Tag Archives: corn

xxx R.O. Spriazhka, V.L. Zhemoida, O.S. Makarchuk, Y.M. Dmytrenko and V.V. Bahatchenko
Selection value of initial material according to the main biochemical parameters of grain in new maize hybrids creation
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Selection value of initial material according to the main biochemical parameters of grain in new maize hybrids creation

R.O. Spriazhka¹*, V.L. Zhemoida¹, O.S. Makarchuk¹, Y.M. Dmytrenko¹ and V.V. Bahatchenko²

¹National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Agrobiological Faculty, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Seed Production them Prof. M. O. Zelensky, Heroiv Oborony Street, 13, UA03041 Kyiv, Ukraine
²Agrofirma Kolos, Vatutina Street, 18a, UA09051 Pustovarivka, Skvyrskyi district, Kyiv region, Ukraine
*Correspondence: roman.spriazhka@nubip.edu.ua

Abstract:

Increasing demand for corn grain with improved quality indicators provides grounds for creating new breeding samples that can meet the requirements of society. To achieve this goal, the breeding program included inbred lines VK13, VK69, AE801, and AE392 – sources of mutations in the gene for endosperm structure waxy and ae, respectively. The article presents experimental data on the study of corn hybrids created by crossing with these sources of gene mutations and is characterized by a high content of protein, starch, and oil in the grain, as well as yield. According to the results of laboratory and field research, hybrid combinations with high protein content in grain were identified – 13.07%; starch – 72.6%; oils – 5.83%. In field conditions, the highest yield was 9.37 t ha-1. Further research will determine the nature of the inheritance of these traits, and suggest ways of breeding work to improve grain quality.

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1888-1900 D. Rácz, B. Gila, É. Horváth, Á. Illés and A. Széles
The efficiency of nitrogen stabilizer at different soil temperatures on the physiological development and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.)
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The efficiency of nitrogen stabilizer at different soil temperatures on the physiological development and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.)

D. Rácz¹, B. Gila², É. Horváth¹, Á. Illés¹ and A. Széles¹

¹University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Land Use, Technology and Regional Development, Böszörményi út 138, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary
²University of Debrecen, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Microbiology, Egyetem tér 1, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary
*Correspondence: racz.dalma@agr.unideb.hu

Abstract:

Nitrogen (N) stabilizer containing nitrapyrin inhibitor is responsible for slowing the activity of Nitrosomonas sp. bacteria down which oxidize ammonium to nitrite ions, thus, N-loss resulting from nitrate leaching can be reduced. Although prior studies have shown its effectiveness in the pre-sowing application in maize, considering that it disturbs the activity of Nitrosomonas bacteria which is the most intense between 25 °C and 30 °C, soil temperature may significantly influence the efficiency of nitrapyrin. Besides, nitrapyrin aims to enhance N-use efficiency in high N-demanding plants, such as maize, which demands N at the most during stalk elongation, which lays down the reason for its subsequent application. This study focuses on the efficiency of nitrapyrin at different soil temperatures and its impacts on the physiological development and productivity of maize. In a laboratory test, 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, and 25 °C temperature soils were treated with nitrapyrin and change of nitrate content was monitored to observe the nitrification dynamic. Results show that as the soil temperature elevated, the inhibition efficiency increased. In a field experiment with maize, nitrapyrin was applied in 13 °C and 25 °C temperature soil. Results suggest the later treatment enhanced N-use efficiency, as, during the high N-demanding growth stage, more N-forms were available in the soil. This resulted in significantly higher relative chlorophyll concentration in the leaves and laboratory leaf analysis confirmed the prevention of N deficiency. Results of further measurements on parameters indicating biomass production such as root mass, stalk diameter, ear size, 1,000-kernel weight indicate that the nitrapyrin application should be timed later.

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177–182 V.A. Mazur, H.V. Pantsyreva, K.V. Mazur, R.O. Myalkovsky and O.O. Alekseev
Agroecological prospects of using corn hybrids for biogas production
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Agroecological prospects of using corn hybrids for biogas production

V.A. Mazur¹, H.V. Pantsyreva¹*, K.V. Mazur¹, R.O. Myalkovsky² and O.O. Alekseev¹

¹Vinnytsia National Agrarian University, 3, Soniachna Str., UA21008 Vinnytsia, Ukraine
²State Agrarian and Engineering University, 13, Shevchenko Str., UA32300 Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine
*Correspondence: pantsyreva@vsau.vin.ua

Abstract:

Ukraine is an agricultural country with great agricultural potential for biogas production, which is the key to fertile soils and favorable climatic conditions for energy crops, including corn. The article analyzes the experience of using biogas in Ukraine and the world, its mechanism of production. The leader in biogas production in the world is the European Union in general and Germany in particular. The total number of biogas plants in Europe exceeds 11 thousand, of which 7.2 thousand in Germany. Іnstalled biogas, which is released in the process of complex fermentation of organic waste, consists of a mixture of gases: methane – 55–75%, carbon dioxide – 23–33%, hydrogen sulfide – 7%. An important sector of renewable energy sources in biogas production is presented and the prospects for its use are determined. The energy dependence of our country on the volumes of imported natural gas is analyzed. The main aspects of biogas production are explored using renewable energy sources that are inexhaustible in our crane and the phased operation of the biogas plant is investigated. The real advantages of the need for biogas production and use in our country are outlined. Problems aimed at the development of alternative energy have been proved in order to detect environmental pollution. It has been established that in Ukraine the use of corn silage to improve the efficiency of biogas production at existing biogas stations has not been used so far. The problems of increasing the yield of corn plants have been proved not only by breeding and genetic methods, but also by cultivation technology.

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202-211 Xu Ma, R.H. Driscoll and G. Srzednicki
Development of in-store dryer model for corn for varying inlet conditions
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Development of in-store dryer model for corn for varying inlet conditions

Xu Ma, R.H. Driscoll and G. Srzednicki*

UNSW Australia, School of Chemical Engineering, Sydney NSW 2032 Australia;
*Correspondence: g.srzednicki@unsw.edu.au

Abstract:

Many thin layer drying models have been developed for constant inlet conditions. During deep bed drying, drying air conditions vary with position in the bed and also vary with time, so models developed for thin layers under constant conditions are not valid for deep bed drying analysis. A new thin layer drying rate model (called the two-layer model) is presented which allows for varying air conditions. The model was applied to corn by retro-fitting the model to Page’s mode as fitted by Li and Morey (1984). The model was then incorporated into a deep bed simulation, and the results compared with pilot plant drying data. During drying experiments, constant air conditions and varying air conditions were both tested. For constant conditions, all models gave reasonable agreement, but for varying drying conditions, the diffusion model showed an ability to respond better to changes.

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