Tag Archives: climate change

579–594 A. Széles, and L. Huzsvai
Modelling the effect of sowing date on the emergence, silking and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in a moderately warm and dry production area
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Modelling the effect of sowing date on the emergence, silking and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in a moderately warm and dry production area

A. Széles¹,* and L. Huzsvai²

¹University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology, Böszörményi út 138, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary
²University of Debrecen, Faculty of Economics and Business, Institute of Statistics and Methodology, Böszörményi str. 138, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary

Abstract:

This research focused on accurately modelling emergence (VEEmergence) and silking (R1) dates using 5 cm deep soil temperature (ST) and how sowing date (SD) affects VEEmergence and R1 date of different maturity hybrids and which is the optimum sowing date in the changed climate. Three sowing dates were used between 4th April and 10th May. The same maize hybrids (FAO 290, FAO 350, FAO 420) were involved in the experiment between 2011–2013. The 5 cm deep soil temperature could be used for simulating the date of VEEmergence and R1 and the Percentage of Predicted Deviation (PD) was below 10%. When calculating the effective heat units (HU) at 5 cm depth, setting 6 °C as base temperature leads to better modelling. SD did not clearly affect yield since due to the influence of genotype and crop years. The FAO 290 hybrid had the lowest yield (11.534 t ha-1) and it responded sensitively to sowing date. Its highest yield (12.788 t ha-1; P < 0.05) could be obtained with SD3. FAO 350 and FAO 420 hybrids provided stable yields without any significant effect of SD. The highest yield was provided by the FAO 420 hybrid (13.494 t ha-1) with a wide SD interval (4th April – 10th May). The obtained findings help farmers in making grounded decisions to obtain high and stable yield under the changed climatic circumstances. The obtained findings help farmers in making grounded decisions to obtain high and stable yield under the changed climatic circumstances.

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1665–1678 A. Kubule, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece
Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling
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Modelling of the bioeconomy system using interpretive structural modelling

A. Kubule*, Z. Indzere and I. Muizniece

Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Azenes iela 12/1, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: anna.kubule@rtu.lv

Abstract:

Due to European and global resource efficiency efforts, the bioeconomy research and the search for new bioresource valorisation alternatives has become topical. Bioeconomy directly concerns such major sectors of the economy as agriculture, forestry, fishery, as well as other indirect bioeconomy sectors. However, the practical implementation of bioeconomy has had quite low implementation rate, which is partly caused by the multitude and variety of factors that affect the bioeconomy system. This paper evaluates seven bioeconomy affecting factors (particularly related to biotechonomy concept) and links between them in order to promote successful implementation of bioeconomy. To evaluate these factors interpretive structural modelling method (ISM) is used. The application of ISM method allows to not only identify the factor interaction links, but also to graphically represent their directed structure. The results show that three out of seven factors have the strongest interrelation, namely, climate change, bioresources and technologies. This research can be complimented by further adding other factors that could be influencing for bioeconomy development, for example, financial resources, human health, well-being, and so on; therefore, to reach better understanding about influential factors and bioeconomy dependency on them; also, system dynamics approach could be used in order to fully uncover the factor interaction links.

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123–132 M. Giolo , A. Dalla Montà, E. Barolo, F. Ferrari, R. Masin and S. Macolino
High-temperature effects on seed germination of fourteen Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars
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High-temperature effects on seed germination of fourteen Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars

M. Giolo¹ ³, A. Dalla Montà¹, E. Barolo¹, F. Ferrari², R. Masin³ and S. Macolino³

¹Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Via Ca' Nova Zampieri 37, IT 37057 S.G. Lupatoto (VR), Italy
²Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Via Emilia km 307 19, IT 26838 Tavazzano (Lodi), Italy
³Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and Environment, Padova University, Viale dell’Università 16, IT 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
*Correspondence: roberta.masin@unipd.it

Abstract:

Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a perennial cool-season grass commonly used for sport and ornamental turfgrasses in transition zones. It is a rather difficult species to establish due to slow germination and the relatively moderate growth rate of seedlings. Early autumn is considered the best time for sowing Kentucky bluegrass in temperate regions. Spring sowing is not recommended as low soil moisture and high temperatures can have a negative impact on germination. However, unavoidable circumstances often force turfgrasses to be sown in spring with high probability of failure. The risk of failure may increase in the near future as a consequence of climate change, so more knowledge is required on the ability of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars to germinate at high temperatures. A laboratory study evaluated the germination response of fourteen cultivars selected among those most used in northern Italy. They were compared in a conditioning chamber under five regimes of alternating temperatures (20/30 °C, 23/33 °C, 26/36 °C, 29/39 °C, 32/42 °C). Germination was recorded weekly starting from sowing. The germination patterns were similar up to 26/36 °C. At 29/39 °C only five cultivars had a germination of over 50%. At the highest temperature regime none of the cultivars had more than 3% germination. It is concluded that only when very extreme high temperatures occur, growers need to pay attention to the choice of cultivars to avoid problems during the germination-emergence phase, but based on the climate change scenario this is likely to happen with greater frequency in the future.

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385-396 G. Várallyay
The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management
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The impact of climate change on soils and on their water management

G. Várallyay

Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (RISSAC) of theHungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest; e-mail: g.varallyay@rissac.hu

Abstract:

Human activities result in changes in the global environment, sometimes with severe consequences for our future life. Changes in the gas composition of the atmosphere – partly due to CO2 and ‘greenhouse gases’ emission – may lead to a rise in temperature with high spatial and temporal variability, to alterations in the global circulation processes, and to a serious rearrangement of atmospheric precipitation, increasing aridity in some locations. These modifications are reflected sensitively by ecosystems (natural vegetation and land use pattern) and by considerable alterations in soil formation and degradation processes, in soil properties and soil functions.The potential impacts of the forecasted climate change reservoirs are briefly summarizedin the present paper with special regard to soil water management, soil moisture regime and their influences on the main soil degradation processes. Based on this analysis, conclusions are drawn regarding the possibilities of sustainable soil moisture and the required measures of rational control: increasing water use efficiency; reducing evaporation, surface runoff, seepage and filtration losses; increasing water storage capacity and available moisture range of soils.

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49–62 M. Kruus
The greenhouse effect and moths’ response to it.
I. How to compare climatic and insect phenology databases?

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The greenhouse effect and moths’ response to it.
I. How to compare climatic and insect phenology databases?

M. Kruus

Institute of Plant Protection, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia, e-mail: gothica@online.ee

Abstract:

At present it has been firmly established that climate can be influenced by both natural forces and human activities. It is generally accepted that an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere results in the warming of the Earth’s surface. Recent changes in the European fauna of Lepidoptera have been considered as a northward shift of entire distribution areas, caused by global warming. Northern territories are invaded by temperate species, and  the process seemingly has a cyclic nature. An invasion of a new species is often followed by a rapid growth of its population and followed by its penetration into the neighbouring areas.

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