Tag Archives: crop year

124-133 P. Fejér, A. Széles, É. Horváth, T. Rátonyi and P. Ragán
Effects of some agronomic practices on the quality of starch content of maize grains
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Effects of some agronomic practices on the quality of starch content of maize grains

P. Fejér*, A. Széles, É. Horváth, T. Rátonyi and P. Ragán

University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Land Use, Engineering and Precision Farming Technology, 138 Böszörmenyi str., HU4032 Debrecen, Hungary
*Correspondence: fejerp@agr.unideb.hu

Abstract:

The use of maize, both as main and by-product, is extremely versatile and diverse. The highest amount of carbohydrate within maize is found in the form of starch (C6H10O5)x. In terms of industrial starch, maize is the most important raw material. Fodder maize is primarily an energy source due to its high starch content, and its protein and oil content are less important. It was found that starch and protein content, which are negatively correlated with each other, are significantly affected by fertilizer doses. The experiment is located in the Hajdúság Loess Plateau, its soil is loess-based deep humus layered calcareous chernozem. The following treatments were applied in the scope of the polyfactorial experiment: Tillage: T1 = winter ploughing, T2 = strip tillage, T3 = ripping. Crop years: 2017, 2018 and 2019. Fertilization treatments: N 0 kg ha-1 P2O5 0 kg ha-1 K2O 0 kg ha-1 (control); N 80kg ha-1 P2O5 60 kg ha-1 K2O 90 kg ha-1 and N 160 kg ha-1 P2O5 60 kg ha-1 K2O 90 kg ha-1. Analysis of the nutritional component was carried out by means of a Foss Infratec TM 1241 Grain Analyser.

In terms of fertilization treatments, the highest (64.42%) maize starch content was measured for the control treatment, while the lowest starch content was recorded in the case of the 160 kg N ha-1 treatment (62.62%). The analysis of the crop year effect showed that 2018 was the most favourable year for the maize starch content of the examined samples (65.76%). Of the studied years, the lowest starch content was measured in 2017 (61.78%).

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379-384 K. Tamm
The impact of distance to the cereal plot on the annual emission of diesel exhaust caused by intra-farm transportation
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The impact of distance to the cereal plot on the annual emission of diesel exhaust caused by intra-farm transportation

K. Tamm

Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, Teaduse 13, Saku, Estonia;e-mail: kalvi.tamm@eria.ee

Abstract:

Machines and heavy-duty vehicles used in agriculture are powered almost exclusively by diesel engines. Diesel engines make a significant contribution to air pollution in most European countries. Aside from the engine properties, their use affects the annual diesel exhaust (DE) emission. The enlarging of farm production areas results in longer travelling distances to plots, which cause a higher fuel consumption and annual DE emission. The aim of the present study is to explain annual DE caused by transportation of equipment and materials, depending on plot distance and tillage technology.The calculation of annual DE emission is based on on-road transportation work hoursrelated to cereal plot. In the process of composing a calculation model, all technology/technical equipment used during the whole crop year on the plot is taken into account. The model incorporates two components from the model designed by the author: the transport of field operation units (FOUs) and the transport of technological materials. The simulations include considered specific DE emissions for on-road transport of agricultural machines.The simulations show that plot distance to the farm centre and tillage technology has sig-nificant impact on annual DE emission, especially on NOX amount. The greater the distance from plot to the farm centre, the higher is the emission. The emission is lowest in the case of direct drilling and highest when conventional tillage is used. The average values for CO, NOX, HC and PM are 7.2, 44.4, 2.6 and 1.9 g ha-1 km-1 respectively, in the case of conventional tillage.

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