts from the biomass of microalgae C. sorokiniana were xanthophylls: lutein and fucoxanthin (18.6 and 4.7% of the amount of pigment in extract, respectively) and β-carotene (1.8% of the amount of pigment). It is planned to further fractionate the obtained total extracts of the pigment complex to obtain various forms of chlorophylls and carotenoids to study the spectrum of physiological activity of plastid pigments.

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xxx O. Ulianych, V. Yatsenko, P. Kondratenko, O. Lazariev, L. Voievoda, O. Lukianets and D. Adamenko
The influence of amino acids on the activity of antioxidant enzimes, malonic dialdehyde content and productivity of garlic (Allium Sativum L.)
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The influence of amino acids on the activity of antioxidant enzimes, malonic dialdehyde content and productivity of garlic (Allium Sativum L.)

O. Ulianych¹, V. Yatsenko¹*, P. Kondratenko², O. Lazariev¹, L. Voievoda¹, O. Lukianets¹ and D. Adamenko¹

¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Horticulture, Ecology and Plants Protection, Department of Vegetable Growing, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and Foreign Languages, Instytutska street, 1, UA20300 Uman, Ukraine
²The National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, Mykhayla Omelyanovycha-Pavlenka street, 9, UA01010 Kyiv, Ukraine
*Correspondence: slaviksklavin16@gmail.com

Abstract:

The research was carried out in 2017–2019 in the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. The results of study, the effect of spraying by certain amino acids; salicylic (300 ppm), gibberellin (150 ppm) and ascorbic acids (200 ppm) on garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants are presented in the article. It was found that amino acid solutions improves the antioxidant state: the activities of SOD, CAT, POD, GR, GST in treated leaves tended to increase, the activity of SOD was higher than the control of 7.5–15.0%; CAT (27.4–45.9%); POD (7.0–83.0%); GR (5.4–49.9%); and GST (14.8–41.3%). It was noted that the content of chlorophyll a+b in the leaves significantly increased (2.6–10.8%), The use of amino acids increased the accumulation of dry matter by 1.4–4.0%. The yield increase was 1.14–2.27 t ha-1 (7.7–15.3% compared to control). The content of B vitamins in the garlic cloves was greatly influenced by gibberellic acid, where increasing the amount of B vitamins reached to 21.9% relative to control The use of salicylic and ascorbic acids increased the amount of B vitamins by 7.6 and 8.2%, respectively. The most significant increasing of C vitamin content was observed by spraying of plants with ascorbic acid (+12.5%), whereas by spraying with salicylic and gibberellic acids its content increased by 6.0 and 7.5%, respectively. In the future, the data obtained can be used to reduce the impact of abiotic factors on the physiological state and productivity of garlic plants. Also, the obtained data will serve as a theoretical basis for producers in view of the purposes for which the products are grown (for sale in fresh form, processing or storage).

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1853–1859 S. Rakutko, A. Avotiņš, K. Berzina, E. Rakutko and I. Alsina
Radiation use efficiency by tomato transplants grown under extended photoperiod
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Radiation use efficiency by tomato transplants grown under extended photoperiod

S. Rakutko¹*, A. Avotiņš², K. Berzina², E. Rakutko¹ and I. Alsina³

¹Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, branch in Saint Petersburg, Filtrovskoje Shosse, 3, p.o. Tiarlevo, RU196625 Saint Petersburg, Russia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Kalku street 1, LV-1658 Riga, Latvia
³Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant and Soil Science, Liela street 2, LV–3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: sergej1964@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The study focused on the effect of an extended photoperiod on the radiation use efficiency (RUE) by the tomato transplants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in the pre–reproductive period. In two consecutive series of experiments, the photoperiod was 16 and 22 hours. The photon irradiance at the plant tops was maintained at low, medium and high levels: 100, 170 and 240 μmol m–2 s–1, respectively. The plants were grown under two lighting systems with different light quality. The difference was 7% higher blue flux share in Spectrum II. The use of an extended photoperiod, especially in combination with high irradiance level, resulted in the plant leaf chlorosis. When varying the radiation dose components, the deviation from the reciprocity law was recorded. By the analysis results, the chlorophyll degradation was a response to the extended photoperiod rather than the radiation dose. Without additional blue flux, under a regular photoperiod, RUE reduced by 8% at the high irradiance level. Under extended photoperiod, the shift from the low to high irradiance level reduced RUE by 20–37%, with bigger reduction values being observed at higher irradiance levels. Seven percent addition of blue flux made it possible to increase RUE by 5–8% at the same and lower irradiance levels and under the regular photoperiod. With the extended photoperiod under these conditions, RUE decreased by 8–21%. The study results verify a great influence of an extended photoperiod on RUE, while the degree of influence depends on other parameters of light environment – light quality and irradiance level.

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206–219 V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva, K.V. Mazur and I.M. Didur
Influence of the assimilation apparatus and productivity of white lupine plants
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Influence of the assimilation apparatus and productivity of white lupine plants

V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva*, K.V. Mazur and I.M. Didur

Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, Soniachna street 3, UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine,
*Correspondence: pantsyreva@vsau.vin.ua

Abstract:

Artificial regulation of the growth and development of cultivated plants aimed to increase biological productivity and improve the quality of eco-friendly products is an important goal of modern agricultural production. Application of the natural growth stimulators and bacterial agents is quite relevant and effective. The field research was conducted on the basis of the research farm ‘Agronomichne’ of Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, village Agronomichne, Vinnytsa district, Vinnytsia region, Ukraine. Features of the growth and development of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) plants are examined. There has been established a positive effect of the combination of inoculation with the bacterial agent and growth stimulator on the productivity of white lupine, which is important for the formation of high and stable yields. The papers presents the results of studies on the effect of pre-sowing seed treatment and foliar nutrion under conditions of the right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine on the assimilation apparatus of white lupine plants. It has been established that bacterial agents and growth stimulators increase white lupine productivity due to optimization of the studied technological methods of cultivation. The optimal leaf surface area that provided maximum grain yield has been determined. The research has established a positive effect of pre-sowing seed treatment with the bacterial agent Rhizohumin and the growth stimulator Emistym C and foliar nutrition with Emistym C on the chlorophyll content in the white lupine leaves. The influence of the investigated technological methods on the formation of the assimilation surface area and chlorophyll synthesis in the leaves of white lupine has been proved. The preparations studied induce intensive development of the photosynthetic apparatus, yield increase, improvement of the yield structure and they improve grain quality under conditions of right-bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. The issue of seed bacterization and application of growth stimulators requires a more detailed study. Therefore, such researches are relevant and significance in terms of both practical and scientific value.

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1660-1667 A. Heydarian, H.R. Tohidi Moghadam, T.W. Donath and M. Sohrabi
Study of effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices) fungus on wheat under nickel stress
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Study of effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (Glomus intraradices) fungus on wheat under nickel stress

A. Heydarian¹, H.R. Tohidi Moghadam¹, T.W. Donath² and M. Sohrabi²*

¹Islamic Azad University Varamin- Pishva Branch, Department of Agronomy, IR 33817-74895, Varamin, Iran
²Kiel University, Department of Landscape Ecology, Institute for Natural Resource Conservation, Olshausenstr. 75, DE24118 Kiel, Germany
*Correspondence: msohrabi@ecology.uni-kiel.de

Abstract:

In many regions of the world soils are contaminated with heavy metals and therefore restricted in their use. For instance, the absorption of nickel (Ni) in the tissue of plants increase the plant’s metabolism and cause physiological disorders or even death. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are known to enhance the tolerance of host plants to abiotic and biotic stress. Thus, we investigated the potential of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices to mitigate deleterious effects of Ni in wheat. The experiment was conducted using four levels of Ni (0, 60, 120 and 180 mg per kg of soil) and two levels of mycorrhizal fungi application (with and without Glomus intraradices). Nickel stress significantly decreased seed number per spike, thousand-seed weight, seed yield per plant, concentration of chlorophyll a and b. At the same time, we found increased catalase (CAT) enzyme activity and dityrosine (DT) treatments. Mycorrhizal fungi application attenuated Ni effects, i.e. fungal presence increased seed number per spike, thousand-seed weight, chlorophyll a and b. Furthermore mycorrhizal fungi application reduce CAT enzyme activity and DT. In general, our results suggest that mycorrhizal fungi application reduces harmful effects of Ni stress in wheat.

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309–316 I. Alsiņa, M. Dūma, L. Dubova, A. Šenberga and S. Daģis
Comparison of different chlorophylls determination methods for leafy vegetables
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Comparison of different chlorophylls determination methods for leafy vegetables

I. Alsiņa¹*, M. Dūma², L. Dubova¹, A. Šenberga¹ and S. Daģis³

¹Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Plant and Soil
Sciences, Strazdu 1, LV-3004 Jelgava, Latvia
²Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Food Technology, Department of
Chemistry, Liela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
³Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Information Technologies, Liela 2,
LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: Ina.Alsina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Modern agricultural farming requires precise, quick and nondestructive methods for determination of basic plant physiological parameters. One of the widely used and informative parameters is chlorophyll content in plant leaves. Determination of chlorophyll content by nondestructive methods is well elaborated for main field crops, but these methods are not widely used for chlorophyll content determination in leafy vegetables. The aim of the study was to compare two nondestructive methods with a classic biochemical chlorophylls determination method. Pigment content was expressed regarding to the leaf weight and leaf area. For nondestructive chlorophyll determination were used: a low cost handheld chlorophyll meter atLEAF+ and Miniature Leaf Spectrometer CI-710 (CID- Bio-Science). Chlorophylls content was determined using one of the 21 indices incorporated in Cl-710. For comparison of methods four different plant species (lettuce, leaf mustard, radish and cabbage) were used. Plants were grown at four illumination conditions – natural light, illumination supplemented with red, blue and mixed red/blue LED light. Results showed that at the majority of the investigated wavelengths, readings of the chlorophyll meter atLEAF+ and indices used for calculation are more sensitive to chlorophyll a content calculated per unit area. The maximum sensitivity of reflectance to variation with pigment content is found at 605 nm and 696 nm and in the near infrared region (740–930 nm). Higher correlation between non-destructive methods and biochemical analyses was observed in radish and leaf mustard leaves. The highest correlation coefficient was obtained with Difference Vegetation Reflectance index (NDVI) and Simple Ratio Pigment Index (SRPI). Nondestructive chlorophyll determination with chlorophyll meter atLEAF+ and Miniature Leaf Spectrometer CI-710 can completely replace biochemical analyses.

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501-507 R. Vicente1,2, R. Morcuende1 and J. Babiano2
Differences in Rubisco and Chlorophyll Content among Tissues and Growth Stages in Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Varieties
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Differences in Rubisco and Chlorophyll Content among Tissues and Growth Stages in Two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Varieties

R. Vicente1,2, R. Morcuende1 and J. Babiano2

1Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca, IRNASA–CSIC, Apartado 257, 37071 Salamanca, Spain; e-mails: ruben.vicente@irnasa.csic.es; rosa.morcuende@irnasa.csic.es
2University of Salamanca, Department of Plant Physiology, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37008 Salamanca, Spain; e-mail: babiano@usal.es

Abstract:

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) is a key enzyme in the photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 and the most abundant leaf protein. The amounts ofchlorophyll (chl) and Rubisco have often been considered, respectively, as indices of light harvesting and Calvin cycle capacities of leaves. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in chlorophyll content and the level of Rubisco protein in various plant tissues at different growth stages in two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties. The results show an increase of the amount of both chlorophyll and Rubisco protein at vegetative growth stages (leaf expansion), which was followed by a gradual decline during anthesis, probably as a consequence of changes in the balance of their synthesis and degradation reported previously –Rubisco could be remobilized and reused in the production of reproductive structures. However, the increase in the amount of Rubisco and chlorophyll at ripening stage (more in Tres Cantos variety) contrasts with the decrease reported in other studies when degradation is becoming predominant during senescence.

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517-529 T. Łoboda and E. Wołejko
Effect of pH and Al3+ concentration on growth of spring brewer’s barley
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Effect of pH and Al3+ concentration on growth of spring brewer’s barley

T. Łoboda¹ and E. Wołejko²

¹ Sanitary Biology and Biotechnology Department, Bialystok Technical University, Wiejska45E, 15-351, Bialystok, Poland; e-mail: lobodat@vp.pl
² Institute of Agriculture, Suwalki Higher Vocational School, Noniewicza 10, 16-400 Suwalki,Poland; e-mail: elzbietawolejko@wp.pl

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to check reaction of spring brewer’s barley seedlings to the pH and aluminium concentration of the growing medium. Seedlings of four cultivars of barley (Madonna, Orthega, Philadelphia and Rasbet) were grown at 4 levels of pH (3, 4, 5 and 6) and under 3 doses of Al3+ (0, 150 and 300 µmol dm-3). Significant differences in dry matter of roots and shoots were found for the studied cultivars and plants grown at different pH and concentrations of Al3+. Cv. Madonna had the highest tolerance to aluminium ions at low pH (3 and 4) of the medium and also the highest chlorophyll content in the leaves among those studied. With an increase of aluminium concentration, phosphorus content in dry matter of the leaves decreased from 0.66% in control plants to 0.52% under 300 μmol Al3+ dm-3 and the magnesium content decreased from 0.16% in control to 0.12% under 150 μmol Al3+ dm-3 and 0.10% under 300 μmol Al3+ dm-3.

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