Tag Archives: dairy cattle

783–796 C.E.A. Oliveira, F.A. Damasceno, P.F.P. Ferraz, J.A.C. Nascimento, G.A.S. Ferraz and M. Barbari
Geostatistics applied to evaluation of thermal conditions and noise in compost dairy barns with different ventilation systems
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Geostatistics applied to evaluation of thermal conditions and noise in compost dairy barns with different ventilation systems

C.E.A. Oliveira¹, F.A. Damasceno¹*, P.F.P. Ferraz¹, J.A.C. Nascimento¹, G.A.S. Ferraz¹ and M. Barbari²

¹Federal University of Lavras, Engineering Department, BR37200-000, Lavras - Minas Gerais, Brazil
²University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@deg.ufla.br

Abstract:

The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial distribution of thermal conditions and bed variables in compost dairy barns with different ventilation systems, through the technique of geostatistics. The experiment was conducted in April 2017, in farms located in Madre de Deus, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three facilities were evaluated with different ventilation systems: natural (NV); mechanical of low volume and high speed (LVHS); and mechanical of high volume and low speed (HVLS). The interior of the premises was divided into 40 meshes equidistant points, in which air temperature, relative humidity and air speed were manually collected. Geostatistics technique was used to assess the spatial dependence of the variables. The results showed the occurrence of dependence and spatial variability of the variables evaluated. Based on thermal comfort indexes, it was concluded that dairy cows were under stress conditions during the hottest hours of the day in the three animal facilities evaluated. The results obtained allow us to understand that the thermal environment is more influenced by the ventilation system adopted.

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385–395 F.A. Damasceno, C.E.A Oliveira, G.A.S Ferraz, J.A.C Nascimento, M Barbari and P.F.P Ferraz
Spatial distribution of thermal variables, acoustics and lighting in compost dairy barn with climate control system
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Spatial distribution of thermal variables, acoustics and lighting in compost dairy barn with climate control system

F.A. Damasceno¹*, C.E.A Oliveira¹, G.A.S Ferraz¹, J.A.C Nascimento¹, M Barbari² and P.F.P Ferraz¹

¹Federal University of Lavras, Engineering Department, BR37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@deg.ufla.br

Abstract:

The main objective of this research was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the thermal variables, acoustics and lighting in climate controlled compost dairy barn. The experiment was conducted in October 2017, in a farm located in the west of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. For the study, the interior of the animal facility was divided into 120 meshes equidistant points, in which air temperature (tdb), relative humidity (RH), noise, illuminance, and air speed (Vair) were manually collected. The technique of geostatistics was used to evaluate the distribution and spatial dependence of variables. Spatial distribution maps showed the occurrence of high variability of attributes and content within the animal facility. Thermal environment variables showed alert situations throughout practically the entire facility. The noise and luminance levels were within the recommended values.

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322–332 A. Aboltins, L. Melece and J. Priekulis
Model for ammonia emissions’ assessment and comparison of various dairy cattle farming systems and technologies
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Model for ammonia emissions’ assessment and comparison of various dairy cattle farming systems and technologies

A. Aboltins¹, L. Melece²* and J. Priekulis¹

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Institute of Agricultural Machinery, Cakstes blvd.5, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Department of Economics, Struktoru str. 14, LV-1039 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: ligita.melece@arei.lv

Abstract:

A dairy cattle farming is an important source of ammonia emissions, particularly in Latvia. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. Besides, models are useful for improving the understanding of various farm processes and their interacting effects on ammonia emissions. The model for ammonia emissions’ assessing or representing, predicting and comparing for manure management chain of dairy cattle was created. The model provides a tool for evaluating mitigation and management strategies, abatement measures and techniques to reduce of ammonia emissions and improve the sustainability of dairy production systems both on the dairy farm and at the national level. It could be used as a supplement tool for officials and experts. The model estimates those ammonia abatement measures and techniques that have the highest emission reduction potential and opportunities for implementation on Latvia’s dairy farms. The simulation model assesses the ammonia emissions into each stage of the farming: animal housing, manure management – manure handling and storage, and manure application. An important stage in reducing ammonia emissions is manure storage. It should be noted that the main task of the model was to compare the impact of the ammonia emission reduction options. When entering the number of animals, the average nitrogen quantity per animal, the percentage distribution of manure quantities, the first three levels of the program can be used to estimate the amount of nitrogen to be incorporated into the soil and, as the difference; and the amount of ammonia emissions.

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900-909 D. Smiltina and Z. Grislis
Molecular genetics analysis of milk protein gene polymorphism of dairy cows and breeding bulls in Latvia
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Molecular genetics analysis of milk protein gene polymorphism of dairy cows and breeding bulls in Latvia

D. Smiltina* and Z. Grislis

Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute of Agrobiotechnology, Liela street 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: dace.smiltina@llu.lv

Abstract:

Milk protein is the most valuable component of milk from a dietary point of view. More than 95% of ruminants’ milk proteins are coded by six structural genes: two whey proteins (α – lactalbumin and β – lactoglobulin) and four caseins (αS1 – and αS2 – caseins, β – casein, κ – casein). The object of the research was the genetic polymorphisms of milk protein genes in populations of cows and breeding bulls of milk producing breeds in Latvia. The aim was to promote cow breeding in Latvia by developing and testing molecular genetics analyses for future quantity and quality analysis of the dairy cows’ population in Latvia, based on the research of genes encoding milk protein polymorphism. In methodology the molecular markers were chosen which would be suitable for characterization of polymorphism of five milk protein genes in the population of dairy cows reared in Latvia. As a genetic method chosen the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method and most analysed alleles of milk proteins. Using data of 719 DNA samples of dairy cows, the analysis of Latvian cows’ population was carried out through six SNP of five milk protein genes: CSN1S1 c.–175A > G, CSN2 – c.4451A > C, CSN3 c.11625C > T and c.11661A > C, LAA c.15A > G and LGB c.3106T > C. The results of PCR-RFLP analysis showed, as it was expected, that all genotypes were found in the populations.

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39-48 J. Frorip, E. Kokin, J. Praks, V. Poikalainen, A. Ruus, I. Veermäe, L.Lepasalu, W. Schäfer, H. Mikkola, J. Ahokas
Energy consumption in animal production – case farm study
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Energy consumption in animal production – case farm study

J. Frorip¹, E. Kokin¹, J. Praks¹, V. Poikalainen¹, A. Ruus¹, I. Veermäe¹, L.Lepasalu¹, W. Schäfer², H. Mikkola³, J. Ahokas³

¹Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, EE51014, Tartu, Estonia;
e-mail: juri@monte.ee
²MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Agricultural Engineering Research
(MTT/VAKOLA), Vakolantie 55, FI-03400 Vihti, Uusimaa, Finland;
e-mail: winfried.schafer@mtt.fi
³Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28 (Koetilantie 3),
FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland;
e-mail: Jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi; hannu.j.mikkola@helsinki.fi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to analyse the energy use by the dairy case-farm with un-insulated cowsheds in Estonia for the period of 2009-2010. The energy balance calculation includes the direct energy input of fuel, lubricants and electricity and the indirect input of forage, cereals, concentrates for young stock, dairy cattle and buildings. Energy outputs are milk, meat, and manure. The energy values were calculated multiplying the quantities of inputs and outputs by their energy conversion factors. The quantitative parameters of the inputs and outputs are based on book-keeping data, the energy conversion factors of feed were measured. The energy output-input ratio of the case-farm was 1.88 in 2009 and 1.85 in 2010. Energy input of milk was 5.4 and 5.3 per MJ kg-1, respectively. Our study indicated that the case farm energy consumption is generally higher than that of comparable European dairy farms. The further research is needed to find the reason of mentioned differences.

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216-225 V. Poikalainen, J. Praks, E. Kokin, A. Aland, I. Veermäe, S. Peets, J. Ahokas, M. Pastell, M. Hautala, D. Berckmans, C. Bahr, and D. Miljkovic
Elaboration of Basic Methods for Automatic Analysis of Cows’ Gait
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Elaboration of Basic Methods for Automatic Analysis of Cows’ Gait

V. Poikalainen¹, J. Praks¹, E. Kokin¹, A. Aland¹, I. Veermäe¹, S. Peets¹, J. Ahokas², M. Pastell², M. Hautala², D. Berckmans³, C. Bahr³, and D. Miljkovic³

1 Estonian University of Life Sciences, 1 Kreutzwaldi Str., EE51014 Tartu, Estonia
e-mail: vaino.poikalainen@emu.ee
² University of Helsinki, Department of Agrotechnology, P.O. Box 28 (Koetilantie 3),
00014 Helsinki, Finland; e-mail: Jukka.ahokas@helsinki.fi
³ Division Measure, Model & Manage Bioresponses (M3-BIORES), Katholike Universiteit
Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
e-mail: Claudia.Bahr@biw.kuleuven.be

Abstract:

Two different methods for automatic registration and analysis were used to produce data for comparison and analysis of lame and healthy animals’ gait in Estonia. A walk over mat with two quazi-piezoelectric sensors was elaborated and tested in co-operation with University of Helsinki. Preliminary analysis indicates that lameness can be seen as asymmetric gait and thus the quazi-piezoelectric walk-over mat is a promising tool for automatic leg problem detection.
A video-system was introduced to record walking pattern of cows in co-operation with Catholic University of Leuven. For video recordings three cameras were used to obtain top, side and leg views with StreamPix software video-signal capture. Possibilities of image based separation of dairy cows with real time vision system and preliminary settlement of this was developed. A model-based motion scoring system is proposed for derivation of image parameters needed for lameness detection.
About 600 cows once a week were investigated in a large dairy farm during four months’ period.
Dairy cows’ gait pattern was recorded with the aid of quazi-piezoelectric walk-over mat and video-system. Preliminary lameness scoring was performed in the cowshed visually by two experts. These scoring results were later specified by expert commission on the basis of video-recordings. Lameness scores (according to Sprecher et al) were assigned as follows: 1–6,012 cases, 2–1,181 cases, 3–522 cases, 4–105 cases and 5–37 cases from total 10,653 cases. The database of cows’ identification numbers, lameness scores and disordered legs description was created, that allows synchronization of walk-over mat signals data and video files.

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