Tag Archives: environment

xxx T. Ahmadi, C.A. Casas, N. Escobar and Y.E. García
Municipal organic solid waste composting: development of a tele-monitoring and automation control system
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Municipal organic solid waste composting: development of a tele-monitoring and automation control system

T. Ahmadi¹*, C.A. Casas¹, N. Escobar² and Y.E. García¹

¹University of Cundinamarca, Faculty of Engineering, 18th Diagonal 20-29, Fusagasugá, Colombia
²University of Cundinamarca, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, 18th Diagonal 20-29, Fusagasugá, Colombia
*Correspondence: tahmadi@ucundinamarca.edu.co

Abstract:

The Organic Solid Waste (OSW) generation have experienced high growth in the last decades. Moreover, the treatment and management of them have become a priority in the environmental policy of many cities, due to the sanitary and environmental problems related to the OSW elimination. Between 2 and 3 metric tons per day of organic residues are generated in the local market square of Fusagasugá-Colombia, without having any transformation program or technological alternatives for their decomposition. This paper presents the design and implementation of an experimental reactor for composting that includes a measurement stage, signal conditioning, data acquisition (DAQ), and data storage, together with a control and telemetric supervision system through a Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which allows manipulation of some key variables of the composting process remotely via the Internet.

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314–323 T. Ahmadi, C.A. Casas Díaz, Y.E. García Vera and N. Escobar Escobar
A prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga Municipality. Colombia
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A prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga Municipality. Colombia

T. Ahmadi¹*, C.A. Casas Díaz¹, Y.E. García Vera¹ and N. Escobar Escobar²

¹Universidad de Cundinamarca, Facultad de Ingeniería, Diagonal 18 No. 20-29, Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
²Universidad de Cundinamarca, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Diagonal 18 No. 20-29, Fusagasugá, Cundinamarca, Colombia
*Correspondence: tahmadi@ucundinamarca.edu.co

Abstract:

Crop and animal production generate a high level of organic waste that causes negative effects on the environment and communities. The use of composting processes can improve the quality of these biowastes. Additionally, the application of technologies such as telemetry and remote sensors, allows optimizing the transformation of organic matter in a more controlled and efficient way. The city of Fusagasugá is well known in agriculture. However, it lacks sustainable management of the organic waste system.
In this study, after a three-dimensional electromechanical design, a prototype reactor to compost agricultural wastes of Fusagasuga municipality will provide. The capacity of this prototype reactor is considered to be 20 litres. In order to control temperature and humidity of biowastes in different working conditions, it is used A PI controller with 3 temperature and a humidity sensors. With these sensors the compost materials temperature and humidity will remain at 65 °C and 55–60%. By using a special form of temperature sensor placement, the time to oxygenate the compost materials will be found. Furthermore, this system is integrated by a Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which allows the supervision and manipulation from a remote access user.

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408–417 P.F.P. Ferraz, G.A.S. Ferraz, L. Schiassi, V.H.B. Nogueira, M. Barbari and F.A. Damasceno
Spatial variability of litter temperature, relative air humidity and skin temperature of chicks in a commercial broiler house
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Spatial variability of litter temperature, relative air humidity and skin temperature of chicks in a commercial broiler house

P.F.P. Ferraz¹*, G.A.S. Ferraz¹, L. Schiassi¹, V.H.B. Nogueira¹, M. Barbari² and F.A. Damasceno¹

¹Federal University of Lavras, Agricultural Engineering Departament, Campus Universitário, PO Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil
²University of Firenze, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry, Via San Bonaventura, 13, IT50145 Firenze, Italy
*Correspondence: patricia.ponciano@ufla.br

Abstract:

The thermal environment inside a broiler house has a great influence on animal welfare and productivity during the production phase. Among the importance of the chicken litter is the function of absorbing moisture, provide thermal insulation and provide a soft surface for broilers. The skin temperature is an important physiological parameter to quantify the thermal comfort of animals, its variations may occur as a function of thermal variables. So, the aim of this work was to analyse the magnitude and spatial variability of chicken litter temperature and relative humidity of the air and to correlate them with the spatial distribution of chicks’ skin surface temperature throughout the broiler house during the 7th, 14th and 21st days of the chicks’ life, using geostatistical techniques. The experiment was performed in a commercial broiler house located in the western mesoregion of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where 28,000 male Cobb chicks were housed. The heating system consisted of an industrial indirect-fired biomass furnace. The heated air was inflated by an AC motor, 2,206 W of power, 1,725 RPM. Geostatistical techniques were used through semivariogram analysis and isochore maps were generated through data interpolation by kriging. The semivariogram was fitted by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The used mathematical model was the spherical one. After fitting the semivariograms, the data were interpolated by ordinary kriging. The semivariograms along with the isochore maps allowed identifying the non-uniformity of spatial distribution of the broiler litter temperature throughout the broiler house for 3 days of chicks’ life. It was observed that skin surface presented a positive correlation with the litter temperature and a negative correlation with the air humidity. The semivariograms along with the isochore maps allowed identifying the non-uniformity of spatial distribution of the litter temperature, air humidity and skin temperature of chicks throughout the broiler aviary for the three days. In addition, the use of geostatistics and distribution maps made possible to identify different environmental conditions in regions inside the broiler house that may harm the development of chicks.

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234–244 S. Murtic, J. Jurkovic, E. Basic and E. Hekic
Assessment of wild plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals in soils surrounding the thermal power station
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Assessment of wild plants for phytoremediation of heavy metals in soils surrounding the thermal power station

S. Murtic¹*, J. Jurkovic², E. Basic¹ and E. Hekic¹

¹University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Physiology, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71 000, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
²University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Chemistry, Zmaja od Bosne 8, BA71 000, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*Correspondence: murticsenad@hotmail.com

Abstract:

The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction potential of three main wild plant species: annual nettle (Urtica urens L.), daisy fleabane (Stenactis annua (L.) Ness.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) that grow spontaneously in heavy metal contaminated areas near the thermal power station in Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Analyses of the heavy metal content (Ni, Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn) in soil and plant samples taken from the examined area were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained revealed that the examined soils are polluted by Ni and Pb and contain relatively high value of Cr and Fe. Annual nettle, daisy fleabane and yarrow have not shown high efficiency in the absorption and accumulation of heavy metals from polluted soils, and therefore these plants are not be considered as potential phytoremediators of soils on the examined area. Furthermore, the results of the study undoubtedly confirm the fact that the total content of heavy metals in soils is not a sufficient parameter for estimating the toxicity of heavy metals in soils and consequently for their transfer and accumulation in plants.

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1997–2003 V. Mironovs, I. Boiko, M. Lisicins and V. Zemcenkovs
Band structures for binding and holding of objects made from recycled metallic materials
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Band structures for binding and holding of objects made from recycled metallic materials

V. Mironovs¹, I. Boiko², M. Lisicins¹* and V. Zemcenkovs¹

¹Riga Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Building Production, Kipsalas street 6a–331, LV-1048 Riga, Latvia
²Riga Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Transport and Aeronautics, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Viskalu street 36A, LV-1006 Riga, Latvia
*Correspondence: mihails.lisicins@gmail.com

Abstract:

The aim of the present research is the investigation of the possibility and effectiveness of using the band structures made from recycled metallic materials for binding and holding of objects (in particular, tubular objects as pipelines or shells). The using of band elements and structures as such is a perspective way to increase the safety and bearing capacity of the pipelines and vessels. Nowadays during repair works the outer surfaces of the mentioned objects are braided by the steel tapes, i.e. the objects are strengthened by the binding. The mentioned steel bands are specially produced for binding purpose. From the other hand after stamping of small-size details (like the elements of supply chains for different apparatus) the metallic waste in the shape of perforated metallic tapes are received and needs to be reused in compliance with the good practice in effective resource using and recycling. The band structures for binding and holding of tubular objects, produced from the perforated metallic tape by the longitudinal profiling, multilayer and spiral winding are presented. It is proposed to apply in industry the composite band structures made from perforated metallic materials and epoxy matrix for binding and holding of tubular objects as pipelines or shells, which allows simplifying and speeding up the repair works especially in the cases of the local damages.

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487-494 V. Viljasoo,, J. Zadin, H. Jüris and T. Pomerants
Combined air conditioning for heating rooms and improving of indoor climate
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Combined air conditioning for heating rooms and improving of indoor climate

V. Viljasoo¹,*, J. Zadin¹, H. Jüris² and T. Pomerants¹

¹Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Krutzwaldi 56,EE51014 Tartu, Estonia; *Correspondence: viljo.viljasoo@emu.ee
²Company AIRMAKER GTR, Riia 181A, EE51014 Tartu, Estonia

Abstract:

Geothermal equipment consists of intake air pipes, vacuum wards and undergroundconnecting pipes, placed near to a villa. The heat exchange ventilation equipment MENERGA191191 used in ventilation systems makes air inside the device circulate. This patentedequipment differs from the analogues of Germany, Japan, United States, etc. by the coolingexchange device. This device enables remarkable advantages in mounting and construction bydecreasing the length, installation depth and number of air pipes, simplifying and reducing themaintenance and increasing the equipment durability. The geothermal equipment is meant forcreating an environment with a constant temperature of 4 ºC and adjustable relative humidity inwarehouses and basements. It is for improving an indoor climate in villas’ basements,preheating, and air conditioning based on air heating as well. This equipment is indispensablewhen preheating greenhouses and cooling air in the hot season. The analysis of air climateparameters (temperature ϑk, relative humidity Ws, dew point ϑp, absolute humidity Wa,velocity v, oxygen content O2, carbon dioxide content CO2, positive light air ions n+, negativelight air ions n–) passing through the geothermal equipment is presented in the article. Heattechnical data (air specific heat capacity, characteristics of heat and cold exchange processes)are presented. This article summarises the research results of indoor climate qualities andpresents data about energetic-economical efficiency of the geothermal equipment (air specificheat and gross capacities, return air flow specific heat and gross capacities, the economic effectof pre-heating the villa and the post-heating expenses were analysed).

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319-328 S. Kalinauskaitė,, A. Sakalauskas, E. Šarauskis, A. Jasinskasand M. Ahlhaus
Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact
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Relation of energy content variations of straw to the fraction size, humidity, composition and environmental impact

S. Kalinauskaitė¹,*, A. Sakalauskas¹, E. Šarauskis¹, A. Jasinskas¹and M. Ahlhaus²

¹Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentų g. 11, Akademija, Kauno r.LT-53361, Lithuania; *Correspondence: solveiga.kalinauskaite@gmail.com
²Fachhochschule Stralsund, Institut für Regenerative Energie Systeme (IRES),Zur Schwedenschanze 15, 18435 Stralsund, Germany

Abstract:

Biomass is the major source of renewable energy, the use of which is very importantin energy, environment and economical aspects. Biomass enables the replacement of fossilfuels, the importance of biomass usage is related to global warming questions. Biomassmoisture content is one of the main factors affecting straw preparation for the usage cost.In this research the main focus is on straw and different biomass composition and how itinfluences the solid biofuels preparation for usage, paying attention to straw fraction, humidity,composition and finally how it influences the energy and environmental aspects. Testedsamples consist of different composition- raw straw, 100% yellow straw pellets, 100% greystraw pellets, 98% straw pellets with 2% additives, 50% straw and 50% hay pellets, 49% strawand 49% hay pellets with 2% additives, 100% hay pellets, 98% hay pellets with 2% additivesand additionally two samples of straw briquettes with different chop size – (20 mm) and(30 mm and 10 mm). This research pays attention to the main material characteristics –moisture value, ash content, HHV (higher heating value), pyrolysis coke. Research results willhelp to find the best biomass pellet and briquette composition for solid biofuel usage. Duringthe research it was found that the lowest moisture value was 98% hay pellets with 2% CaOadditive – 5.79%. Highest amount of ash value was found in 50% straw and 50% haycomposition pellets – 0.021 g. Highest amount of HHV were tested pellets which consisted of98% hay with 2% CaO additives. Highest amount of pyrolysis coke in organic and dry matterwere in 100% yellow straw tested samples.Achieved results will help to estimate material fraction, humidity and composition on biomasspreparation for conversion steps, following biomass usage energy and environmentrequirements. These research results will help to realise further tasks of agricultural biomassusage in practice.

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445-452 V. Scholz, J. Kern and P. Kaulfuß
Environmental effects of energy crop cultivation – results of a long-term field trial
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Environmental effects of energy crop cultivation – results of a long-term field trial

V. Scholz¹, J. Kern² and P. Kaulfuß³

¹Leibniz-Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, D-14469 Potsdam, Germany, e-mail: vscholz@atb-potsdam.de
²Postal address above, e-mail: jkern@atb-potsdam.de
³Postal address above, e-mail: pkaulfuss@atb-potsdam.de

Abstract:

In order to identify crop species for sustainable energy farming it is necessary to determine the significance of genetic, environmental and growing-technical factors. Therefore, in 1994 a  long-term practically oriented field experiment on a sandy soil was established to investigate ten annual and perennial plant species and the effects of different N-fertilisation. The measuring programme includes yields, energy gain, N2O emissions as well as ecologically relevant plant and soil constituents. The results of this 15-year trial confirm the possibility of ecological and energy-efficient production of various energy crop species.

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691-705 F.W. Oudshoorn, C.G. Sørensen and I.J.M. de Boer
Environmental evaluation of three alternative futures for organic dairy in Denmark
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Environmental evaluation of three alternative futures for organic dairy in Denmark

F.W. Oudshoorn¹*, C.G. Sørensen¹ and I.J.M. de Boer²

1Århus University, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Department of AgriculturalEngineering, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark
²Wageningen University and Research centre, Animal Production Systems Group, P.O.Box338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands
*corresponding author; e-mail: Frankw.Oudshoorn@agrsci.dk

Abstract:

Objective of this study was to explore sustainability of scenarios for organic dairy farming based on visions and goals of the future, by parameterization at farm level. The scenarios were in agreement with the scope of principles for organic farming; health, ecology, fairness and care. Scenarios were designed using stakeholder and expert opinions and then translate them through choice of relevant production parameters to a farm unit design. This resulted in three vision-based scenarios, one animal welfare (ANW), one environmental (ENV) and one using all possible new technologies to enhance productivity and efficiency (business as usual, BAU). The amount of milk produced per ha was, 9500, 7215 and 5188 kg ECM respectively for BAU, ANW and ENV. Stocking density was 1.41, 1.38, and 0.88 Livestock Units respectively for BAU, ANW and ENV, parallel to large differences in required import of feed. The different organic farms of the future are to be evaluated on the environmental impacts, green house gas (GHG) emissions, nitrogen surplus and energy use, economy, and social acceptance.

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