Tag Archives: conventional tillage

xxx Y. Bani Khalaf, A. Aldahadha, N. Samarah, O. Migdadi and I. Musallam
Effect of zero tillage and different weeding methods on grain yield of durum wheat in semi-arid regions
Abstract |
Full text PDF (500 KB)

Effect of zero tillage and different weeding methods on grain yield of durum wheat in semi-arid regions

Y. Bani Khalaf¹, A. Aldahadha¹*, N. Samarah², O. Migdadi¹ and I. Musallam¹

¹Field Crops Directorate, National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), P.O. Box 19831, Baqa’, Jordan
²Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), P.O. Box 3030, 22110 Irbid, Jordan.
*Correspondence: abdallah.aldahadha@narc.gov.jo

Abstract:

The high grain yield of wheat is limited by the dominance of weeds, particularly wild oat. Therefore, to improve wheat yield under these conditions, a field experiment was carried out in Maru Agricultural Research Station, Jordan during 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 to investigate yield response of two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.) to different tillage and weeding treatments. The experimental design used was a split-split arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Two-tillage treatments (conventional vs. zero tillage) were applied to the main plot, two wheat varieties to sub-plot, and five weeding methods (hand weeding, broadleaf + narrow leaf herbicide, broadleaf herbicide, narrow leaf herbicide, and controls) as a sub-sub-plot. The variety ‘Umqais’ had higher plant height, biological, grain, and straw yield than the variety ‘Sham’. Hand weeding slightly increased grain yield compared with mixed herbicides (the 2,4-D plus Antelope Clodinatop- propagyl). Furthermore, mixed herbicides presented a higher grain yield than using either single herbicide. The interaction between tillage systems and weeding methods was significant in both years. The highest (P < 0.05) straw yield (5,990 kg ha-1) was obtained by hand weeding under conventional tillage in the first season while the highest grain yield (2,005 kg ha-1) was obtained by hand weeding under zero tillage in the second season. Under all weed control treatments, the variety ‘Umqais’ had higher biological, grain, and straw yields than the variety ‘Sham’ in the second season indicating that variety ‘Umqais’ performed better under dry conditions. Our results confirmed the superior of zero tillage for increasing the grain yield of the variety ‘Umqais’, and for increasing the biological and straw yields of the variety ‘Sham’ under semi-arid rainfed conditions of Jordan.

Key words:

, , , ,




2350–2358 G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov
Influence of precipitation and moisture reserves on the yield of crops under different tillage
Abstract |
Full text PDF (307 KB)

Influence of precipitation and moisture reserves on the yield of crops under different tillage

G. Mokrikov, T. Minnikova*, K. Kazeev and S. Kolesnikov

Southern Federal University, Academy of Biology and Biotechnology by D.I. Ivanovsky’s, Department of Ecology and Nature Management, av. Stachki 194/1, RU344090 Rostov on Done, Russia
*Correspondence: loko261008@yandex.ru

Abstract:

Tillage technologies that promote resource-saving and increase in the yield of agricultural crops are being increasingly involved into the agriculture of arid territories of Russian Federation. Studies of the impact of new tillage on soil quality and yield in Russian Federation are necessary owing to the high soils and climate diversity. Yield enhancement of major crops – winter wheat and sunflower – have been observed in Russian Federation in recent years. During 2014–2019 in the south of the European part of Russian Federation (Rostov region), the effect of No-Till (NT) on soil quality and yield of field crops was studied. The studies were carried out over an area of 5,500 hectares in comparison with adjacent fields, where conventional tillage (CT) of soils with mould board plowing was used. The yield of sunflower and winter wheat depended significantly on the amount of precipitation during the growing season. In 2014–2017 the use of No-Till increased the yield of winter wheat by 26–114%, of sunflower – by 27–92% as compared with farms, where the conventional tillage of soil treatment was used. No-Till helped to save motor fuel, increase yields of agricultural crops and lower the cost of winter wheat and sunflower.

Key words:

, , , , , ,




303-310 M.R. Khaledian, , J.C. Mailhol and P. Ruelle
Impacts of direct seeding into mulch on the CO2 mitigation
Abstract |
Full text PDF (152 KB)

Impacts of direct seeding into mulch on the CO2 mitigation

M.R. Khaledian¹, ²⋅*, J.C. Mailhol¹ and P. Ruelle¹

¹UMR G-EAU Irstea, BP 5095, 34196 Montpellier Cedex 05 France 2University of Guilan, P.O. Box 41635-1314, Rasht, Iran *Correspondence: mohammad.khaledian@irstea.fr

Abstract:

The development of agricultural systems with low energy input could help to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Tillage consumes nearby 50% of the direct energy in a conventional tillage system (CT). Current agricultural policies seek to promote crop production systems that minimize fossil energy input for a high level of output. One possible solution can be conservation tillage, in which tillage will be reduced or even completely eliminated, such as direct seeding into mulch (DSM). Conservation tillage can both reduce diesel consumption and sequestrate C into soil, resulting in CO2 mitigation. The present study assessed the impact of DSM on CO2 mitigation compared with CT. An experimental study has been carried out at Lavalette experimental station in Montpellier in south-east France. The diesel consumption for field operations was measured in both DSM and CT. Soil C concentration was also measured. CO2 emission was calculated considering CO2 emission from diesel combustion and organic carbon variations in soil during the field trial. The results showed that using DSM resulted in less diesel consumption compared with CT (about 50%). Furthermore, DSM increased C content of soil (1,671 kg. ha-1 year-1). The consequence of these two positive impacts of DSM resulted in considerable CO2 mitigation.

Key words:

, ,




81–90 V. Loko, E. Koik and K. Tamm
Profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia: future prospects
Abstract |
Full text PDF (197 KB)

Profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia: future prospects

V. Loko, E. Koik and K. Tamm

Department of Mechanisation, Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, 75501 Saku, Estonia; e-mail: valdek.loko@mail.ee, enno.koik@mail.ee, kalvi.tamm@neti.ee

Abstract:

The accession of Estonia to the EU and the introduction of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will increase the country’s agricultural income substantially. Nevertheless, because of the northern climatic conditions, profitability of grain and rapeseed production in Estonia may have more problems than in other EU member states. The future impact of the CAP reform on grain production is being discussed. Results of different research projects are compared and the Estonian situation is analysed. It seems that there will be incentives for producers to decrease grain area in Estonia. Economic comparison was made about three tillage and sowing technologies: direct drilling, minimum and conventional tillage. Calculation results show that direct drilling and minimum tillage give better results than conventional tillage. However, the impact of direct drilling on yield and profit is more questionable and needs further research and farming experience.  During last years, rapeseed production has increased because of its higher profitability than grain production.
Possible future WTO negotiation results may also create problems in Estonian agriculture because of the northern climatic conditions.

Key words:

, , , , ,