Tag Archives: dairy cows

xxx T. Penev, D. Dimov, I. Marinov and T. Angelova
Study of influence of heat stress on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows
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Study of influence of heat stress on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows

T. Penev¹*, D. Dimov¹, I. Marinov² and T. Angelova³

¹Trakia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Applied Ecology and Animal Hygiene, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
²Trakia University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry – Ruminants and Dairy Farming, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
³Institute of Agriculture, BG6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
*Correspondence: tonchopenev@abv.bg

Abstract:

The aim of the research was to study the effect of heat stress (HS) on some physiological and productive traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The study included 22 cows on different parities. In the building where the cows were housed, the temperature-humidity index (THI) was reported at 10:00 and 15:00 h, at the same time the rectal temperature (RT) and respiratory rate (RR) were reported for each of the examined cows. The daily rumen activity was taken from the SCR system by Allflex. The average THI values in May were 71, in June – 75, in July – 74, and in August – 77, from which it follows that in the summer months the cows were in conditions of mild to moderate heat stress throughout the day. The average daily milk yield of the cows increased from May to June and reached 41.44 kg day-1, then decreased in July and August to 37.2 and 32.48 kg day-1, respectively. With an increase in the THI values, an increase in the RR and RT was registered, as in THI above 79 the RR was 56.54 per min, and the RT was 39.33 °C. With increasing the THI values, the rumination of the cows decreased from 563 per day at THI < 72 to 542.5 at THI > 79. In cows with high daily milk yield, a higher RT was registered, and in cows with more than 50 kg per day, the RT was 39.09 °С. A more intense rumination was found in cows with higher daily milk yield. In cows with an average daily milk yield of 33.26 kg, an average of 450 ruminations per day were reported, and in those with an average milk yield of up to 42.89 kg – 650 ruminations per day. From the research conducted it was found that the studied physiological traits – rectal temperature, respiration rate and rumination are influenced by HS and the intensity of this effect depend on the daily milk yield of cows and THI levels.

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788-796 B. Fagundes, F.A. Damasceno, R.R. Andrade, J.A.O. Saraz, M. Barbari, F.A.O. Vega and J.AC. Nascimento
Comparison of airflow homogeneity in Compost Dairy Barns with different ventilation systems using the CFD model
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Comparison of airflow homogeneity in Compost Dairy Barns with different ventilation systems using the CFD model

B. Fagundes¹, F.A. Damasceno²*, R.R. Andrade³, J.A.O. Saraz⁴, M. Barbari⁵, F.A.O. Vega⁴ and J.AC. Nascimento²

¹Professional Faculty, Department of Climatization Engineering, Porto Alegre, Tocantins Street, 937, n. 8, BR91.540.420 Porto Alegre, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Department of Engineering, BR37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
⁴Univeridad Nacional de Colombia, Agrarian Faculty, Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Carrera 65 n. 59A – 110, Bloque 14 - Oficina 430, Medellin, Colombia
⁵University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: flavio.damasceno@ufla.br

Abstract:

In the pursuit of high milk productivity, producers are using confinement systems in order to improve performance and animal welfare. Among the housing systems, the Compost bedded-pack barns (CBP) stand out. In these barns a bedding area is provided inside, where cows move freely. Generally this area is covered with carbon source material (such as sawdust or fine dry wood shavings) which together with manure, thanks a regular mechanically stirring, ensures the aerobic composting process. The ventilation in these facilities has the function of dehumidifying the air, improving the air quality, drying the bedding, improving the thermal comfort conditions of the confined animals. This work aimed at validating a computational model using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to determine the best homogeneity of airflows generated by different forced ventilation systems used in CBP barns. Two CBP barns were compared with different ventilation systems: high volume low speed (HVLS) and low volume high-speed (LVHS) fans. The results showed that the proposed model was satisfactory to predict the flows generated by both types of fans. It was concluded that the use of HVLS fans produced a more homogeneous airflow when compared to LVHS fans. The use of mechanical ventilation in tropical conditions is necessary for the proper functioning of the system. In this study, the systems used promoted the increase in air speed to levels close to adequate.

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689–698 R.R. Andrade, I.F.F. Tinôco, F.A. Damasceno, M. Barbari, D.A. Valente, M.O. Vilela, C.F. Souza, L. Conti and G. Rossi
Lighting and noise levels in compost dairy barns with natural and forced ventilation
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Lighting and noise levels in compost dairy barns with natural and forced ventilation

R.R. Andrade¹*, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, F.A. Damasceno², M. Barbari³*, D.A. Valente¹, M.O. Vilela¹, C.F. Souza¹, L. Conti³ and G. Rossi³

¹Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, BR 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²Federal University of Lavras, Department of Engineering, BR37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
³University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, 50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it, rafaella.andrade@ufv.br

Abstract:

The housing system, called compost barn, is attracting the interest of several farmers. It allows dairy cows to remain in free movement inside a shed without any containment partitions like those used in freestall barns. In Brazil the compost barns with open sides are very common, but recently some closed barns with climatic control systems have been implemented. The objective of this work was to evaluate and compare lighting and noise levels in an open compost barn with natural ventilation and in a closed compost barn with a climate control system. The latter one is based on tunnel ventilation: inlet of air trough evaporative cellulose panels and exit through fans placed on the opposite wall. Through analysis of the collected data it was observed that the sound pressure recorded inside both analysed buildings did not exceed the ranges of noise discomfort recommended for the rearing of animals. However, the sound pressure amplitude inside the barn with climate control system was greater than in the open barn. The light intensity was significantly lower in the closed barn when compared to the open barn (84.96 and 1,413.58 lx, respectively). The artificial lighting system distributed throughout the closed barn was not sufficient to maintain brightness within the recommended range for lactating cows. In addition, it was found that in the closed building with forced ventilation, the highest brightness values are located near the exhaust fans.

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1547–1555 D.A. Valente, C.F. Souza, R.R. Andrade, I.F.F. Tinôco, F.C. Sousa and G. Rossi
Comparative analysis of performance by cows confined in different typologies of compost barns
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Comparative analysis of performance by cows confined in different typologies of compost barns

D.A. Valente¹*, C.F. Souza¹, R.R. Andrade¹, I.F.F. Tinôco¹, F.C. Sousa¹ and G. Rossi²*

¹University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa, CEP: 36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13. IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: desiree.valente@ufv.br; giuseppe.rossi@unifi.it

Abstract:

The compost barn system was designed to be a sustainable alternative housing system for dairy cows. In order to help producers in the region to choose the best type of facility from the point of view of the milk production of the animals, this study compared the productivity of cows confined in an open composting barn with natural ventilation and in a closed composting barn with negative pressure ventilation and evaporative cooling panels. The temperature and relative humidity of the air were monitored, as well as the milk production of the animals housed in the facilities, and THI (Temperature and Humidity Index) were calculated. During the trials, the maximum daily temperatures of the air reached values around 27 °C and the THI remained within the normal range of up to 70. The average productivity remained in the general pattern described in the literature from 23 to 44 kg of milk cow-1 day-1, with lower rates obtained in the closed house. As the variation of the index used to describe the internal environment was not significant, it can be inferred that climatic elements as temperature and air humidity, under the conditions analyzed were not the main factors influencing the productivity rates of dairy cattle. In conclusion, under the analysed conditions the use of a closed barn with negative pressure ventilation is hardly justified as a plant that favoured the productivity of the confined cows.

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872–878 C.G.S. Teles Jr., R.S. Gates, M. Barbari, L. Conti, G. Rossi, M.O. Vilela, C.F.F. Souza and I.F.F. Tinôco
A software to estimate heat stress impact on dairy cattle productive performance
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A software to estimate heat stress impact on dairy cattle productive performance

C.G.S. Teles Jr.¹, R.S. Gates², M. Barbari³*, L. Conti³, G. Rossi³, M.O. Vilela¹, C.F.F. Souza¹ and I.F.F. Tinôco¹

¹Federal University of Viçosa, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n Campus University of Viçosa CEP: 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²University of Illinois, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 1304 West Pennsylvania Avenue, US61820, Urbana-IL, United States of America
³University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: matteo.barbari@unifi.it; carlosgutembergjr@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a computational tool, based on the Temperature and Humidity Index value, to characterize the thermal environment in dairy cattle barns and to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on productive performance. The software for the thermal environment prediction, and determination of the influence of heat stress on dairy cow productivity (Ambi + Leite) was developed using the C# programming language in the Microsoft Visual C# 2010 Express Integrated Development Environment. The following scenario was considered for the program test: air temperature 32°C, relative air humidity 70% and milk production potential in thermoneutrality condition 20 kg cow-1 day-1. The prediction of the thermal environment based on the simulated situations indicates that the animals are submitted to a moderate heat stress condition with THI equal to 82.81. In this condition a decrease of approximately 26% in milk production and a reduction of 4 kg cow-1 day-1 in food intake was calculated. In conclusion, the developed software can be a practical tool to assist the producer in making-decision processes.

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1905-1914 A. Trūpa, B. Ošmane and I.H. Konošonoka
Fodder beans and peas in the diet of dairy cows
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Fodder beans and peas in the diet of dairy cows

A. Trūpa¹*, B. Ošmane² and I.H. Konošonoka²

¹Latvia University of Life Sciences and Technologies, Liela iela 2, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
²Institute of Agricultural Resources and Economics, Priekuli Research Centre, Zinatnes iela 2, LV-4130 Priekuli, Priekulu parish, Priekulu district, Latvia
*Correspondence: aiga.trupa@llu.lv

Abstract:

The Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White cows were grouped into four treatments groups according to the analogue principle (n = 4 × 5). Lactating dairy cows were included in the trial in the initial lactation phase with the average milk yield of 23.00 kg per day, fat content 4.10% and 3.20% protein content in milk. The analyses of the chemical composition of legume grains show, that crude protein and undegraded intake protein (UIP) were higher in fodder beans than in peas, respectively 29.97% and 25.04% of dry matter but UIP content, respectively 40.51% and 39.69% of crude protein. There was a total of 17 amino acids detected in legume grains and soybean meal. The highest concentration of arginine, leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and isoleucine was in fodder beans, respectively 0.76%, 0.58%, 0.67%, 0.42% and 0.29% more than in peas. Even though the daily milk yields decreased for all the cow groups during the experiment, which was normal during the lactation period, yet the milk yield decreases for the trial groups. The highest total amount of amino acids in milk was detected in 3rd and 2nd trial cow groups, respectively, 4.00 g kg-1 and 3.90 g kg-1 which was fed fodder beans and peas. The milk sale and feed cost summary records for the trial that lasted 90 days show that economic efficiency of peas plus beans has been positive.

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2126–2133 J. Šimon, J. Vegricht and J. Bradna
The effect of bedding amount on gas emissions from manure during storage
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The effect of bedding amount on gas emissions from manure during storage

J. Šimon*, J. Vegricht and J. Bradna

Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Drnovská 507, CZ161 01 Prague 6, Czech Republic
*Correspondence: josef.simon@vuzt.cz

Abstract:

One of the major agricultural pollutants of environment is manure from livestock. We focused on dairy cows kept in the barns with straw bedding commonly used in the Czech Republic. We tested the hypothesis that the amount of bedding used daily relative to the number and size of animals kept has a significant effect on the emissions of gases from manure stored in a manure pile. In the experiment, a group of 10 dairy cows of Holstein and Czech Red Pied breed was housed in a stable bedded with various amounts of wheat straw (4–10 kg/livestock unit per day). The manure was removed from the stable after 48 h and mixed was stored in cubic containers with drain floor allowing measurement of manure leachate release. For 50 days we measured weight, volume, weight of manure leachate and manure temperature. Decreasing stored manure weight can be attributed to release of manure leachate and emissions of gases, primarily water vapor, as a result of microbial activity and increased temperature in the manure during storage. Using the calculated model, we found that daily production of emissions of water vapor and other gases was related to bedding amount in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of gas emissions grew rapidly in all treatments. Also total amount of emissions was related to bedding amount in a statistically significant manner (P = 0.004). We also found the relationship between internal manure temperature and the logarithm of the amount of emissions produced to be statistically significant (P < 0.001).

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2026–2038 B. Osmane, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina
Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows
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Peas and beans as a protein feed for dairy cows

B. Osmane*, I.H. Konosonoka, A. Trupa and L. Proskina

Latvia University of Agriculture, Svetes street 18, LV-3001 Jelgava, Latvia
*Correspondence: baiba.osmane@arei.lv

Abstract:

The need for alternative protein sources to soybean meal, partially or fully substituted in the diets of dairy cows, is an urgent problem in farming nowadays. Soybean meal is the most common protein source included in feed concentrate for dairy cows in Latvia and in other European countries as well. Among possible alternatives, grain legumes seem interesting for dairy cow diets because of their rapid degradation in the rumen and readily available energy. Peas and beans will be an important source of proteins in feed. Biochemical tests were done on eight samples of domestically grown dried peas of average size, 11 samples of dried beans of average size and some samples of soybean meal to examine the chemical composition of the peas and beans. Peas and beans were included in the feed ration during a feeding trial on dairy cows. Milk yields and milk quality parameters were examined in the trial. The digestibility of peas of most varieties and breeding lines examined was considerably higher than that of soybean meal, while the digestibility of beans of all the varieties and breeding lines examined and of soybean meal was the same. The peas contained more reducing sugars, starches and had a higher value of NEL than the tested beans, which meant the peas had a higher nutritional value. The diets comprising beans and peas fed to the dairy cows increased the fat and protein contents of milk, compared with the control group and the beginning of the trial. The total amount of amino acids increased in the bulk milk samples of all the trial groups during the feeding trial.

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