Technology development of obtaining essential fatty acids from hydrobionts hydrolyzates
ITMO University, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, Lomonosov street 9, RU191002 Saint-Petersburg, Russia
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ɷ-3, 6-fatty acids from hydrobiontsare a minor component in the nutrition of European countries population. This causes a number of diseases, such as cardiovascular ones, cancer etc. There is a task of concentrating these acids in oil due to the fact that to meet their daily needs it is problematic to use large quantities of fish oil-from 15 to 20 g. Particularly rich in ɷ-3, 6-acids are wastes from the cutting of hydrobionts, containing muscle tissue and skin.
Protein hydrolysates were obtained from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss) and Atlantic herring (Clupeaharengus) wastes by the electrochemical method using electrolyzers of the original design which are allowed to be used in food industry. A technological scheme of separating of lipids from protein hydrolyzates has been developed and experimental batches of oil samples have been developed. To concentrate the fatty acids the cryoconcentration method was used. The phase transitions of the obtained lipids were studied after their cryoconcentration in the temperature range from + 15 °C to minus 40 °C in the environment of calcium chloride using a low-temperature refrigeration unit. To analyze phase transitions the plant was used, which is a container with a solution of calcium chloride cooled by a low-temperature refrigeration machine. The properties of 5 fractions of lipids formed at the time of lipid phase transitions have been identified and studied (the fractional composition, acid, iodine numbers, the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin D3 and A).
It was established that as cryoconcentration increases the concentration of PUFAs, reaching values close to 90%, which allows the resulting product to be attributed to biologically active food additives (BAA). By calculation, it was shown that to create functional food products on fish base from fish of the Gadidae family it is enough to inject 4 grams of BAA to 100 grams of the product. Organoleptic properties of food products from low-fat fish species were improved.