Advantages of electric resistance method for baking bread and flour confectionery products of functional purpose
¹ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg, Faculty of Food Biotechnologies and Engineering, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, Kronverkskiy ave. 49, RU 197101 St. Petersburg, Russia
²All-Russian Research Institute for Food Additives – Branch of V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of RAS, Liteyniy ave. 55, RU 191014 St. Petersburg, Russia
In this paper we studied the effect of the baking method on the preservation of beta-carotene in two types of products: pan wheat bread and sponge cake. Five sources of beta-carotene were used in the study, three of which are commercially available samples, and the two others are experimental samples of supramolecular complexes of beta-carotene with alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins in powder form (molecular ratio 1: 1). Bread and sponge cake were baked by convective and electric resistance methods. The values of temperature and current flowing through the dough were monitored during electric resistance baking. The beta-carotene content was measured in the dough after kneading, in the cake batter after mixing and in the finished products after baking and cooling. The beta-carotene content was evaluated by spectrophotometry after extraction. The control samples of bread and sponge cake were baked without adding beta-carotene. Different sources of beta-carotene exhibited varying stability in bread and sponge cake. Bread samples baked by the electric resistance method with addition of supramolecular complexes had minimum losses of beta-carotene. Electric resistance baking ensured lower losses of beta-carotene in bread and sponge cake samples.