Tag Archives: conventional farming

xxx L. Tyšer, M. Kolářová and T.T. Hoová
Occurrence of archaeophytes in agrophytocoenoses – field survey in the Czech Republic
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Occurrence of archaeophytes in agrophytocoenoses – field survey in the Czech Republic

L. Tyšer, M. Kolářová* and T.T. Hoová

Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Department of Agroecology and Crop Production, Kamýcká 129, CZ-165 00 Prague-Suchdol, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: mkolarova@af.czu.cz

Abstract:

Archaeophytes are alien plants introduced to the Czech Republic before the year 1500. Their occurrence is strongly connected with agricultural production. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of archaeophytes in arable fields in the Czech Republic in terms of applied management systems (conventional and organic farming), crops (winter cereals, spring cereals, wide-row crops) and environmental site conditions at different altitudes. In 2006–2018, a phytocoenological survey was conducted in selected farms across the Czech Republic. Totally, 180 weed species were found, of which 48.89% were considered as archaeophytes (88 species). In view of the invasive status, 5 archaeophytes were considered as invasive, the other 83 species were regarded as naturalized. The net effects of all variables studied on the occurrence of archaeophytes were statistically significant. The majority of the variation was explained by altitude, followed by crop and type of farming. Incidence of archaeophytes increases with an increasing altitude and is also related to their affinity with environmental factors. The highest occurrence of archaeophytes was found in cereals, some species, however, occur more frequently in wide row crops. The higher occurrence of archaeophytes was observed in organically managed fields.

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400-405 H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür
The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements
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The effect of differences of conventional and organic farming agrotechnical measures on the compliance of the fodder galega ‘Gale’ seed production to the certification requirements

H. Meripõld, H. Lõiveke and J. Müür

Department of Plant Sciences , Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture,13 Teaduse St.,75501 Saku, Estonia

Abstract:

Abstract Different sowing rates, row spacing, optimal and reasonable mixtures of herbicides were investigated for the seed production of the Estonian fodder galega Gale (Galega orientalis Lam.). The control of dicotyledonous weeds with herbicides is well justified in the year of sowing because the control remains insufficient in the years of seed production. However, the control of weeds in the years of seed production diminishes the expenditures for seed gathering, drying and cleaning. The control of couch grass is necessary to avoid ergot sclerotia in seed production and gives good results in the years of seed harvesting. The average seed yield of fodder galega was 259 kg ha-1 Desicant Basta 150 SL (glyfosinate-ammonium 158 g l-1) with rate of 1.0 l ha-1 was used before seed harvesting in order to dry the green parts of plants, to favour uniform ripening and to diminish the losses in seed harvesting, which gave an extra yield of 35%. Due to a higher competative ability of weeds, it is expedient to use a bigger sowing rate in the ecological farming, i.e. 10 kg ha-1.

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