Tag Archives: Disease resistance

1791-1812 L.E. Kolesnikov, N.S. Priyatkin, M.V. Arkhipov, I.E. Razumova, D.Yu. Radishevskiy and Yu.R. Kolesnikova
Influence of the structural and functional characteristics of the seeding material on the yield structure elements and resistance to leaf diseases of spring soft wheat
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Influence of the structural and functional characteristics of the seeding material on the yield structure elements and resistance to leaf diseases of spring soft wheat

L.E. Kolesnikov¹*, N.S. Priyatkin², M.V. Arkhipov², I.E. Razumova¹, D.Yu. Radishevskiy¹ and Yu.R. Kolesnikova³

¹Saint–Petersburg State Agrarian University, Faculty of Agrotechnologies, Soil science
and Ecology, Department of Plant Protection and Quarantine, Petersburgskoe Shosse, 2,
RU196601 St-Petersburg - Pushkin, Russia
²Agrophysical Research Institute (ARI), plant biophysics division, Grazhdanskiy ave. 14,
RU195220 St-Petersburg, Russia
³Federal Research Center N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources
(VIR), genetic resource of wheat department, plant introduction department, Bolshaya
Morskaya ul. 42–44, RU190000, St-Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: kleon9@yandex.ru

Abstract:

The high-quality grain use when sowing is a necessary condition for obtaining a high yield. Along with the standard tests regulated by the ISTA (International Seed Testing Association), there are promising introscopic techniques for the seed material quality controlling – methods of microfocus radiography and gas discharge visualization (electrophotography). The effect of structural and functional characteristics of the seeding material on the wheat productivity and diseases resistance was studied out on the experimental field of the Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources. Ten accessions of soft wheat with the ‘parametric passport’ (including more than thirty optical parameters, including gas discharge images, morpho- and densitometric analysis of X-ray patterns) were used as an experimental seeding material. Unviable wheat seeds, in comparison with healthy ones, were characterized mainly by a smaller area, form coefficient, standard deviation of three-dimensional fractality by isoline, entropy by isoline, higher brightness and standard deviation of the isoline radius of the gas discharge images. Morpho- and densitometric indices of unviable seeds differed in reduced values of the circle factor, roundness, minimum and maximum average brightness, but in greater elongation and optical density of the X-ray patterns projection. The intensity of wheat affection by diseases has varied depending on the structural and functional characteristics of seeds. It was noted, that the brown rust development decreased with an increase in the entropy by isoline, the contour irregularity and the average radius of the isoline.

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2727–2742 N. Krasova,, L. Ikase and D. Dēķena
Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia
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Evaluation of the main biological and production traits of Latvian apple cultivars in the conditions of Central Russia

N. Krasova¹,*, L. Ikase² and D. Dēķena²

¹All-Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding, VNIISPK, Zhilina, Orel district, RU302530 Orel oblast, Russia
²Institute of Horticulture, Graudu 1, Cerini, Krimunu pag., LV-3701 Dobeles nov., Latvia

Abstract:

Apple selections of Latvian breeding were evaluated in the Central zone of Russia since 1980, in total 32 cultivars and hybrids. After long-term evaluation, the following can be recommended for use in breeding of scab resistant cultivars with high quality fruits – ‘Dace’ (gene Rvi6), ‘Arona’, and good storage – ‘Edite’ (Rvi6), ‘Forele’, ‘Olga’, ‘Маdоna’, for breeding of early cultivars – ‘Roberts’ and DI-93-4-8, both resistant to scab (gene Rvi6) and fruit rots. Cultivars and hybrids with the best cold resistance of vital tissues were selected by artificially modelling winter-hardiness components − early colds (1st component) and mid-winter colds up to -38 °C (2nd component), showing reversible damages not exceeding 2.0 points: ‘Daina’, ‘Ella’, ‘Atmoda’, ‘Gita’, ‘Saiva’, of which the last 3 maintained high hardiness of bark, cambium and xylem with slight increase of bud damages also at -40 °C. Cultivars ‘Daina’ and ‘Ella’ showed resistance of buds and vital tissues on the level of ‘Antonovka’ after modelling a thaw with following freezing to -25 °С (3rd component), which suggests tolerance to fluctuating winter temperatures. These cultivars demonstrated good adaptation to different environment conditions and may be considered in breeding of new adaptive apple cultivars with high fruit quality.

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721-728 G. Statkevičiūtė and A. Leistrumaitė
Modern varieties of spring barley as a genetic resource for disease resistance breeding
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Modern varieties of spring barley as a genetic resource for disease resistance breeding

G. Statkevičiūtė and A. Leistrumaitė

Cereal Breeding Department, Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre forAgriculture and Forestry, Instituto av. 1, Akademija, Kedainiai distr., LT 58344,Lithuania; e-mail: grazinastat@lzi.lt

Abstract:

The large variation in net blotch resistance is observed among barley germplasm, but the range of European commercial cultivars of spring barley have various degree of susceptibility. This study was designed to test 150 West European ecotype spring barley varieties and breeding lines in the field for resistance to net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and to provide information for a successful resistance–breeding program in spring barley under Lithuanian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Agriculture of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. The effectiveness of different methods of artificial inoculation was also tested. About 50 varieties with net blotch resistance level ranging from resistant/moderately resistant to susceptible were chosen for agro-biological trait evaluation. Increased net blotch infection had a negative impact on ear length, number of spikelets and number of grains in the ear in 2007. No significant effects on these traits were found in 2009, but increased net blotch level caused significantly lower grain weight per ear. Artificial inoculation using chopped straw of susceptible varieties is more likely to give desirable effects on infection level. The varieties ‘Luokė’, ‘Otis’, ‘Anni’, ‘Landora’, ‘Beatrix’ possessed the highest resistance to net blotch, and the varieties ‘Marnie’ and ‘Isotta’ exhibited good resistance to powdery mildew. The variety ‘Acrobat’ was resistant to both diseases.

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528-531 K. Tiirmaa, T. Univer and N. Univer
The evaluation of scab resistant apple cultivars in Estonia
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The evaluation of scab resistant apple cultivars in Estonia

K. Tiirmaa, T. Univer and N. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciencesof Estonian University of Life Sciences, Polli, 69108, Viljandimaa, Estonia;e-mail: krista.tiirmaa@emu.ee

Abstract:

At Polli Horticultural Research Centre currently over 400 apple accessions are being maintained, including 47 local cultivars and 14 scab resistant cultivars. Cultivars „Imrus‟, „Chistotel‟, „Orlovim‟, „Pamyat Issayeva‟, „Pervinka‟, „Pioner Orlovski‟ and „Slavyanin‟ were introduced from the All-Russian Research Institute of Breeding of Horticultural Crops at Orel. Cultivars were assessed for tree phenology stage, weight of the fruit, yield per tree, occurrence of apple scab and the biochemical content of the fruit. No scab infections were found on these cultivars during the evaluation years at Polli. „Orlovim‟ was the earliest and „Pioner Orlovski‟ the latest bloomer. „Chistotel‟ and „Slavyanin‟ achieved the highest yield per tree. „Pamyat Issayeva‟ and „Pervinka‟ gave the largest fruits. All 7 cultivars possessed relatively high levels of acidity and because of that they are not best suited for fresh consumption.

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413-416 K. Tiirmaa, N. Univer and T. Univer
Evaluation of apple cultivars for scab resistance in Estonia
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Evaluation of apple cultivars for scab resistance in Estonia

K. Tiirmaa, N. Univer and T. Univer

Polli Horticultural Research Centre of the Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,Estonian University of Life Science, 69104Karksi-Nuia, Estonia; e-mail: krista.tiirmaa@emu.ee

Abstract:

In the economic sense, apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint is a most dangerous disease of apple trees in Estonia. Control of the disease is of major concern to apple growers and lack of control results in unmarketable fruit. Therefore it is very important for growers to know the apple scab resistance of the cultivars in the orchard, since the most susceptible ones should be avoided. Cultivating disease-resistant varieties seems to be an optimum alternative to chemical control. In 2002, 2003 and 2005 susceptibility to apple scab of 102 apple cultivars was evaluated in the apple collection garden at the Polli Horticultural Research Centre. The purpose of the study was to identify cultivars in the Polli apple collection that have good scab resistance. About 30% of the cultivars assessed had very little or no disease incidence. Among thegenetically resistant cultivars were ‘Imrus’, ‘Chistotel’, ‘Orlovim’, ‘Orlovskij Pioner’, ‘Pamjat Isajeva’, ‘Pervinka’, ‘Slavyanin’, ‘Liberty’ and ‘Freedom’. Many old and local cultivars showed low incidence of disease. Rapid development of the infection was recorded on five cultivars: ‘Borovinka Ananasnaya’, ‘Pirja’, ‘Maikki’, ‘Mantet’, and ‘Red Atlas’.

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245–251 P. Sooväli and M. Koppel
Genetic control of oat rust diseases
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Genetic control of oat rust diseases

P. Sooväli and M. Koppel

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute, 48309 Jõgeva, Estonia

Abstract:

Oat grain is indicated to be of great value, especially for its favourable effects on the health of humans and animals. Food and feed industries can utilise only fully developed and faultless oat grain that can be harvested from healthy, unattacked plants. Cultivating disease-resistant varieties seems to be an optimum alternative to chemical control. Growing of the resistant varieties is the most effective biological control of diseases. It is highly economic and ideal from the ecological point of view. Disease resistant varieties are the basic precondition for successful sustainable (organic) agriculture. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. avenae Erikss. et Henn) and crown rust (Puccinia coronata Cda. f. sp. avenae Erikss.) are the potentially destructive diseases of oat crop in Estonian conditions. The effectiveness of resistance sources to Puccinia coronata and Puccinia graminis was tested in the framework of the European and Mediterranean Oat Disease Nursery (EMODN) at Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute in 1996–2002. Highly resistant to crown rust were Pc-gene lines Pc 39, Pc 54-2, Pc 59, Pc 60, Pc 68 and Pen2xCAV1376. The greatest change in crown rust incidence was recorded for Pc 58 and Pc 61. These lines were completely free from disease infection at the beginning of the trial cycle, but, in 2001, were attacked at a moderate level (5–6 points in 9-point scale). The differential  ‘Pirol’ and the varieties ‘Alo’, ‘Jaak’ and ‘Edit’ of the Estonian Variety List lost resistance to crown rust in 1998. Effective stem rust resistance against Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae were conferring Pg-gene lines Pg 15, Pg a and Rodney ABDH. The first report of virulence on Pg 13 in Europe was detected in the framework of EMODN trials in Estonia in 1993.

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