Tag Archives: dynamics

xxx L.Yu. Novikova, N.A. Chalaya, M.N. Sitnikov, L.M. Gorlova, S.D. Kiru and E.V. Rogozina
Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia
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Dynamics of tuber weight in early potato varieties in the contrasting weather conditions of the Northwestern Russia

L.Yu. Novikova¹*, N.A. Chalaya¹, M.N. Sitnikov¹, L.M. Gorlova¹, S.D. Kiru² and E.V. Rogozina¹

¹N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), 42, 44, Bolshaya Morskaya Str., RU190000 St. Petersburg, Russia
²St. Petersburg State Agrarian University, Building A, 2, Peterburgskoe shosse, Pushkin, RU196601 St. Petersburg, Russia
*Correspondence: l.novikova@vir.nw.ru

Abstract:

Under climate changes, it is particularly important to search for characteristics of varieties that are steady in contrasting weather conditions. The aim of the present research was to study the relationship between the growth of tubers and haulms in early potato varieties in the Northwestern Russia. Fourteen early potato varieties were studied in the field experiments conducted in 2017–2019 in the vicinities of St. Petersburg. The results of three intermediate digs on the 45th, 60th and 75th day from the planting date were analyzed. The correlation analysis, ANOVA, and regression were used. The average haulm and tubers weight significantly differed in the years of the study, while the number of tubers per plant and the haulm to tubers weight ratio did not differ. The relative growth rate of tubers weight from day 45 to 60 and from 60 to 75 did not differ significantly between 2018 and 2019, the years contrasting in terms of weather conditions. On the average, the tubers weight increased 2.6–2.8 times from day 45 to 60, and 1.4 times from day 60 to 75. It has been established that the early prediction of productivity in early potato varieties can be based on the haulm weight on the 60th day after planting; its coefficient of correlation with productivity was 0.72–0.79. Every 100 grams of the haulm weight on day 60 ensures a 100–200 g increment in the tubers weight by the time of harvest on day 80. The obtained results can be used in the development of a morphometric indicator-based automated system for monitoring the growth of potato plants.

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1584–1596 A. Zymaroieva, O. Zhukov, T. Fedonyuk and T. Pinkina
The spatio-temporal trend of rapeseed yields in Ukraine as a marker of agro-economic factors influence
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The spatio-temporal trend of rapeseed yields in Ukraine as a marker of agro-economic factors influence

A. Zymaroieva¹*, O. Zhukov², T. Fedonyuk³ and T. Pinkina⁴

¹Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Stary Blvd, 7, UA10008Z Zhytomyr, Ukraine
²Bogdan Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, Botany and Horticulture Department, Hetmanska steet 20, UA72318 Melitopol, Ukraine
³Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Ecology and Life Safety, Stary Blvd, 7. UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
⁴Zhytomyr National Agroecological University, Faculty of Ecology and Law, Department of Bioresources, Aquaculture and Natural Sciences, Stary Blvd, 7, UA10008 Zhytomyr, Ukraine
*Correspondence: nastya.zymaroeva@gmail.com

Abstract:

The paper demonstrates the applicability of several statistical methods to the analysis and interpretation of the average rapeseed yield data. It proves our hypothesis that the general trend of rapeseed yield variations in Ukraine during 1991–2017 occurred due to agro-economic and agro-technological factors, which are the determinants of the revealed general trend. The temporal trend of rapeseed yield in most administrative districts can be described by a fourth-degree polynomial, namely, its characteristic points enabled us to describe and interpret the dynamics of rapeseed yields. The absolute term of the polynomial shows the initial conditions of the process, and its mapping allows us to identify the areas with the most favorable soil-climatic conditions for the rapeseed cultivation. Indicators of the maximum rate of growth and decrease of yields are the markers of stability of agro-ecosystems to the external influences. Therefore, the mapping of the maximum rate of decline and increase of yields reveal areas in which yields respond rapidly (increasing / falling) to the changes in agro-economic and agro-technological conditions, as well as areas where yields are more stable and change gradually. Thus, the form of the yield trend is determined by the influence of agro-technological and agro-economic factors, whose contribution to the fluctuation in rapeseed yields varies from 53% to 90%.

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134-146 I. Laktionov, O. Vovna, O. Cherevko and T. Kozlovskaya
Mathematical model for monitoring carbon dioxide concentration in industrial greenhouses
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Mathematical model for monitoring carbon dioxide concentration in industrial greenhouses

I. Laktionov¹*, O. Vovna¹, O. Cherevko² and T. Kozlovskaya³

¹State Higher Educational Institution 'Donetsk National Technical University', Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Department of Electronic Engineering, Shibankova sq., 2, UA85300 Pokrovsk, Ukraine
²State Higher Educational Institution 'Priazovsky State Technical University', Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Department of Automation and Computer Technologies, University str., 7, UA87500 Mariupol, Ukraine
³Kremenchuk Mykhailo Ostohradskyi National University, Department of biotechnologies and bioengineering, Pershotravneva str., 20, UA39600, Kremenchuk, Ukraine
*Correspondence: ivan.laktionov@donntu.edu.ua

Abstract:

Processes of monitoring and control the industrial greenhouses microclimate play a decisive role in growing crops under protected cultivation. Providing optimal climatic conditions in the production process of greenhouse agricultural products requires solving the scientific and applied problem of developing and researching a mathematical model for monitoring carbon dioxide concentration in industrial greenhouses. The proposed model takes into account the processes of diffusion and absorption of carbon dioxide, the geometric parameters of greenhouses, as well as the types and vegetation periods of crops grown under protected cultivation. Time characteristics of the carbon dioxide dynamics process under greenhouse conditions are estimated. Quantitative estimates of the diffusion transfer duration and carbon dioxide absorption are made for indeterminate varieties of tomatoes during planting and fruiting periods. Recommendations are given on the development of an adaptive methodology for the functioning and structural and algorithmic organization of computerized monitoring and management system for carbon dioxide top-dressing modes for greenhouse crops. The necessity of improving the proposed mathematical model and confirming the adequacy of its implementation efficiency on yield indicators of greenhouse crops is substantiated.

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281-290 A. Pocius, P. Šniauka and A. Pushnov
Influence of dynamical factors on safe work with a fertilizer spreader
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Influence of dynamical factors on safe work with a fertilizer spreader

A. Pocius¹, P. Šniauka¹ and A. Pushnov²

¹Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Studentų 11, Akademija, LT―53361, Kaunas district,Lithuania; e-mail: antanas.pocius@lzuu.lt; povilas.sniauka@lzuu.lt
²Moscow State University of Environmental Engineering, Staraya Basmannaya 21/4,105066 Moscow, Russia; e-mail: pushnovas@gmail.com

Abstract:

The efficiency of mineral manure most often depends on the evenness of its distribution. The dynamics of the spread of the particles of the mineral manure in regard to the fixed and variable parameters of the imitative model of the spreader have been analyzed. The programmable location of a particle on soil depends on the movement trajectory of the particle on the disc and in the air, which eventually determine the final distribution of particles.The research considered the flow of the manure particles from the spread opening of themanure-box, the trajectory on the disc and in the air, the place of a particle on the surface of the ground as well as on how these trajectories depend on the characteristics of the spreader and particles. The trajectory of particle in the air is the function of its initial velocity and direction, by which the particle leaves the surface of the disc. It determines the final place of the particle on the surface of soil with respect to disc.One of the accidental factors influencing the trajectory of a particle is the impact of spreaderlean on hilly soil on the discharge angle of manure particles and the distance of particle fly in the distribution sector.The dependence of the spreading distance of the manure particles on the initial speed of theparticle and the trajectory angle of a disc has been obtained. It was established that when the aggregate moves, the trajectory angle changes due to the roughness of the ground from the one that was set constructively up to the largest value when a particle flies farthest.Under the influence of random factors, the angle between the spreader’s disc plane and aplane of soil surface can increase up to 8 degrees; therefore the distance of particle’s wafting increases.

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21-30 V. Eremeev, A. Lõhmus and J. Jõudu
Effects of thermal shock and pre-sprouting on field performance of potato in Estonia
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Effects of thermal shock and pre-sprouting on field performance of potato in Estonia

V. Eremeev, A. Lõhmus and J. Jõudu

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences(EMU), Kreutzwaldi 64, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia;e-mail: Viacheslav.Eremeev@emu.ee

Abstract:

Pre-sprouting (PS), and to a lesser degree, pre-planting thermal shock (TS) had positive effects on tuber yield and other performance indicators. The experiment was carried out during the 2000, 2001 and 2002 growing seasons in the Department of Field Crop Husbandry of the Estonian University of Life Sciences. An untreated control (0) was comparedοοwith TS (2 days at 30 C, then 5 days at 12–15 C in a lighted room just prior to planting) and PSο(35–38 days before planting in a humid (85–90%) and lighted room at 12–15 C). All treatments were applied to three varieties: ‘Agrie Dzeltenie’ (early), ‘Piret’ (medium early) and ‘Ants’ (medium late). In the present study, the TS accelerated the emergence of plants by 2–5 days and PS by 7–12 days. Averaged over 3 years and 3 varieties, maximum leaf area index (LAI, 3.9 units) was reached 74 days after planting (DAP) and on the 50th day after emergence. Maximum LAI was 3.7 at 72 DAP for PS, 3.8 at 73 DAP for TS, and 4.1 at 76 DAP for the control. TS accelerated the beginning of tuber formation by about 5 days compared to the control, but the tuber yield of the control equalled TS from 65 days onward. Tuber formation began even slightly earlier in the PS treatment, and tuber yield exceeded PS throughout the season. All treatments reached maximum yield by 120 DAP.

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115–122 V. Eremeev, J. Jõudu, A. Lõhmus, P. Lääniste and A. Makke
The effect of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers on potato yield formation
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The effect of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers on potato yield formation

V. Eremeev, J. Jõudu, A. Lõhmus, P. Lääniste and A. Makke

Department of Field Crop Husbandry, Estonian Agricultural University, Kreutzwaldi 64, 51014 Tartu, Estonia; e-mail: slava@eau.ee

Abstract:

In the trials conducted in 2000–2002, we examined possibilities for growing potato using different methods of pre-planting treatment of seed tubers.
The varieties exploited were ‘Varajane kollane’ (early), ‘Piret’ (medium early) and ‘Ants’ (medium late). There were used the following ways of treatment for all varieties: PS – pre-sprouting, TT – thermal treatment and 0 – tubers not treated.
The dynamics of tuber yield formation during the vegetation period was significantly influenced by the weather. In terms of potato growth, weather conditions were the most favourable in 2001. The weather in 2000 and 2002 was not the most suitable for potato growth and development, and the yield in these years proved lower than the three-year average.
The average results from the three years show that potatoes could not realise their full potential to reach maximum yield. Pre-planting germination and thermal treatment had positive effects during the entire vegetation period, the effect being stronger at the beginning and then gradually decreasing.
Pre-planting treatment of seed tubers had a different effect on varieties with different growing times.
A comparison between the varieties showed that ‘Piret’ and ‘Varajane kollane’ started to form tubers early and thus exceeded the development of the variety ‘Ants’ until the 60th day of growth. ‘Ants’ reached its maximum yield, 47.0 t ha-1, already by the 114th day, followed by the fast-ripening ‘Varajane kollane’ and the medium-ripening ‘Piret’. Thermal treatment did not give any advantage in terms of total yield formation compared to untreated seeds, except for the pre-planting germination variant of the variety ‘Varajane kollane’, the total yield of which exceeded that of its untreated variant by 7.08 t ha-1.

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