Breeding and genetic improvement of soft winter wheat with the use of spelt wheat
¹Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Genetics, Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
²Limagrain Ukraine LLC, 55 Turgenevskaya Str., 04050 Kiev, Ukraine
³Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of General Agriculture, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
⁴Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Agronomy, Department of Vegetable growing, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
⁵Uman National University of Horticulture, Faculty of Management, Department of Ukrainian and foreign languages, 1 Institytska Str., 20300 Uman, Ukraine
In the process of carrying out studies as a result of hybridization of soft wheat with spelt wheat, a number of new forms that differ in morphobiological and economically valuable features were obtained. The aim of the research was to expand the genetic diversity of soft wheat by hybridization with spelt wheat, analysis of the heterotic effect in hybrids in order to systematize the samples and obtain valuable original forms for the breeding process of creating high-yielding varieties.
As a result of research the breeding technology of creating high-yielding forms of soft winter wheat by cross-species hybridization of Triticum aestivum L. × Triticum spelta L. has been improved. It has been determined that the plant height and ear length in hybrids are inherited by type of intermediate inheritance or negative dominance, the number of grains in the ear – by type of intermediate inheritance or positive dominance; ear grain weight – by type of superdominance or positive dominance. In F2 hybrids there is a dihybrid cleavage into forms with speltoid, squarehead and typical ear with a quantitative predominance of speltoid plants, which indicates the control of the ‘ear shape’ indication by two non-allelic genes. The ear shape of the soft wheat original varieties in relation to speltoid varieties turned out to be a recessive trait, but at the same time it was dominant to a squarehead form. Regardless of the genotypes of soft wheat included in the combination of crossbreeding with spelt wheat, red color ear indication was determined by a monogenic type of inheritance. Varieties of soft winter wheat Artaplot, Umanska Tsarivna and Freya have been created, which are included in the State Registry of Plant Varieties Suitable for Distribution in Ukraine and recommended for cultivation in Polissia.