Effect of the Predecessor and the Nitrogen Rate on Productivity and Essential Oil Content of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) in Southeast Bulgaria
¹Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Faculty of Agronomy, 12 Mendeleev Blvd,
BG4000 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
²Fruit Growing Institute, Department of Breeding, Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, 12 Ostromila Str, BG4004 Plovdiv, Bulgaria
³K. Malkov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources, Department of Plant Genetic Resources, 2 Druzba Str., BG4122 Sadovo, Bulgaria
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is one of the most important essential oil crops on a global scale. Coriander productivity is determined by the genotype, the environmental factors, as well the agronomic practices. A field experiment was conducted in Southeast Bulgaria during three vegetation seasons (2015, 2016, and 2017). The present study aimed at analysing the influence of two crop predecessors (winter wheat and sunflower) and four nitrogen (N) levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1). Productivity elements, seed yield, and seed essential oil content of coriander (cv. Mesten drebnoploden) were under evaluation. The results obtained showed that winter wheat was a more suitable predecessor of coriander in comparison to sunflower. The highest results regarding the number of umbels per plant, the umbel’s diameter, the number of umbellets per umbel, the number of seeds per umbel, the seed weight per plant, the 1,000 seed mass, as well as the seed yield for the rate of 80 kg ha-1 of N were recorded. The highest essential oil content after applying 120 kg ha-1 of N was established. Increasing the N level from 0 to 120 kg ha-1 led to a positive and significant effect on essential oil yield. No significant differences between the N rates of 80 and 120 kg ha-1 were recorded. The received results contributed for the evaluatation of the optimum nitrogen level, as well as for the determination of a more suitable predecessor of coriander in order to obtain the highest yield of better quality in the region of Southeast Bulgaria.