Tag Archives: dairy cows

872–878 C.G.S. Teles Jr., R.S. Gates, M. Barbari, L. Conti, G. Rossi, M.O. Vilela, C.F.F. Souza and I.F.F. Tinôco
A software to estimate heat stress impact on dairy cattle productive performance
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A software to estimate heat stress impact on dairy cattle productive performance

C.G.S. Teles Jr.¹, R.S. Gates², M. Barbari³*, L. Conti³, G. Rossi³, M.O. Vilela¹, C.F.F. Souza¹ and I.F.F. Tinôco¹

¹Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa CEP: 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²University of Illinois, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 1304 West Pennsylvania Avenue, US61820, Urbana-IL, United States of America
³University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; carlosgutembergjr@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a computational tool, based on the Temperature and Humidity Index value, to characterize the thermal environment in dairy cattle barns and to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on productive performance. The software for the thermal environment prediction, and determination of the influence of heat stress on dairy cow productivity (Ambi + Leite) was developed using the C# programming language in the Microsoft Visual C# 2010 Express Integrated Development Environment. The following scenario was considered for the program test: air temperature 32°C, relative air humidity 70% and milk production potential in thermoneutrality condition 20 kg cow-1 day-1. The prediction of the thermal environment based on the simulated situations indicates that the animals are submitted to a moderate heat stress condition with THI equal to 82.81. In this condition a decrease of approximately 26% in milk production and a reduction of 4 kg cow-1 day-1 in food intake was calculated. In conclusion, the developed software can be a practical tool to assist the producer in making-decision processes.

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1905-1914 A. Trūpa, B. Ošmane and I.H. Konošonoka
Fodder beans and peas in the diet of dairy cows
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Fodder beans and peas in the diet of dairy cows

A. Trūpa¹*, B. Ošmane² and I.H. Konošonoka²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, Zinatnes iela 2, LV-4130 Priekuli, Priekulu parish, Priekulu district, Latvia
*Correspondence: aiga.trupa@llu.lv

Abstract:

The Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White cows were grouped into four treatments groups according to the analogue principle (n = 4 × 5). Lactating dairy cows were included in the trial in the initial lactation phase with the average milk yield of 23.00 kg per day, fat content 4.10% and 3.20% protein content in milk. The analyses of the chemical composition of legume grains show, that crude protein and undegraded intake protein (UIP) were higher in fodder beans than in peas, respectively 29.97% and 25.04% of dry matter but UIP content, respectively 40.51% and 39.69% of crude protein. There was a total of 17 amino acids detected in legume grains and soybean meal. The highest concentration of arginine, leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and isoleucine was in fodder beans, respectively 0.76%, 0.58%, 0.67%, 0.42% and 0.29% more than in peas. Even though the daily milk yields decreased for all the cow groups during the experiment, which was normal during the lactation period, yet the milk yield decreases for the trial groups. The highest total amount of amino acids in milk was detected in 3rd and 2nd trial cow groups, respectively, 4.00 g kg-1 and 3.90 g kg-1 which was fed fodder beans and peas. The milk sale and feed cost summary records for the trial that lasted 90 days show that economic efficiency of peas plus beans has been positive.

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2126–2133 J. Šimon, J. Vegricht and J. Bradna
The effect of bedding amount on gas emissions from manure during storage
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The effect of bedding amount on gas emissions from manure during storage

J. Šimon*, J. Vegricht and J. Bradna

Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: josef.simon@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

One of the major agricultural pollutants of environment is manure from livestock. We focused on dairy cows kept in the barns with straw bedding commonly used in the Czech Republic. We tested the hypothesis that the amount of bedding used daily relative to the number and size of animals kept has a significant effect on the emissions of gases from manure stored in a manure pile. In the experiment, a group of 10 dairy cows of Holstein and Czech Red Pied breed was housed in a stable bedded with various amounts of wheat straw (4–10 kg/livestock unit per day). The manure was removed from the stable after 48 h and mixed was stored in cubic containers with drain floor allowing measurement of manure leachate release. For 50 days we measured weight, volume, weight of manure leachate and manure temperature. Decreasing stored manure weight can be attributed to release of manure leachate and emissions of gases, primarily water vapor, as a result of microbial activity and increased temperature in the manure during storage. Using the calculated model, we found that daily production of emissions of water vapor and other gases was related to bedding amount in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of gas emissions grew rapidly in all treatments. Also total amount of emissions was related to bedding amount in a statistically significant manner (P = 0.004). We also found the relationship between internal manure temperature and the logarithm of the amount of emissions produced to be statistically significant (P < 0.001).

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2026–2038 B. Osmane, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina
Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows
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Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows

B. Osmane*, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina

Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.osmane@arei.lv

Abstract:

The need for alternative protein sources to soybean meal, partially or fully substituted in the diets of dairy cows, is an urgent problem in farming nowadays. Soybean meal is the most common protein source included in feed concentrate for dairy cows in Latvia and in other European countries as well. Among possible alternatives, grain legumes seem interesting for dairy cow diets because of their rapid degradation in the rumen and readily available energy. Peas and beans will be an important source of proteins in feed. Biochemical tests were done on eight samples of domestically grown dried peas of average size, 11 samples of dried beans of average size and some samples of soybean meal to examine the chemical composition of the peas and beans. Peas and beans were included in the feed ration during a feeding trial on dairy cows. Milk yields and milk quality parameters were examined in the trial. The digestibility of peas of most varieties and breeding lines examined was considerably higher than that of soybean meal, while the digestibility of beans of all the varieties and breeding lines examined and of soybean meal was the same. The peas contained more reducing sugars, starches and had a higher value of NEL than the tested beans, which meant the peas had a higher nutritional value. The diets comprising beans and peas fed to the dairy cows increased the fat and protein contents of milk, compared with the control group and the beginning of the trial. The total amount of amino acids increased in the bulk milk samples of all the trial groups during the feeding trial.

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