Morphological and anatomical characterization of Actinidia kolomikta (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (C3) and Amaranthus tricolor L. (C4) leaves
¹Federal Horticultural Research Center for Breeding, Agrotechnology and Nursery, Zagorevskaj Str. 4, 115598 Moscow, Russia
²Federal Scientific Center of Vegetable Growing, Selectnaya Str., Moscow region, Odintsovsky urban district, 143080 VNIISSOK village, Russia
Morphological and anatomical features of new cultivars with photosynthesis of C3 (Actinidia kolomikta (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. cv. ‘Narodnaya’) and C4 (Amaranthus tricolor L. cv. ‘Valentina’) were established by light and scanning electron microscopy, as well as energy-dispersive analysis. The leaf lamina of Actinidia kolomikta cv. ‘Narodnaya’ has a dorsoventral anatomical structure, anomocytic stomata on the abaxial epidermis and two types of trichomes: multicellular, uniseriate hairs and multicellular bristle-like protrusions, containing raphids. The needle-like raphides are located in subepidermal layers along the veins. A vascular system of petiole consists of two upper concentric bundles and the crescentic vascular strand. A starch sheat is present. Raphides (needle-shaped and rectangular) are located in phloem and cortical parenchyma cells, contain Ca, K, Mg, P and Si. The leaf lamina of Amaranthus tricolor cv. ‘Valentina’ have the kranz-anatomy, dorsiventral mesophyll and contain druses. Betacyanins are concentrated in the epidermis and mesophyll, but are not present in the bundle sheath. The number of vascular bundles in petioles is odd-numbered and variable (from 5 to 13). Trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate, ending in a large oval cell. Cells with betacyanins are present in the epidermis cortex, and, rarely, the collenchyma and phloem of the petiole. Cells with betaxanthins are absent. A starch sheat is brightly pigmented with betacyanins. The crystall sand is deposited in the parenchyma cells of the cortex and pith of the petiole and contains Ca (mainly) and K oxalates. Druses in the leaf lamina additionally contain Mg and P.